Commonwealth Heritage List
The Commonwealth Heritage List is a heritage register which lists places under the control of the Australian government on land or in waters directly owned by the Crown. Such places must have importance in relation to the natural and historic heritage of Australia; the List was established under the Federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. Places protected under the Act include federally owned telegraph stations, defence sites, migration centres, customs houses, national institutions such as Parliament and High Court buildings, memorials and marine areas. In 2004, a new heritage management system was introduced by the Australian Government to protect Australia’s heritage places. Key elements are amendments to the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, which include explicit requirements for cultural heritage protection, the creation of an Australian National Heritage List and a Commonwealth Heritage List and the establishment of the Australian Heritage Council under the Australian Heritage Council Act 2003.
The Register of the National Estate was lost its statutory power. The National Heritage List is to include a small number of places of outstanding heritage significance to Australia; as of 28 September 2017, the Commonwealth Heritage List comprised 398 heritage places as follows: Cultural heritage Natural heritage Commonwealth Heritage Official site
Australian National Heritage List
The Australian National Heritage List is a heritage register, a list of national heritage places deemed to be of outstanding heritage significance to Australia. The list includes natural and indigenous places. Once on the National Heritage List the provisions of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 apply; the Australian National Heritage List, together with the Commonwealth Heritage List, replaced the former Register of the National Estate. Places on the Australian National Heritage List are places of outstanding heritage value for Australia and the Commonwealth Heritage List for heritage places that are owned or controlled by the Commonwealth of Australia. To be included on the list, a nominated place is assessed by the Australian Heritage Council against nine criteria: importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of Australia's natural or cultural places or environments importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in Australia's natural or cultural history importance as part of Indigenous tradition.
In addition, the place must pass a "significance threshold". This is determined by comparison to other similar places. Once the Heritage Council has made an assessment, it forwards a recommendation to the Minister for the Environment, who shall make a determination; as of 28 September 2017, the Australian National Heritage List comprised 119 heritage places as follows: The Australian National Heritage List comprises the following sites: A One of 15 World Heritage places included in the National Heritage List on 21 May 2007. B Yard 4 North was added on 4 August 2009. Commonwealth Heritage List Media related to Australian National Heritage List at Wikimedia Commons Australian National Heritage List
National Trust of Australia
The National Trust of Australia the Australian Council of National Trusts, is the Australian national peak body for community-based, non-government non-profit organisations committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous and historic heritage. Incorporated in 1965, it federates the eight autonomous National Trusts in each Australian state and internal self-governing territory, providing them with a national secretariat and a national and international presence. Collectively, the constituent National Trusts own or manage over 300 heritage places, manage a volunteer workforce of 7,000 while employing about 350 people nationwide. Around 1,000,000 visitors experience the their collections in Australia each year. Modelled on the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty and inspired by local campaigns to conserve native bushland and preserve old buildings, the first Australian National Trusts were formed in New South Wales in 1945, South Australia in 1955 and Victoria in 1956.
The driving force behind the establishment of the National Trust in Australia was Annie Forsyth Wyatt. She lived for much of her life in a cottage in Gordon, New South Wales, still standing, she was living in the Sydney suburb of St Ives. In 1975, the National Trust moved into the former Fort Street High School building on Observatory Hill, after the girls' school moved to Petersham to be reunited with the boys' school, which had moved in 1916; the distinctive building, which retains its appearance from the time of its conversion to a school in 1849, is visible from the approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The constituent organisations are: List of National Trust properties in Australia List of Australian Living Treasures SAHANZ, the Society of Architectural Historians and New Zealand Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales Clark, Mary Rhyllis. In Trust. Recollections of the Victorian Trust pioneers Cosgrove, Carol. Challenging times: the National Trust of South Australia 1955–2005. Adelaide: National Trust of South Australia.
