Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5 per cent of the worldwide Protestant population. The report defines it narrowly, encompassing denominations in the United States and the United Kingdom, which can trace their history back to nonconforming Protestants, Separatists, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, various island nations in the Pacific region, it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society. A number of evangelical Congregational churches are members of the World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship.
In the United Kingdom, many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian and English separatist Robert Browne in 1582. Ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. In England, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Presbyterians, whose churches embrace a polity based on the governance of elders. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, led by a bishop. Congregationalism in the United States traces its origins to the Puritans of New England, who wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 to describe the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York into the Old North West, further.
With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, the most theologically conservative. Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfills the description of the early church and allows people the most direct relationship with God. Congregationalism is more identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation; the idea that each distinct congregation constitutes the visible Body of the church can, however, be traced to John Wycliffe and the Lollard movement, which followed Wycliffe's removal from teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church.
They believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were a reciprocal influence on the Baptists, they differed in counting the children of believers in some sense members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member followed by baptism. King Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church without allowing a change in doctrine or liturgy during his lifetime, he was not excommunicated but broke with Rome to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn in 1533 after trying unsuccessfully to have his marriage with his wife, Catherine of Aragon annulled. Henry forced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England"; the title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England in 1559. Still in effect; the Church of England ceased to be subject to the Church of Rome. However, it continued as before with the same episcopal ecclesiastical structure, Canon Law, Apostolic Succession.
It saw itself as the continuing Church in England without break. However its worship life was changed." The whole story of the English Reformation which produced the Church of England is a tale of retreat from the Protestant advance of 1550..." Pope Saint Pius V regretfully excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I. From the beginning of her reign a small but vocal party of radical Reformers Calvinists who represented less than 10% of the population pressed for the abolition of episcopacy - the 3-fold order of bishop priest and deacon - church music, the old canon law and liturgical and doctrinal practices they regarded as hangovers from Catholicism, they got nowhere. The persistence of the government's religious program and time had defeated them: England 80% Catholic in 1558 with a Catholic clergy evolved under Elizabeth. By 1600 the country was 20 % Catholic, 70 % Protestant C of 10 % Radicals; the great majority of Catholics had gone over to the Settlement as the Catholic-trained clergy ministered to them in the early years "with the vestments and movements of the old mass," Christopher Haigh, English Reformations p. 289, were replaced over four decades by new clergy weaned on the Prayer Book.
Frustrated at these leftovers from an earlier Ag
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is a mainline Protestant Lutheran Church headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The ELCA came into existence on January 1, 1988, by the merging of three Lutheran church bodies; as of 2017, it has 3.5 million baptized members in 9,163 congregations. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.4 percent of the U. S. population self-identifies with the ELCA. It is the seventh-largest Christian denomination by reported membership and the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States; the next two largest Lutheran denominations are the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. There are many smaller Lutheran church bodies in the United States, some of which came into being composed of dissidents following the major 1988 merger; the ELCA belongs to the World Council of the Lutheran World Federation. The ELCA is in full communion with the Episcopal Church, Moravian Church, Presbyterian Church, Reformed Church in America, United Church of Christ, the United Methodist Church.
In 1970, a survey by Strommen et al. found that 79 percent of Lutheran Church in America clergy, 62 percent of American Lutheran Church clergy, 58 percent of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy surveyed agreed that "a merger of all Lutheran groups in the United States into one organization is desirable". The ELCA formally came into existence on January 1, 1988, creating the largest Lutheran church body in the United States; the Church is a result of a merger among The American Lutheran Church with its headquarters in Minneapolis, the Lutheran Church in America and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, all of which had formally agreed in 1982 to unite after several years of discussions. The ALC and LCA were themselves the product of previous mergers. In 1960, The American Lutheran Church was formed as a merger of the earlier ALC of 1930 from German heritage, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Danish background, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norwegian background; the Lutheran Free Church joined three years in 1963.
The ALC brought 2.25 million members into the new ELCA. It was the most theologically conservative of the forming bodies, having a heritage of Old Lutheran theology, it had been in fellowship for a decade with the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod and held to biblical inerrancy in its constitution, although it enforced that stance by means of heresy trials or other doctrinal discipline. Its geographic center was in the Upper Midwest Minnesota, with headquarters and publisher on South Fifth Street in Minneapolis and one of its several seminaries in neighboring St. Paul, its denominational magazine was The Lutheran Standard, published in Minneapolis. Some congregations in the ALC opted not to join the 1988 merger and instead formed the American Association of Lutheran Churches; the Lutheran Church in America had been created in 1962, when the United Lutheran Church in America, along with the Swedish background Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, the Danish immigrants in the American Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The LCA was the larger partner and brought 2.85 million members into the new ELCA. Their administrative offices were in the Church House, a former townhouse mansion on Madison Avenue in New York City, its publishing house, Fortress Press, was on Queen's Lane in northwest Philadelphia, produced the church magazine, The Lutheran. Its demographic focus was on the East Coast, centered on Pennsylvania), with large numbers in the Midwest and some presence in the Southern Atlantic states. There are notable exceptions, but LCA-background churches tend to be more liturgical than ALC-background churches, its theological orientation ranged from moderately liberal to neo-orthodox, with tendencies toward conservative Pietism in some rural and small-town congregations. Its theology originated in the Neo-Lutheran movement. In 1976, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches was formed by 250 congregations that had left the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in a schism precipitated by disputes over biblical inerrancy and ecumenism as part of the overall Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, roiling American Protestant churches for several decades.
The LCMS elected more conservative leadership in 1969 under President Jacob A. O. Preus, replacing moderate incumbent Oliver Harms; the new leadership opened an investigation at the synod's Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, about the faculty's commitment to inerrancy in Biblical interpretation; as a result, most of the faculty and student body walked out and established a separate institution named "Concordia Seminary-in-Exile". The AELC brought 100,000 members into the ELCA, its immigrant heritage came from Germany in the mid-19th century. The ELCA is headed by a Presiding Bishop, elected by the Churchwide Assembly for a term of six years. To date, four people have been elected to the position of Presiding Bishop of the ELCA. Herbert W. Chilstrom served as the first Presiding Bishop from 1987 to 1995, he was followed by H. George Anderson, who had previous
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion; the terms'sacred' text and'religious' text are not interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of their nature as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired, whereas some religious texts are narratives pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion, not considered sacred by itself. A core function of a religious text making it sacred is its ceremonial and liturgical role in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service.
It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, because there is no single definition of which texts are recognized as religious. One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars date around 2600 BCE; the Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150-2000 BCE, stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine. The Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism is estimated to have been composed between 1700–1100 BCE, which not only denotes it as one of the oldest known religious texts, but one of the oldest written religious text, still used in religious practice to this day, though no actual evidence of this text exists prior to the 13th century AD. There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of, found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, with another common date being the 2nd century BCE.
Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were limited quantities in circulation. A religious canon refers to the accepted and unchanging collection of texts which a religious denomination considers comprehensive in terms of their specific application of texts. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible - insofar as the Protestant Old Testament does not include the Deuterocanonical books while the Roman Catholic canon does. Protestants and Catholics use the same 27 book NT canon, as well as the same 39 book OT protocanon shared by Jews.
The word "canon" comes from the Sumerian word meaning "standard". The terms "scripture" and variations such as "Holy Writ", "Holy Scripture" or "Sacred Scripture" are defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as terms which apply to Biblical text and the Christian tradition. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts; the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. A Course in Miracles The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a.k.a. Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj Aletheon The Companions of the True Dawn Horse The Dawn Horse Testament Gnosticon The Heart of the Adi Dam Revelation Not-Two IS Peace Pneumaton Transcendental Realism The Nine Freedoms Havamal Eddur Great Hymn to the Aten The Akilathirattu Ammanai The Arul Nool The Borgia Group codices Books by Bahá'u'lláh The Four Valleys The Seven Valleys The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh Gems of Divine Mysteries The Book of Certitude Summons of the Lord of Hosts Tabernacle of Unity Kitáb-i-Aqdas Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas Epistle to the Son of the Wolf Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Bon Kangyur and Tengyur Theravada BuddhismThe Tipitaka or Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya, the "long" discourses.
Majjhima Nikaya, the "middle-length" discourses. Samyutta Nikaya, the "connected" discourses. Anguttara Nikaya, the "numerical" discourses. Khuddaka Nikaya, the "minor collection". Abhidhamma PitakaEast Asian Mahayana The Chinese Buddhist Mahayana sutras, including Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra Shurangama Sutra and its Shurangama Mantra Great Compassion Mantra Pure Land Buddhism Infinite Life Sutra Amitabha Sutra Contemplation Sutra other Pure Land Sutras Tiantai and Nichiren Lotus Sutra Shingon Mahavairocana Sutra Vajrasekhara SutraTibeta
The term "ecumenism" refers to efforts by Christians of different Church traditions to develop closer relationships and better understandings. The term is often used to refer to efforts towards the visible and organic unity of different Christian denominations in some form; the adjective ecumenical can be applied to any interdenominational initiative that encourages greater cooperation among Christians and their churches, whether or not the specific aim of that effort is full, visible unity. The terms ecumenism and ecumenical come from the Greek οἰκουμένη, which means "the whole inhabited world", was used with specific reference to the Roman Empire; the ecumenical vision comprises both the search for the visible unity of the Church and the "whole inhabited earth" as the concern of all Christians. In Christianity the qualification ecumenical is used in terms such as "ecumenical council" and "Ecumenical Patriarch" in the meaning of pertaining to the totality of the larger Church rather than being restricted to one of its constituent local churches or dioceses.
Used in this original sense, the term carries no connotation of re-uniting the separated Christian denominations, but presumes a unity of local congregations in a worldwide communion. The word was used in the context of large ecumenical councils that were organized under the auspices of Roman Emperors to clarify matters of Christian theology and doctrine; these "Ecumenical Councils" brought together bishops from around the inhabited world as they knew it at the time. There were a total of seven ecumenical councils accepted by both Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism held before the Great Schism. Thus, the modern meaning of the words ecumenical and ecumenism derives from this pre-modern sense of Christian unity, the impulse to recreate this unity again. There are a variety of different expectations of what that Christian unity looks like, how it is brought about, what ecumenical methods ought to be engaged, what both short- and long-term objectives of the ecumenical movement should be. Ecumenism and nondenominational or post denominational movements are not the same thing.
If ecumenism is the quest for Christian unity, it must be understood what the divisions are which must be overcome. Christianity has not been a monolithic faith since the first century or Apostolic Age, if and today there exists a large variety of groups that share a common history and tradition within and without mainstream Christianity. Christianity is the largest religion in the world and the various divisions have commonalities and differences in tradition, church government and language; the world's 2.2 billion Christians are visibly divided into different communions or denominations, groupings of Christians and their churches that are in full communion with one another, but to some degree exclusive of other Christians. The exact number of these denominations is disputed, based on differing definitions used; the largest number quoted is "approximately 45,000" from the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. The World Christian Encyclopedia lists "approximately 33,000" in 2001.
Yet, at the same time, the World Council of Churches counts only 348 member churches, representing more than half a billion members. This, with the Catholic Church's 1.25 billion Christians, indicates that 349 churches/denominations account for nearly 80% of the world's Christian population. One problem with the larger numbers is. For example, the Catholic Church is a single church, or communion, comprising 24 distinct self-governing particular churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome. Further, the Catholic Church presence in each country is counted as a different denomination—though this is in no way an ecclesiologically accurate definition; this can result in the one Catholic Church being counted as 242 distinct denominations, as in the World Christian Encyclopedia. Additionally, single nondenominational congregations or megachurches without denominational affiliation are counted each as its own denomination, resulting in cases where entire "denominations" may account for only a handful of people.
