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Australian Staff Corps

The Australian Staff Corps was a small corps of Regular Army officers who were trained in staff duties and who were responsible for the training of the Militia, Australia’s part-time military force, during the inter-war period and in the early years following the Second World War. Members of the corps were graduates of the Royal Military College, Duntroon; the corps was established on 1 October 1920, in the aftermath of the First World War following the demobilisation of the Australian Imperial Force, when Australia's part-time military forces were reorganised to re-assume the main responsibility for the nation's defences. As part of the reorganisation, it was decided to raise a force of two cavalry divisions and five infantry divisions with various supporting arms to be maintained through a mixture of voluntary and compulsory service. To oversee the training and planning for this force, the Australian Staff Corps was established, along with the Australian Instructional Corps; these personnel were posted to Militia units as part of a small Regular training and administration cadre.

The corps' personnel consisted of all officers, except quartermasters, holding substantive commissions within the Permanent Military Force assigned to the existing A & I Staff, the Royal Australian Artillery, the Royal Australian Engineers or the Australian Army Service Corps. In the post Second World War period, the strategic imperatives of the Cold War resulted in the Regular Army taking primacy over part-time forces, the training of part-time soldiers moved towards a more centralised scheme; the raising of regular combat units, including infantry, with corps-specific training schools, negated the need for corps such as the AIC, or the Australian Staff Corps. Amidst these and other changes the Australian Staff Corps was removed from the Order of Precedence in 1983. Footnotes Citations BibliographyBlaxland, John. Strategic Cousins: Australian and Canadian Expeditionary Forces and the British and American Empires. Montreal, Quebec: McGill-Queen’s University Press. ISBN 9780773530355. Grey, Jeffrey.

A Military History of Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69791-0. Millbank, Roland. "Out of Empire: An Introduction to the Story of the Australian Instructional Corps, 1921–1955". Sabretache. Garran, Australian Capital Territory: Military Historical Society of Australia. Vol. XLV: 5–20. ISSN 0048-8933. Horner, David. "Staff Corps Versus Militia: The Australian Experience In World War II". Australian Defence Force Journal. Canberra: Department of Defence: 13–26. ISSN 1444-7150. Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015. Perry, Warren. "The Australian Staff Corps: Its Origin, Duties and Influence from October 1920 to the Outbreak of the War of 1939–45". Sabretache. Garran, Australian Capital Territory: Military Historical Society of Australia. Vol. XXXVI: 30–42. ISSN 0048-8933. Staff Corps collar badge

1987 FIBA Club World Cup

The 1987 FIBA Club World Cup took place at PalaTrussardi, Milan. It was the 21st edition of the FIBA Intercontinental Cup for men's basketball clubs, it was the fourth edition of the competition, held under the name of FIBA Club World Cup. From the FIBA European Champions Cup participated Tracer Milano, Maccabi Elite, Cibona, Žalgiris, FC Barcelona. From the South American Club Championship participated Monte Líbano, Ferro Carril Oeste. Representing the Division I was the State of Washington NCAA All-Stars Team

Super CCD

Super CCD is a proprietary charge-coupled device, developed by Fujifilm since 1999. The Super CCD uses octagonal, rather than rectangular, pixels; this allows a higher horizontal and vertical resolution to be achieved than a traditional sensor of an equivalent pixel count. On January 21, 2003 Fujifilm announced the fourth generation of SuperCCD sensors, in two variations: SuperCCD HR and SuperCCD SR. HR stands for "high resolution" and SR stands for "super dynamic range"; the SR sensor has two photodiodes per photosite, one much larger than the other. Appropriately processing information from both can yield larger black to white range of brightness; the 4th Generation Super CCD HR has sensors placed at 45 degrees to the horizontal. In order to convert the images into the normal horizontal/vertical pixel orientation, it interpolates one pixel between each pair of sensors, thereby producing 12 recorded megapixels from 6 effective megapixels. By contrast, Fujifilm says that 5th Generation Super CCD HR sensors are at 45 degrees but do not interpolate.

