History of Esperanto
L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887; the number of Esperanto speakers has grown since although it has not had much support from governments and international organizations and has sometimes been outlawed or otherwise suppressed. Around 1880, while in Moscow and simultaneously with working on Esperanto, Zamenhof made an aborted attempt to standardize Yiddish, based on his native Bialystok dialect, as a unifying language for the Jews of the Russian Empire, he used a Latin alphabet, with the letters ć, h́, ś, ź and ě for schwa. However, he concluded there was no future for such a project, abandoned it, dedicating himself to Esperanto as a unifying language for all humankind. Paul Wexler proposed that Esperanto was not an arbitrary pastiche of major European languages but a Latinate relexification of Yiddish, a native language of its founder; this model is unsupported by mainstream linguists. Zamenhof would say that he had dreamed of a world language since he was a child.
At first he considered a revival of Latin, but after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realised that verb conjugations were unnecessary, that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected, he still had the problem of memorising a large vocabulary, until he noticed two Russian signs labelled Швейцарская and Кондитерская. He realised that a judicious use of affixes could decrease the number of root words needed for communication, he chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic, the languages that were most taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognisable to the largest number of people. Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. For several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In 1895 he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language though it had seemed to me in 1878 that it was completely ready."
When he was ready to publish, the Czarist censors would not allow it. Stymied, he spent his time in translating works such as the Shakespeare; this enforced delay led to continued improvement. In July 1887 he published a basic introduction to the language; this was the language spoken today. Unua Libro was published in 1887. At first the movement grew most in the Russian empire and eastern Europe, but soon spread to western Europe and beyond: to Argentina in 1889. In its first years Esperanto was used in publications by Zamenhof and early adopters like Antoni Grabowski, in extensive correspondence, in the magazine La Esperantisto, published from 1889 to 1895 and only in personal encounters. In 1894, under pressure from Wilhelm Trompeter, the publisher of the magazine La Esperantisto, some other leading users, Zamenhof reluctantly put forward a radical reform to be voted on by readers, he proposed the reduction of the alphabet to 22 letters, the change of the plural to -i, the use of a positional accusative instead of the ending -n, the removal of the distinction between adjectives and adverbs, the reduction of the number of participles from six to two, the replacement of the table of correlatives with more Latinate words or phrases.
These reforms were overwhelmingly rejected, but some were picked up in subsequent reforms and criticisms of the language. In the following decade Esperanto spread into western Europe France. By 1905 there were 27 magazines being published. A small international conference was held in 1904, leading to the first world congress in August 1905 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. There were 688 Esperanto speakers present from 20 nationalities. At this congress, Zamenhof resigned his leadership of the Esperanto movement, as he did not want personal prejudice against himself to hinder the progress of the language, he proposed a declaration on founding principles of the Esperanto movement, which the attendees of the congress endorsed. World congresses have been held every year except during the two World Wars; the autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet, between Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language.
In the early 1920s, a great opportunity seemed to arise for Esperanto when the Iranian delegation to the League of Nations proposed that it be adopted for use in international relations, following a report by Nitobe Inazō, an official delegate of League of Nations during the 13th World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language and saw Esperanto as a threat. However, two years the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula. Many people see the 1920s as the heyday of the Esperanto movement. In 1941, the Soviet Union started performing mass arrests and kill
"La Espero" is a poem written by Polish-Jewish doctor L. L. Zamenhof, the initiator of the Esperanto language; the song is used as the anthem of Esperanto, is now sung to a triumphal march composed by Félicien Menu de Ménil in 1909. It is sometimes referred to as the hymn of the Esperanto movement; some Esperantists object to the use of terms like "hymn" or "anthem" for La Espero, arguing that these terms have religious and nationalist overtones respectively. Media related to La Espero at Wikimedia Commons "La Espero" sung by Aiko Asano ft. Andrej Korobejnikov on YouTube Instrumental version on YouTube Instrumental version, march on YouTube
The language Interlingue, known as Occidental until 1949, is a planned international auxiliary language created by Edgar de Wahl, a Balto-German naval officer and teacher from Tallinn and published in 1922. The vocabulary is based on existing words from various languages and a system of derivation using recognized prefixes and suffixes; the language is thereby naturalistic, at the same time. Occidental was quite popular in the years up to, shortly after the Second World War, but declined thereafter. Occidental is devised so that many of its derived word forms reflect the forms common to a number of Western European languages those in the Romance family, along with a certain amount of Germanic vocabulary. Words were formed through application of de Wahl's rule, a set of rules for regular conversion of verb infinitives into derived nouns and adjectives including double-stem verbs of Latin origin; the result is a language easy to understand at first sight for individuals acquainted with several Western European languages.
