Australian National Botanic Gardens
The Australian National Botanic Gardens are located in Canberra and are administered by the Australian Governments Department of the Environment and Heritage. The botanic gardens are the largest living collection of native Australian flora, the gardens maintains a wide variety of botanical resources for researchers and cultivates native plants threatened in the wild. When Canberra was being planned in the 1930s, the establishment of the gardens was recommended in a report in 1933 by the Advisory Council of Federal Capital Territory, in 1935, The Dickson Report set forth a framework for their development. A large site for the gardens was set aside on Black Mountain, in September 1949, the Ceremonial planting of first trees by Prime Minister Ben Chifley and Director of Kew Gardens, Sir Edward Salisbury took place. Development of the site and collection progressed and the Gardens were officially opened in October 1970 by Prime Minister John Gorton, the Gardens has tenure over 90 hectares on Black Mountain.
About 40 hectares are currently developed as the Botanic Gardens, plans for the development of the remaining land are on hold until funds are available. The gardens is organised in sections, plants are grouped by shared taxonomy or are presented in ecological groupings that exist in nature. More than 5,500 species are cultivated, displays include, Rainforest Gully, featuring plants for the rainforests of Eastern Australia. Rock Garden, a display of plants occur in habitats from the desert to alpine areas. Sydney Region Flora, a display of the divers flora endemic to the formations of the Sydney basin. Mallee Plants, the mallees is the given to multi-stemmed eucalypts. Banksias and grevilleas Callistemon and Melaleuca The Eucalypt Lawn, wattles The Australian National Herbarium is held on site at the National Botanic Gardens. The Herbarium houses the largest collection of pressed, dried plant specimens in Australia, the Herbarium is operated jointly with the CSIRO as part of a joint research facility, the Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research.
It is not open to the public, a large collection of photographs is available. The Gardens library has significant collections of books, journals, CD-ROMs. The library is open to students and the public by appointment, list of Australian Capital Territory protected areas Australian National Botanic Gardens Whats its name. A searchable database for the Australian Plant Name Index
Nancy Tyson Burbidge
Nancy Tyson Burbidge AO was an Australian systemic botanist and herbarium curator. Burbidge was born in Cleckheaton, her father, William Burbidge, was an Anglican clergyman and she was educated at Katanning Church of England Girls School – founded by her mother Nancy Eleanor. She completed her schooling in 1922 when she graduated from Bunbury High School and she completed her BSc in 1937, and afterwards received a prize to travel to England where she spent 18 months at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. While at Kew she worked on a revision of the Australian grass genus Enneapogon, when Nancy returned to Australia she continued her study of Australian plants through the University of Western Australia, completing her MSc. in 1945. In 1943 she was appointed assistant agronomist at the Waite Agricultural Research Institute in Adelaide and she was appointed to the new position of systematic botanist at the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry, Canberra in 1946. She wrote Key to the South Australian species of Eucalyptus LHér.
but had not specialised on the genus and she edited Australasian Herbarium News until her until 1953, when she took a years leave to be the Australian Botanical Liaison Officer at the Kew Gardens herbarium. While at Kew she photographed and indexed type specimens of Australian plants, when she returned to Australia in 1954 she began a very productive period of her career. Her Dictionary of Australian Plant Genera was published in 1963, and she completed studies of the plant groups Nicotiana, many of her publications included her own drawings. After resigning her position as curator of the herbarium she went on to be involved in the development of the Flora of Australia series. In addition to her books, she wrote over 50 papers on phytogeography, botanical history. Burbidge was interested in conservation and she was a founding member of the National Parks Association of the Australian Capital Territory in 1960, and twice served as its president. She was prominent in the lobby for the establishment of parks in the ACT including Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve and Namadgi National Park.
The Australian Plant Name Index is dedicated to her memory and a peak in Namadgi is named Mount Burbidge in her honour, the Nancy T. Burbidge medal is presented annually by the Australian Systematic Botanists Society for outstanding contribution to taxonomic and systematic botanical work in Australia. Burbidge, Nancy Tyson in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia
A herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study. The term can refer to the building or room where the specimens are housed. The specimens in a herbarium are used as reference material in describing plant taxa. The same term is used in mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi. A xylarium is a herbarium specialising in specimens of wood, the term hortorium has occasionally been applied to a herbarium specialising in preserving material of horticultural origin. During the drying process the specimens are retained within their flimsies at all times to minimise damage, for some plants it may prove helpful to allow the fresh specimen to wilt slightly before being arranged for the press. The sheet is placed in a protective case. As a precaution against insect attack, the plant is frozen or poisoned. Certain groups of plants are soft, bulky, or otherwise not amenable to drying and mounting on sheets, for these plants, other methods of preparation and storage may be used.
For example, conifer cones and palm fronds may be stored in labelled boxes, representative flowers or fruits may be pickled in formaldehyde to preserve their three-dimensional structure. Small specimens, such as mosses and lichens, are often air-dried and packaged in paper envelopes. No matter the method of preservation, detailed information on where and when the plant was collected, habitat and the name of the collector is usually included. The value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the possession of “types”, that is and it is rich in types of Australian plants from the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, and contains in addition many valuable modern collections. Most herbaria utilize a system of organizing their specimens into herbarium cases. Specimen sheets are stacked in groups by the species to which they belong, groups of species folders are placed together into larger, heavier folders by genus. The genus folders are sorted by taxonomic family according to the standard selected for use by the herbarium.
Locating a specimen filed in the herbarium requires knowing the nomenclature and it requires familiarity with possible name changes that have occurred since the specimen was collected, since the specimen may be filed under an older name. Modern herbaria often maintain electronic databases of their collections, many herbaria have initiatives to digitize specimens to produce a virtual herbarium
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy, plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants, botanical nomenclature provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, fossil plants are covered by the code of nomenclature. Botanical nomenclature has a history, going back beyond the period when Latin was the scientific language throughout Europe, to Theophrastus, Dioscorides. Many of these works have come down to us in Latin translations, the principal Latin writer on botany was Pliny the Elder. From Mediaeval times, Latin became the scientific language in Europe. Most written plant knowledge was the property of monks, particularly Benedictine, and it would require the invention of the printing press to make such information more widely available.
Leonhart Fuchs, a German physician and botanist is often considered the originator of Latin names for the increasing number of plants known to science. For instance he coined the name Digitalis in his De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes, a key event was Linnaeus’ adoption of binomial names for plant species in his Species Plantarum. In the nineteenth century it became clear that there was a need for rules to govern scientific nomenclature. These were published in more sophisticated editions. For plants, key dates are 1867 and 1906, the most recent is the Melbourne Code, adopted in 2011. Another development was the insight into the delimitation of the concept of plant, gradually more and more groups of organisms are being recognised as being independent of plants. Nevertheless, the names of most of these organisms are governed by the. Some protists that do not fit easily into either plant or animal categories are treated under either or both of the ICN and the ICZN, a separate Code was adopted to govern the nomenclature of Bacteria, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.
Botanical nomenclature is closely linked to plant taxonomy, and botanical nomenclature serves plant taxonomy, Botanical nomenclature is merely the body of rules prescribing which name applies to that taxon and if a new name may be coined. Plant taxonomy is a science, a science that determines what constitutes a particular taxon
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial