The Australian National Heritage List or National Heritage List is a heritage register, a list of national heritage places deemed to be of outstanding heritage significance to Australia, established in 2003. The list includes natural and historic places, including those of cultural significance to Indigenous Australians. Once on the National Heritage List the provisions of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 apply; the Australian National Heritage List, together with the Commonwealth Heritage List, replaced the former Register of the National Estate. Places on the Australian National Heritage List are places of outstanding heritage value for Australia and the Commonwealth Heritage List for heritage places that are owned or controlled by the Commonwealth of Australia. All places on this list can be found on the online Australian Heritage Database, along with other places on other Australian and world heritage listings. To be included on the list, a nominated place is assessed by the Australian Heritage Council against nine criteria: importance in the course, or pattern, of Australia's natural or cultural history possession of uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of Australia's natural or cultural history potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of Australia's natural or cultural history importance in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of Australia's natural or cultural places or environments importance in exhibiting particular aesthetic characteristics valued by a community or cultural group importance in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons special association with the life or works of a person, or group of persons, of importance in Australia's natural or cultural history importance as part of Indigenous tradition.
In addition, the place must pass a "significance threshold". This is determined by comparison to other similar places. Once the Heritage Council has made an assessment, it forwards a recommendation to the Minister for the Environment, who shall make a determination; as of 28 September 2017, the Australian National Heritage List comprised 119 heritage places as follows: The Australian National Heritage List comprises the following sites: A One of 15 World Heritage places included in the National Heritage List on 21 May 2007. B Yard 4 North was added on 4 August 2009. Commonwealth Heritage List Media related to Australian National Heritage List at Wikimedia Commons Australian National Heritage List
The Winnipeg Cyclone was a professional basketball club based in Winnipeg, Manitoba that competed in the International Basketball Association from 1995 to 2001. The Cyclone played its home games at the Winnipeg Convention Centre. However, the Cyclone did not enjoy significant popularity playing before sparse crowds; the club was backed by local businessman Earl Barish. The Cyclone had several recognizable names on the roster and coaching staff during the franchise's short existence. From 1998-2000, Former NBA star Darryl Dawkins served as a players coach for the franchise, winning Co-Coach of the Year for the 1999 season along with Mansfield Hawks coach Kevin Mackey. "Hoop Dreams" subject Arthur Agee played on the team for a brief stint, as well as Andrell Hoard, who won back-to-back Most Valuable Player honors in 1998 and 1999. After the 2001 season, it was announced. League leaders made the decision after failing to acquire commitments for the upcoming 2002 season from several franchises, having to push back the application deadline on several occasions.
Four teams from the IBL would go on to join the Continental Basketball Association's eight-team expansion. For a time, Winnipeg was rumored to be joining the CBA as well, but decided against the move. In 6 seasons, the Cyclone won 90 games while losing 108. Darryl Dawkins finished as the franchise's most winningest coach, tallying a 37-33 record in his two years as the head of the Cyclone. Since the club folded, there have been no professional basketball teams based in Winnipeg. In 2013, the Canadian Basketball League, in conjunction with Cosmos Sports, conducted a feasibility study that showed Winnipeg could host a professional basketball franchise if chosen. After a meeting with potential owners in the year, it was decided that there wasn't enough interest to reach the expansion minimum of eight teams. Since 2013, no significant measures have been taken to bring professional basketball to Winnipeg, but interest in professional basketball is growing
Long-term close-knit interactions between symbiotic microbes and their host can alter host immune system responses to other microorganisms, including pathogens, are required to maintain proper homeostasis. The immune system is a host defense system consisting of anatomical physical barriers as well as physiological and cellular responses, which protect the host against harmful microorganisms while limiting host responses to harmless symbionts. Humans are home to 1013 to 1014 bacteria equivalent to the number of human cells, while these bacteria can be pathogenic to their host most of them are mutually beneficial to both the host and bacteria; the human immune system consists of two main types of immunity: adaptive. The innate immune system is made of non-specific defensive mechanisms against foreign cells inside the host including skin as a physical barrier to entry, activation of the complement cascade to identify foreign bacteria and activate necessary cell responses, white blood cells that remove foreign substances.
The adaptive immune system, or acquired immune system, is a pathogen-specific immune response, carried out by lymphocytes through antigen presentation on MHC molecules to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. Microbes can promote the development of the host's immune system in the gut and skin, may help to prevent pathogens from invading; some release anti-inflammatory products. Commensals promote the development of B cells that produce a protective antibody, Immunoglobulin A; this can neutralize pathogens and exotoxins, promote the development of immune cells and mucosal immune response. However, microbes have been implicated in human diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. Microbial symbiosis relies on interspecies communication. Between the host and microbial symbionts. Immunity has been characterized in multicellular organisms as being controlled by the host immune system, where a perceived foreign substance or cell stimulates an immune response; the end result of this response can vary from clearing of a harmful pathogen to tolerance of a beneficial microbe to an autoimmune response that harms the host itself.
Symbiotic microorganisms have more been shown to be involved in this immune response indicating that the immune response is not isolated to host cells alone. These beneficial microorganisms have been implicated in inhibiting growth of pathogens in the gut and anti-cancer immunity among other responses; the human gastrointestinal tract consists of the mouth, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine, is a 9-meter-long continuous tube. The intestine offers nutrients and protection to microbes, enabling them to thrive with an intestinal microbial community of 1014 beneficial and pathogenic bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. In return many of these microbes complete important functions for the host including breakdown of fiber and production of vitamins where gut microbes have at least a role in the production of vitamins such as A, B2, B3, B5, B12, C, D and K. In the human gut the immune system comes into contact with a large number of foreign microbes, both beneficial and pathogenic; the immune system is capable of protecting the host from these pathogenic microbes without starting unnecessary and harmful immune responses to stimuli.
The gastrointestinal microbiota has a direct effect on the human body's immune responses. Meaning a regular microbiota is necessary for a healthy host immune system as the body is more susceptible to infectious and non-infectious diseases. Commensal bacteria in the GI tract survive despite the abundance of local immune cells. Homeostasis in the intestine requires stimulation of toll-like receptors by commensal microbes; when mice are raised in germ-free conditions, they lack circulating antibodies, cannot produce mucus, antimicrobial proteins, or mucosal T-cells. Additionally, mice raised in germ-free conditions lack tolerance and suffer from hypersensitivity reactions. Maturation of the GI tract is mediated by pattern recognition receptors, which recognize non-self pathogen associated molecular patterns including bacterial cell wall components and nucleic acids; these data suggest that commensal microbes aid in intestinal homeostasis and immune system development. To prevent constant activation of immune cells and resulting inflammation and bacteria have evolved to maintain intestinal homeostasis and immune system development.
For example, the human symbiont Bacteroides fragilis produces polysaccharide A, which binds to toll-like receptor 2 on CD4+ T cells. While TLR2 signaling can activate clearance of peptides, PSA induces an anti-inflammatory response when it binds to TLR2 on CD4+ T cells. Through TLR2 binding, PSA suppresses pro-inflammatory TH17 responses, promoting tolerance and establishing commensal gut colonization. Commensal gut microbes create a variety of metabolites. AHR is a ligand-inducible transcription factor found in immune and epithelial cells and binding of AHR is required for normal immune activation as the lack of AHR binding has been shown to cause over activation of immune cells; these microbial metabolites are crucial for protecting the host from unnecessary inflammation in the gut. Microbes trigger development of isolated lymphoid follicles in the small intestine of humans and mice, which are sites of mucosal immune response. Isolated lymphoid follicles collect antigens through M cells, develop germinal centers, contain many B cells.