This readability and simplified grammar along with the regular appearance of the magazine Cosmoglotta made Occidental popular in Europe during the 15 years before World War II. In The Esperanto Book, Don Harlow says that Occidental had an intentional emphasis on European forms, that some of its leading followers espoused a Eurocentric philosophy, which may have hindered its spread. Still, Occidental gained adherents in many nations including Asian nations. Occidental survived World War II, undergoing a name change to Interlingue, but faded into insignificance following the appearance in 1951 of a competing naturalistic project, which attracted among others the notable Occidentalist Ric Berger; the emergence of Interlingua occurred around the same time that Edgar de Wahl, who had opted to remain in Tallinn, was sent to a sanitarium by Soviet authorities and was not permitted to correspond with Occidentalists in Western Europe. His death was confirmed in 1948; the proposal to change the name from Occidental to Interlingue was twofold: to attempt to demonstrate to the Soviet Union the neutrality of the language, in hopes of a union with Interlingua.
The activities of Occidental and its users can be seen through the magazine Cosmoglotta, which began publication in February 1922 in Tallinn, Estonia under the name Kosmoglott. The language announced that year was a product of years of personal experimentation by de Wahl under the name Auli, which he used during the period from 1906 to 1921 and on gained the nickname proto-Occidental. During the development of the language de Wahl explained his approach in a letter to an acquaintance the Baron d'Orczy written in Auli: "My direction in the creation of a universal language seems quite regressive to you... I understand that quite well. I do not begin with the alphabet and the grammar and have to adopt the vocabulary to it, but just the other way around: I take all international material of words, endings, grammatical forms etc. and I work to organize that material, put it in order, interpolate and sift through it." During the development of Occidental through Auli, de Wahl corresponded with the Italian mathematician and creator of Latino sine flexione Giuseppe Peano and gained an appreciation for the international vocabulary in that language, writing that "I believe the "Vocabulario commune" book by Professor Peano to be a more valuable and scientific work than the entire scholastic litterature of Ido on imaginary things evoked by the "fundamento" of Zamenhof."
Occidental was announced in 1922 at a stage of near but not total completion. De Wahl did not intend to announce the language for another few years but did so through the publication of Kosmoglott and the name Occidental for the language after hearing that the League of Nations had begun an inquiry into the question of an international auxiliary language, it began gathering followers despite a complete lack of grammars and dictionaries due to its readability. Two years de Wahl wrote that he was in correspondence with some 30 people "in good Occidental" despite the lack of learning material; the first dictionary was published the next year in 1925, the radicarium directiv, a collection of Occidental root words and their equivalents in 8 languages. For a number of years Kosmoglott was a forum for various other planned languages, while still written in Occidental; until 1924 the magazine was affiliated with the Academia pro Interlingua, which promoted Peano's Latino sine flexione. In 1927 the name was changed to Cosmoglotta as it began to promote Occidental in lieu of other languages, in January of the same year the magazine's editorial and administrative office was moved to Vienna, Austria in the region of Mauer, now part of Liesing.
Much of the early success for Occidental in this period came from the office's new central location, along with the efforts of Engelbert Pigal from Austria, whose article Li Ovre de Edgar de Wahl led to interest in Occidental from users of the Ianguage Ido. Besides the new location in a city much closer to the centre of Europe, the Vienna period was marked by financial stability for the first time due to the support given by a number of backers Hans Hörbiger from Vienna, G. A. Moore from London, from which "Cosmoglotta was able to live without difficulty and gained a circle of readers despite the economic crisis". Hörbiger and Moore died at "nearly the same time" in 1931, Cosmoglotta was again forced to rely on revenue from subscriptions, publications and th
The Esperanto Wikipedia is the Esperanto edition of Wikipedia, started on 11 May 2001, alongside the Basque Wikipedia. With over 257,000 articles as of June 2016, it is the 32nd-largest Wikipedia as measured by the number of articles, the largest Wikipedia in a constructed language. Chuck Smith, an American Esperantist, is considered to be Esperanto Wikipedia's founder; the encyclopedia started off when he imported the 139 articles of the Enciklopedio Kalblanda by Stefano Kalb, which took him three weeks following November 15, 2001. On, he undertook a journey to Europe with the goal of popularizing Wikipedia among the speakers of Esperanto in European countries. For instance in November 2002 he gave a talk about Wikipedia at the 10th Conference on the Application of Esperanto in Science and Technology in Dobřichovice. Esperanto speakers have been involved in the founding of several other language versions of the Wikipedia; the introduction of support for the Esperanto alphabet by Brion Vibber, an Esperanto speaker and Wikimedia Foundation's first employee, in January 2002 has paved the way for alphabets of languages other than English and initiated the transition of the whole Wikipedia to Unicode.
As of July 2018, the Esperanto Wikipedia has 287 articles of feature quality and a further 206 considered worth reading. Weekly community projects include a Collaboration of the Week which improves neglected articles and an Article of the Week featuring good-quality articles on the front page; the Esperanto community is a frequent contributor to Translation of the week. According to the List of Wikipedias by sample of articles at Meta, a list based on List of articles every Wikipedia should have, Esperanto ranks 36th, lacking none of the list of vital articles, but having in general short articles. On 18 November 2008, the Esperanto Wikipedia implemented the Flagged revisions extension; as of February 2012, the Esperanto Wikipedia had the 5th greatest number of articles per speaker among Wikipedias with over 100,000 articles, ranked 11th overall. These figures were based on Ethnologue's estimate of 2,000,000 Esperanto speakers. Due to the geographical spread of its editors, the Esperanto Wikipedia has a varied list of countries of origin of its editors.
On 13 August 2014 Esperanto Wikipedia reached 200,000 articles. Along with learners and other Esperantists of all levels, many experienced Esperantists and native Esperantists have joined the project. At least three editors are members of the Academy of Esperanto, Gerrit Berveling, John C. Wells, Bertilo Wennergren, a notable Esperanto grammarian and the director of the Academy's section about Esperanto vocabulary. Vikipedio incorporates, with permission, the content of the 1934 Enciklopedio de Esperanto and content from several reference books and the monthly periodical Monato; the Esperanto Wikipedia has been featured in many Esperanto news media, including a radio interview at Radio Polonia, articles at Esperanto, Libera Folio and Raporto.info. The Esperanto Wikimania, a gathering held in 2011 to celebrate the encyclopedia's 10th anniversary, has been subsidized by the host city of Svitavy and the Pardubice Region and covered by Czech Television. Esperanto organisations like Universal Esperanto Association do not contribute to Vikipedio but support it by providing chambers at Esperanto conventions for Vikipedio presentations and trainings.
At the World Esperanto Congress in Rotterdam, summer 2008, there were two Wikipedian meetups and a lecture at the Esperantology Conference. In April 2013, ELiSo was established as one of the first Wikimedia user groups; the Esperanto Wikipedia community has created and published a 40-page "Wikipedia: Practical Handbook", sold on-line and at conventions. The manual is intended to give new Wikipedians advice and information on how to edit Wikipedia in Esperanto, it is in its second printing. Esperanto Wikipedia Esperanto Wikipedia mobile version Manual at Vikilibroj Report at Libera Folio, March 2008 Clip at Youtube.com
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Akademio de Esperanto
The Akademio de Esperanto is an independent body of language scholars who steward the evolution of the language Esperanto by keeping it consistent with Fundamento de Esperanto in accordance with the Declaration of Boulogne. Modeled somewhat after the Académie française and the Real Academia Española, the Akademio was proposed by L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto, at the first World Esperanto Congress, was founded soon thereafter under the name Lingva Komitato; this Committee had a "superior commission" called the Akademio. In 1948, within the framework of a general reorganization, the Language Committee and the Academy combined to form the Akademio de Esperanto; the Akademio consists of 45 members and has a president, vice presidents, a secretary. The corresponding address including e-mail is at the secretary, it is funded by donations. Members are elected by their peers for a period of nine years, with elections being held every three years for a third of the members. Following the last elections in February 2016, the Akademio de Esperanto consists of the following members: Marc Bavant Vilmos Benczik Gerrit Berveling Marek Blahuš Marjorie Boulton Cyril Robert Brosch Renato Corsetti Marcos Cramer Probal Dasgupta Edmund Grimley-Evans Paul Gubbins Nikolao Gudskov Boris Kolker Katalin Kováts Erich-Dieter Krause Harri Laine Jouko Lindstedt Haitao Liu François Lo Jacomo Anna Löwenstein Ma Young-tae Carmel Mallia Stano Marček Alexander Melnikov Carlo Minnaja Paŭlo Moĵajev Brian Moon Nguyễn Xuân Thu Barbara Pietrzak Sergej Pokrovskij Otto Prytz Baldur Ragnarsson Giridhar Rao Orlando Raola Tsvi Sadan Saka Tadasi Alexander Shlafer Humphrey R. Tonkin Usui Hiroyuki Amri Wandel John C.
