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Australian Gold Nugget

The Australian Gold Nugget is a gold bullion coin minted by the Perth Mint. The coins have been minted in denominations of ​1⁄20 oz, ​1⁄10 oz, ​1⁄4 oz, ​1⁄2 oz, 1 oz, 2 oz, 10 oz, 1 kg of 24 carat gold, they have legal tender status in Australia and are one of few legal tender bullion gold coins to change their design every year, another being the Chinese Gold Panda. This and their limited annual mintage may, unlike for many other bullion coins, raise their numismatic value over the value of gold used; the Gold Nugget series was introduced in 1986 by Gold Corporation, a company wholly owned by the Government of Western Australia, more known by its trading name The Perth Mint. This issue of coins had two unique features: a "two-tone" frosted design effect, individual hard plastic encapsulation of each coin; these features gave the Nugget a unique market niche. From 1986 to 1989, the reverse of these coins pictured various Australian gold nuggets. With the 1989 proof edition, the design was changed to feature different kangaroos, a more world-recognised symbol of Australia.

The coins are today sometimes referred to as "gold kangaroos". In 1991, 2 oz, 10 oz, 1 kilogram sizes were introduced; these were created with the intention of using economies of scale to keep premiums low, are some of the largest gold coins minted. In 1992, the face values on these large coins were lowered to keep them proportional to the 1 oz coin; the reverse of these coins does not change annually like the lower denominations. In October 2011, the Perth Mint created a one tonne gold coin, breaking the record for the biggest and most valuable gold coin held by the Royal Canadian Mint, the Big Maple Leaf; the coin is 80 centimetres in diameter and 12 centimetres thick. It features a red kangaroo on the front of the coin and a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II on the reverse; the face value of the coin is A$1 million, but at the time of minting it was valued at over A$53 million. The Australian Gold Nugget coins should not be mistaken for the Australian Lunar Gold Bullion coins. Both coins are minted by Perth Mint and have.9999 purity, but Lunar coins use images of different animals from the Chinese calendar instead of the kangaroo.

Big Maple Leaf Australian Gold Nugget Coin Pictures Australian coins of the Gold Nugget series

Fran├žois Georgeon

François Georgeon is a French historian specialising in the Ottoman Empire and contemporary Turkey. A graduate from the École des Langues Orientales, François Georgeon was an assistant in contemporary history at the University of Tunis from 1971 to 1975 and a scientific resident at the French Institute of Anatolian Studies in Istanbul from 1976 to 79, he has been a researcher at CNRS since 1979, an emeritus research director since 2008. For several years he was director of the Center for Turkish History, renamed the "Centre d’études turques, balkaniques et asiatiques". François Georgeon's research concerns the end of the Ottoman Empire and the early years of the Republic of Turkey, they cover a rich range of subjects going from sultan Abdülhamid II's biography to cultural history, like alcoholic drinks, the satirical press or the feast of Ramadan. He has been a member of the editorial board of the journal Turcica since 1981 and has conducted many doctoral theses at the EHESS and at Inalco as director of research at the CNRS.

Along with numerous books and articles, he produced the documentary film Le Paris des Jeunes Turcs. Most of his books and articles have been translated into Turkish, he is working on a book on Ramadan. 1980: Aux origines du nationalisme turc: Yusuf Akçura, Paris, éd. ADPF 1991: La Turquie au seuil de l'Europe, Paris, L'Harmattan 1992: Villes ottomanes à la fin de l'Empire, Paris, L'Harmattan 1995: Des Ottomans aux Turcs, naissance d'une nation, Isis 1997: Vivre ensemble dans l’Empire ottoman. Sociabilités et relations intercommu-nautaires. XVIIIe - XIXe siècles, Paris, L’Harmattan 2000: Ramadan et politique, Paris, CNRS éditions 2003: Abdülhamid II, le sultan calife, Fayard 2007: Enfance et jeunesse dans le monde musulman, Maisonneuve & Larose 2009: Sous le signe des réformes. État et société dans l’Empire ottoman et dans la Turquie kémaliste, Isis 2012: Les Ottomans et le temps, Leyde, E. J. Brill. « L’ivresse de la liberté ». La révolution de 1908 dans l’Empire ottoman, Peeters, 2012. Http://www.peeters-leuven.be/boekoverz.asp?nr=8979 2015: Dictionnaire de l’Empire ottoman, Fayard.

2013: Nathalie Clayer and Erdal Kaynar, vivre et agir dans l’Empire ottoman. Études réunies pour François Georgeon, Peeters. 2015: François Georgeon, Nicolas Vatin and Gilles Veinstein, in collaboration with Elisabetta Borromeo, Dictionnaire de l’Empire ottoman, Fayard, 1332 pages. 2017: Le mois le plus long. Ramadan à Istanbul, CNRS éditions, 352 p. François Gorgeon on France Culture François Gorgeon on the website of the École des hautes études en sciences sociales Conférence de François Georgeon: le califat ottoman Le ramadan, « sultan des mois » à Istanbul on Le Monde

Woodstock, Queensland

Woodstock is a rural town and locality in the City of Townsville, Australia. In the 2016 census, Woodstock had a population of 239 people. Woodstock is 40 kilometres south of Townsville; the area in the head of the catchments for the Ross River. The Ross River Dam is a major source of water for Townsville and the Majors Creek/Upper Haughton area. There is a substation at Woodstock to boost power to the area and it feeds into the Kelso substation in the Upper Ross area of Townsville; the town takes its name from the Woodstock pastoral run, whih was named in 1863, by Mark Watt Reid, station manager for pastoralist John Melton Black. Woodstock Provisional School No opened in September 1890. On 1 January it became Woodstock State School; the preschool burnt down around Christmas 2004. In 2015, Woodstock State School celebrated its 125th anniversary. Woodstock and its large surrounding area was in Thuringowa until 1997, when a change in local government boundaries resulted in this part of Thuringowa being incorporated into City of Townsville.

The Woodstock General Store is the local shop, news agent, service station and post office. There is a service station situated at neighbouring Calcium; the Woodstock branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at the QCWA Hall at 42 Woodstock Avenue. The QCWA Hall is used for many other functions like stalls and markets to parties. Woodstock State School is a government primary school for girls at Woodstock Avenue. In 2017, the school had an enrolment of 60 students with 5 non-teaching staff. Woodstock is home to many types of sports, from the Woodstock Horse Sports, Motocross & off road track, to a rifle club, dog show events held at a dedicated site next to the sports and recreation club; the Woodstock Sport and Recreational Club is used on Friday nights as a bar. The Woodstock Motocross track is well known Queensland wide. There is sky diving or flightseening tours; the area has been nominated as a site for a future motorsports precinct. Woodstock's main center is located on the Flinders Highway where the Woodstock-Giru Road and the old Flinders Highway meet the current Flinders Highway.

Local school bus's run from Reid River to Woodstock and from Toonpan to Woodstock during schools days taking the local children to the Woodstock School and another local bus runs from Reid River to William Ross High School for the High school Children. Woodstock has its own airport, listed as Woodstock Airport; the area supports a number of private air strips. The Western rail line bisects the area; the area is dissected by gas and water pipelines. Calcium is the name of a suburb in the Woodstock area and is the main industry site of the area, they mine limestone. Town map of Woodstock, 1976