ISBN 0-909378-60-6 Hill, Robert. "Heritage: Yesterday and Tomorrow": Address to the Natural Trust Conference. Speeches of the Federal Minister for the Environment. Department of the Environment and Heritage. Archived from the original on 2006-09-11. Retrieved 2007-01-30. Wyatt, Ian. Ours in Trust. Covers the founding years of the NSW National Trust
Ranger Uranium Mine
The Ranger Uranium Mine is a uranium mine in the Northern Territory of Australia. It separate from Kakadu National Park, 230 km east of Darwin; the orebody was discovered in late 1969, the mine commenced operation in 1980, reaching full production of uranium oxide in 1981. It is operated by Energy Resources of a 68 % subsidiary of Rio Tinto Group. Uranium mined at Ranger is sold for use in nuclear power stations in Asia and North America; the original orebody was mined out by the end of 1995, although some ore remains stockpiled. A second orebody began mining in 1997. Both have been open-pit mines. Open cut mining finished at Ranger in late 2012 and the mine is now processing stockpiled ore; as of 2013, the ageing Ranger mine has been incurring financial losses as a result of the continuing market slump which has followed the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Water management and waste management continue to be controversial issues; the Ranger uranium orebody, the richest in the Southern Hemisphere, was discovered in late 1969, when an aerial radiometric survey conducted by Geophysical Resources Development Co. a company based in Sydney, on contract to Noranda Aluminum, Inc. detected a large spike in gamma radiation when passing over Mount Brockman, known as Djidbidjidbi to the Aboriginal Australians.
The instrument that detected the anomaly was a Nuclear Enterprises gamma ray spectrometer using a Thallium doped Sodium Iodide cylindrical crystal. At time of discovery the aircraft was flying at an altitude of 100 meters; the anomaly could still be detected at 3000 feet. The Aircraft was a Britten Norman Islander Registration VH-FLE; the crew members on board were Bill Hay, the pilot, Harvey Morton, the navigator and Frank Lanza, the instruments operator that first recognized the significance of the anomaly. The Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 ore bodies occur in the Cahill Formation, consisting of Lower Proterozoic metasediments, located in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field. The mine commenced operation in 1980, reaching full production of uranium oxide in 1981. Owing to the environmental sensitivity of the site, a special statutory authority, the Supervising Scientist, was created to provide oversight of the operation and conduct environmental research in the region. Ranger mine covers two of a line of uranium orebodies that extend from near Nourlangie Rock in Kakadu north-eastwards to Koongarra, underneath Mount Brockman northwards through the Ranger One line of orebodies via Hades Flat, where there is uranium mineralisation, to Jabiluka where the line turns westward through the Barote and Ranger 4 orebodies.
The mine covers No 3 Orebody. No 2 orebody was excluded from the mining lease at the request of the traditional owners and included in Kakadu National Park. From Ranger 4 the line again turns northwards and swings westward round an Archaean basement dome before turning south towards Nourlangie Rock again. Uranium mineralisation is known at several other places along this line but has never been explored in detail because of the creation of Kakadu; the name'Ranger' for the series of discoveries made by Geopeko Limited, the exploration arm of the Australian mining company Peko-Wallsend Limited, in the period 1969 to 1972, was thought up by Judy Ryan, the wife of the geologist in charge of the program. Koongarra and Jabiluka were retained by the companies that found them: Noranda Australia and Pancontinental Mining although since sold to other parties; the other discoveries are enclosed in the National Park, locking up an energy source, estimated to be greater than the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia.
Energy Resources of Australia Ltd was named Explorer of the Year at the sixth annual Australian Mining Prospect Awards held in Sydney on Wednesday 11 November 2009. During 2008, ERA's exploration programme identified a significant mineral resource adjacent to the existing Ranger 3 operating pit; the area, known as Ranger 3 Deeps, is estimated to contain 34 thousand tonnes of contained uranium oxide, ranks among the world's most significant uranium discoveries in recent years. ERA is constructing a $120 million Ranger 3 Deeps exploration decline to conduct close spaced underground exploration drilling and explore areas adjacent to the Ranger 3 Deeps resource; the Ranger 3 Deeps mineralised zone contains an estimated 34,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, represents one of the most significant recent uranium discoveries world-wide. In parallel with the construction of the exploration decline, ERA began a $57 million project to prepare a Prefeasibility Study into the potential development of a Ranger 3 Deeps underground mine.