Wells Bertilo Wennergren Yamasaki SeikôFormer members have included Gaston Waringhien, Rüdiger Eichholz, Jorge Camacho, Victor Sadler, Michel Duc-Goninaz, William Auld. List of language regulators Official website
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case. This is supplemented by punctuation marks and by various logograms, such as the numerals 0–9, currency signs such as $, mathematical symbols. Twenty-two of the letters are identical in form to letters of the English alphabet; the remaining six have diacritic marks, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. In handwritten Esperanto, the diacritics pose no problem. However, since they do not appear on standard alphanumeric keyboards, various alternative methods have been devised for representing them in printed and typed text; the original method was a set of digraphs now known as the "h-system", but with the rise of computer word processing, the so-called "x-system" has become popular. These systems are described below. However, with the advent of Unicode, the need for such work-arounds has lessened; the letters have the sound values of the IPA, with the exception of c and the circumflex letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ, ŭ. J transcribes two sounds and vocalic.
There is a nearly one-to-one correspondence of letter to sound. Beside the dual use of ⟨j⟩, significant exceptions are: voicing assimilation, as in the sequence kz of ekzemple, pronounced /ɡz/ place assimilation, as in n, pronounced before g and kNon-Esperantized names are given an Esperanto approximation of their original pronunciation, at least by speakers without command of the original language. Hard ⟨c⟩ is read as k, ⟨qu⟩ as kv, ⟨w⟩ as v, ⟨x⟩ as ks, ⟨y⟩ as j if a consonant, or as i if a vowel; the English digraph ⟨th⟩ is read as t. When there is no close equivalent, the difficult sounds may be given the Esperanto values of the letters in the orthography or roman transcription, accommodating the constraints of Esperanto phonology. So, for example, Winchester is pronounced Vinĉester /vint͡ʃester/, as Esperanto has no w. Changzhou becomes Ĉanĝo /t͡ʃand͡ʒo/, as Esperanto has no ng or ou sound. There are no strict rules, however; the original stress may be kept. The script resembles Western Slavic Latin alphabets but uses circumflexes instead of carons for the letters ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ.
The non-Slavic bases of the letters ĝ and ĵ, rather than Slavic dž and ž, help preserve the printed appearance of Latinate and Germanic vocabulary such as ĝenerala "general" and ĵurnalo "journal". The letter v stands for either w of other languages; the letter ŭ of the diphthongs aŭ and eŭ resemble the Belarusian Łacinka alphabet. Geographic names diverge from English for the English x, w, qu and gu, as in Vaŝingtono "Washington, D. C.", Meksiko "Mexico", or Gvatemalo "Guatemala". Other spelling differences appear when Esperanto spelling is based on the pronunciation of English names which have undergone the Great Vowel Shift, as in Brajtono for Brighton. Zamenhof tacked an -o onto each consonant to create the name of the letter, with the vowels representing themselves: a, bo, co, ĉo, do, e, fo, etc; the diacritics are mentioned overtly. For instance, ĉ may be called ĉo ĉapela or co ĉapela, from ĉapelo, ŭ may be called ŭo luneta or u luneta, from luno plus the diminutive -et-; this is the only system, accepted and in practical use.
The letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet not found in the Esperanto alphabet have distinct names, much as letters of the Greek alphabet do. ⟨q⟩, ⟨x⟩, ⟨y⟩ are kuo, ipsilono. However, while this is fine for initialisms such as ktp for etc. it can be problematic when spelling out names. For example, several consonantal distinctions are difficult for many nationalities, who rely on the fact that Esperanto uses these sounds to distinguish words, thus the pairs of letter names ĵo–ĝo, ĥo–ho, co–ĉo, lo–ro, ŭo–vo are problematic. In addition, over a noisy telephone connection it becomes apparent that voicing distinctions can be difficult to make out: noise confounds the pairs po–bo, to–do, ĉo–ĝo, ko–go, fo–vo, so–zo, ŝo–ĵo, as well as the nasals mo–no. There have been several proposals to resolve this problem. Gaston Waringhien proposed changing the vowel of voiced obstruents to a, so that at least voicing is not problematic. Changed to a are h, n, r, distinguishing them from ĥ, m, l; the result is the most common alternative in use: a, ba, co, ĉo, da, e, fo, ga, ĝa, ha, ĥo, i, jo, ĵa, ko, lo, mo, na, o, po, ra, so, ŝo, to, u, ŭo, va, zaHowever, this still requires overt mention of the diacritics, so does not reliably distinguish ba–va, co–so, ĉo–ŝo, or ĝa–ĵa.
The proposal closest to international norms that clarifies all the above distinctions is a modification of a proposal by Kálmán Kalocsay. As with Zamenhof, vowels stand for themselves, but it follows the international standard of placing vowel e after a consonant by default, but before sonorants and voiceless fricatives; the vowel a is used for ⟨h⟩ and the voiceless plosives ⟨p⟩, ⟨t⟩, ⟨k⟩, after the international names ha for ⟨h⟩ and ka for ⟨k⟩. The letter ⟨v⟩ has the i vowel of ĵi, distinguishing it from ⟨b⟩