Other denominations may be small remnants of once larger churches. The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing have only two full members, for example, yet are a distinct denomination. Most current divisions are the result of historical schisms—a break in the full communion between united Churches, bishops, or communities; some historical schisms proved temporary and were healed, others have hardened into the denominations of today. However individual denominations are counted, it is acknowledged that they fall into the following major "families" of churches: The Catholic Church; some of these families are in themselves a single communion, such as the Catholic Church. Other families are a general movement wit
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism, which traces its origins to Britain Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Church of Scotland, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War. Presbyterian theology emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterian church government was ensured in Scotland by the Acts of Union in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain. In fact, most Presbyterians found in England can trace a Scottish connection, the Presbyterian denomination was taken to North America by Scots and Scots-Irish immigrants; the Presbyterian denominations in Scotland hold to the Reformed theology of John Calvin and his immediate successors, although there is a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism.
Local congregations of churches which use presbyterian polity are governed by sessions made up of representatives of the congregation. The roots of Presbyterianism lie in the Reformation of the 16th century, the example of John Calvin's Republic of Geneva being influential. Most Reformed churches that trace their history back to Scotland are either presbyterian or congregationalist in government. In the twentieth century, some Presbyterians played an important role in the ecumenical movement, including the World Council of Churches. Many Presbyterian denominations have found ways of working together with other Reformed denominations and Christians of other traditions in the World Communion of Reformed Churches; some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans and Methodists. Presbyterians in the United States came from Scottish immigrants, Scotch-Irish immigrants, from New England Yankee communities, Congregational but changed because of an agreed-upon Plan of Union of 1801 for frontier areas.
Along with Episcopalians, Presbyterians tend to be wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in United States, are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and politics. Presbyterian tradition that of the Church of Scotland, traces its early roots to the Church founded by Saint Columba, through the 6th century Hiberno-Scottish mission. Tracing their apostolic origin to Saint John, the Culdees practiced Christian monasticism, a key feature of Celtic Christianity in the region, with a presbyter exercising "authority within the institution, while the different monastic institutions were independent of one another." The Church in Scotland kept the Christian feast of Easter at a date different from the See of Rome and its monks used a unique style of tonsure. The Synod of Whitby in 664, ended these distinctives as it ruled "that Easter would be celebrated according to the Roman date, not the Celtic date." Although Roman influence came to dominate the Church in Scotland, certain Celtic influences remained in the Scottish Church, such as "the singing of metrical psalms, many of them set to old Celtic Christianity Scottish traditional and folk tunes", which became a "distinctive part of Scottish Presbyterian worship".
Presbyterian history is part of the history of Christianity, but the beginning of Presbyterianism as a distinct movement occurred during the 16th-century Protestant Reformation. As the Catholic Church resisted the reformers, several different theological movements splintered from the Church and bore different denominations. Presbyterianism was influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, credited with the development of Reformed theology, the work of John Knox, a Scotsman and a Roman Catholic Priest, who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, he brought back Reformed teachings to Scotland. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back to England and Scotland. In August 1560 the Parliament of Scotland adopted the Scots Confession as the creed of the Scottish Kingdom. In December 1560, the First Book of Discipline was published, outlining important doctrinal issues but establishing regulations for church government, including the creation of ten ecclesiastical districts with appointed superintendents which became known as presbyteries.
In time, the Scots Confession would be supplanted by the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which were formulated by the Westminster Assembly between 1643 and 1649. Presbyterians distinguish themselves from other denominations by doctrine, institutional organization and worship; the origins of the Presbyterian churches are in Calvinism. Many branches of Presbyterianism are remnants of previous splits from larger groups; some of the splits have been due to doctrinal controversy, while some have been caused by disagreement concerning the degree to which those ordained to church office should be required to agree with the Westminster Confession of Faith, which serves as an important confessional document – second only to the Bible, yet directing particularities in the standardization and translation of the Bible – in Presbyterian churches. Presbyteria