This Study will determine the economic viability of the project, optimise mining methods, confirm metallurgical performance and production rates. Environmental studies will be conducted. ERA will consult further with the Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation as a component of a broader social impact assessment. ERA formally commenced the statutory approval process for the proposed Ranger 3 Deeps underground mine with the submission of a referral to the Commonwealth Department of Sustainability, Water Population and Communities under the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Control Act 1999 in January 2013. At the same time, ERA separately lodged a notice of intent with the Northern Territory Environment Protection Authority under the Northern Territory Environmental Assessment Act. Ore is ground leached with sulfuric acid. Uranium is removed using kerosene with amine stripped with ammonium sulfate solution and gaseous ammonia. Ammonium diuranate is converted to uranium oxide in a furnace. In earl
State Register of Heritage Places
The State Register of Heritage Places is the heritage register of historic sites in Western Australia deemed significant at the state level by the Heritage Council of Western Australia. Places listed on the register include buildings, gardens, memorials and archaeological sites; the Heritage Council use criteria established in September 1991 to determine the cultural heritage significance of each place, as follows: Aesthetic value Historic value Scientific value Social value Rarity Representativeness Condition Integrity Authenticity List of Australian heritage lists List of heritage buildings in Perth, Western Australia
Kakadu National Park
Kakadu National Park is a protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia, 171 km southeast of Darwin. The park is located within the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory, it covers an area of 19,804 km2, extending nearly 200 kilometres from north to south and over 100 kilometres from east to west. It is the size of Slovenia, about one-third the size of Tasmania, nearly half the size of Switzerland; the Ranger Uranium Mine, one of the most productive uranium mines in the world, is surrounded by the park. The name Kakadu may come from the mispronunciation of Gaagudju, the name of an Aboriginal language spoken in the northern part of the park; this name may derive from the Indonesian word kakatuwah, subsequently Anglicised as "cockatoo". Kakadu is biologically diverse; the main natural features protected within the National Park include: four major river systems: the East Alligator River, the West Alligator River, the Wildman River. Some 117 species of reptilesAboriginal people have occupied the Kakadu area continuously for at least 40,000 years.
Kakadu National Park is renowned for the richness of its Aboriginal cultural sites. There are more than 5,000 recorded art sites illustrating Aboriginal culture over thousands of years; the archaeological sites demonstrate Aboriginal occupation for at least 20,000 and up to 40,000 years. The cultural and natural values of Kakadu National Park were recognised internationally when the park was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List; this is an international register of properties that are recognised as having outstanding cultural or natural values of international significance. Kakadu was listed in three stages: stage 1 in 1981, stage 2 in 1987, the entire park in 1992. Half of the land in Kakadu is Aboriginal land under the Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976, most of the remaining land is under claim by Aboriginal people; the areas of the park that are owned by Aboriginal people are leased by the traditional owners to the Director of National Parks to be managed as a national park. The remaining area is Commonwealth land vested under the Director of National Parks.
All of Kakadu is declared a national park under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999. The Aboriginal traditional owners of the park are descendants of various clan groups from the Kakadu area and have longstanding affiliations with this country, their lifestyle has changed in recent years, but their traditional customs and beliefs remain important. About 500 Aboriginal people live in the park, many of them are traditional owners. All of Kakadu is jointly managed by Aboriginal traditional owners and the Director of National Parks with assistance from Parks Australia, a division of Australian Government's Department of the Environment and Energy. Park Management is directed by the Kakadu Board of Management; the Chinese and Portuguese all claim to have been the first non-Aboriginal explorers of Australia's north coast. The first surviving written account comes from the Dutch. In 1623 Jan Carstenszoon made his way west across the Gulf of Carpentaria to what is believed to be Groote Eylandt.
Abel Tasman is the next documented explorer to visit this part of the coast in 1644. He was the first person to record European contact with Aboriginal people. A century Matthew Flinders surveyed the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1802 and 1803. Phillip Parker King, an English navigator entered the Gulf of Carpentaria between 1818 and 1822. During this time he named the three Alligator Rivers after the large numbers of crocodiles, which he mistook for alligators. Ludwig Leichhardt was the first land-based European explorer to visit the Kakadu region, in 1845 on his route from Moreton Bay in Queensland to Port Essington in the Northern Territory, he followed Jim Jim Creek down from the Arnhem Land escarpment went down the South Alligator before crossing to the East Alligator and proceeding north. A more plausible, if prosaic, explanation for the origin of the name of the park is that Leichhardt applied the colloquial German term for a cockatoo, although this is unlikely to sit well with the indigenous historians.
In 1862, John McDouall Stuart travelled along the south-western boundary of Kakadu but did not see any people. The first non-Aboriginal people to visit and have sustained contact with Aboriginal people in northern Australia were the Macassans from Sulawesi and other parts of the Indonesian archipelago, they travelled to northern Australia every wet season from the last quarter of the seventeenth century, in sailing boats called praus. Their main aim was to harvest trepang, turtle shell and other prized items to trade in their homeland. Aboriginal people were involved in harvesting and processing the trepang, in collecting and exchanging the other goods. There is no evidence that the Macassans spent time on the coast of Kakadu but there is evidence of some contact between Macassan culture and Aboriginal people of the Kakadu area. Among the artefacts from archaeological digs in the park are glass and metal fragments that came from the Macassans, either directly or through trade with the Cobourg Peninsula people.
The British attempted a number of settlements on the northern Australian coast in the early part of the nineteenth century: Fort Dundas on Melville Island in 1824.
The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007. It was made up of members of the Liberal–National Coalition, which won a majority of seats in the House of Representatives at four successive elections; the Howard Government commenced following victory over the Keating Government at the 1996 federal election. It concluded with its defeat at the 2007 federal election by the Australian Labor Party, whose leader Kevin Rudd formed the First Rudd Government, it was the second-longest government under a single Prime Minister, with the longest having been the second Menzies Government. Two senior ministers served in single roles for the duration of the Government; the leader of the National Party served as Deputy Prime Minister. Three men served in this capacity during the Howard government: Tim Fischer until July 1999, followed by John Anderson until July 2005 and Mark Vaile. Decisions of the Executive were made either by the appropriate Minister.
For the first three terms of government, part of the fourth term, the Howard Government did not have control of the Senate. Legislation needed the support of the Opposition or minor parties for that legislation to be passed and become law. In the 2004 election, the Coalition won control of the Senate for all but the first nine months of its fourth term, was able to pass legislation without the support of minor parties; the government faced internal problems and tension, with the loss of numerous ministers during its first term due to the introduction of a ministerial code of conduct and ongoing leadership rivalry between John Howard and Peter Costello. Significant issues for the Howard government included implementation of substantial spending cuts in its first term of office and paying off government debt. John Howard became Leader of the Opposition on 30 January 1995, replacing Alexander Downer, who resigned in his favour. Downer took the position of Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, Peter Costello retained his position as Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party and Shadow Treasurer.
Howard had had a long Parliamentary career, having entered Parliament in 1974 and served as Treasurer in the Fraser Government from 1977 to 1983. He replaced Andrew Peacock as leader of the Opposition and in 1985 and challenged the Hawke Government at the 1987 Election, which saw Labor returned. Peacock challenged and replaced Howard prior to the 1990 Election, which again returned Labor; the Liberals turned to two further leaders before restoring Howard to the office to lead the Coalition against the Keating Labor Government. Long-serving Labor Treasurer Paul Keating had challenged Bob Hawke for the leadership of the Labor Party and the prime ministership in 1991. Despite Australia suffering a deep recession in the early 1990s, Labor had increased its lead over the Coalition at the 1993 Election, which had seen the Liberals under Hewson offer an ambitious program of economic reform called Fightback!, which proposed a Goods and Services Tax as its centrepiece. As opposition leader, Howard delivered a series of "headland speeches", which dealt broadly with the philosophy of government.
In contrast to Keating, he used these addresses to speak in favour of traditional Australian institutions and symbols like the Australian flag and ANZAC legacy. By the time of the 1996 Election, unemployment was high, but at a lower rate than at the previous 1993 Election, interest rates were lower than they had been in 1990, but foreign debt had been growing; the Keating Government was projecting a small budget surplus. Following the election, an $8 billion deficit was confirmed. In his 18 February 1996 Policy Launch Speech delivered at the Ryde Civic Centre in Sydney, Howard emphasised that Labor had been in office a long time, cited high inflation, a poor current account deficit and high national debt as evidence of bad economic management, he called for industrial relations reform to increase flexibility and improve productivity and offered tax relief for families. He proposed increased spending on environmental challenges, to be in part funded by the partial sale of telstra, he promised to restore the prime minister's attendance at question time in parliament.
The 1996 Election brought to an end 13 years of the Hawke-Keating Labor Government. The Liberal-National Coalition won the federal election on 2 March 1996 against the incumbent Keating Labor government; the coalition had a 45-seat majority in the House of Representatives. Howard announced his proposed ministry team on 8 March 1996, with the Governor-General swearing them into office on 11 March; the size of the Coalition victory gave John Howard great power within the Liberal party and he said he came to the office "with clear views on where I wanted to take the country". In the first week of the new government, Howard sacked six department heads and chose new department heads himself and changes were made across the public service. On 28 April 1996, eight weeks into the new governme