However, it omits to explain how the sensors turn the image into horizontal/vertical pixels without interpolating. On July 29, 2005 Fujifilm announced cameras with "5th Generation Super CCD HR sensors", the FinePix S5200 and FinePix S9000; the FinePix F10 and F11 were released in 2005. In 2006 Fuji introduced the 6th generation of the Super CCD sensor; this sensor allows for acceptable image quality at ISO 800. It is built into the FinePix S6500fd bridge camera and the FinePix F-series F30, F20, F31fd and F40fd compact cameras, all of which are accredited for their class leading low-light capabilities. In late 2007 the 7th generation was introduced. Included in Fuijfilm FinePix F50fd; this sensor, although sharp, has decreased ISO performance compared to earlier generations, dropping in quality to average level. When compared to the 6th generation sensor, the individual pixel area on the 7th generation sensor is 1.7× lower reducing the amount of light reaching each pixel. In mid-2008 the 8th generation was introduced, included in Fujifilm FinePix F100fd.

This sensor improves on the lost ISO performance, but does still not seem to compare with the 6th generation sensors. In September 2008 Fujifilm announced a new type of Super CCD sensor, the Super CCD EXR; this sensor aims at combining the advantages of the SR sensor types in a single chip. It uses a new color filter array layout; this sensor is used in the F200EXR, F70EXR and F80EXR point-and-shoot cameras and the S200EXR bridge camera. Both the F200EXR and the S200EXR use the same 12 Megapixel 1/1.6" size sensor while the F70EXR and F80EXR use a 10 Megapixel and 12 Megapixel 1/2" sensor respectively. In 2010, Fujifilm made its last cameras with the Super CCD sensor in the form of the F300EXR and the Z800EXR. Both use the same 1/2" 12 Megapixel SuperCCD EXR sensor with hybrid autofocus system; the camera uses the conventional contrast detection AF and Phase detection AF by means of dedicated pixels to calculate focus. According to Fujifilm, this system was as fast or faster than a DSLR. In 2011, Fujifilm have decided to use Backside illuminated CMOS sensors with conventional square photosited Bayer color pattern array as well as Fujifilm's EXR color filter array that used square photosites that were rotated 45 degrees.

This marked the end of the SuperCCD production. Charge-coupled device


Pachycheilosuchus is an extinct genus of mesoeucrocodylian from the Early Cretaceous of Texas, United States. Known, in part, as the "Glen Rose form", this crocodylomorph is notable for its procoelous vertebrae, otherwise found only in derived eusuchian crocodilians, a thick margin on the maxillae, a shield of armor on the neck formed by the fusion of six individual scutes. Pachycheilosuchus is based on SMU 75278, a right maxilla, with the remains of at minimum 13 other individuals known, representing most of the skeleton except hands and part of the skull; the remains were recovered near the top of the Glen Rose Formation of Erath County in central Texas, in rocks dating from the early Albian faunal stage. The fossils were found in a bonebed in a limestone rock unit, with scattered lenses of mudstone deposited in a shallow, nearshore brackish water setting; the type species is P. trinquei, in honor of Lance Trinque, a field assistant who helped discover and excavate the site where this animal's remains were found.

This genus was named and described by Jack Rogers in 2003. It was not a large crocodylomorph, its body length is estimated as 63.5 centimeters to 80 centimeters. Although the remains are small, it appears that at least some of the individuals were mature, with fusion of parts of individual vertebrae. Additionally, a 49 millimeter-long crocodyloid egg was recovered with the skeletal fossils, is of reasonable size to have come from an individual with a length of 63.5 centimeters, suggesting that some of the individuals were sexually mature. The maxillae had overhanging lips along their outer margins, the tooth row was set away from the margin. One maxilla has an oval puncture mark, 5 millimeters by 6.5 millimeters made by a larger predator. The snout was flat; the vertebrae were procoelous in the neck and part of the tail, the procoelous shape was most developed in the neck vertebrae. Procoely is a type of vertebral articulation, based on the shape of the anterior and posterior faces of the vertebral centrum.

In procoelous vertebrae, the vertebrae articulate with a concave leading surface and a convex posterior surface. The vertebrae of Pachycheilosuchus had a slight dimple or concavity on the posterior surface as well, making these bones different from the procoelous vertebrae that are a hallmark of derived eusuchian crocodilians; because of this difference, because Pachycheilosuchus did not have many of the other features of eusuchians, it evolved procoely independently. The ulna, the major bone of the forearm, is curved. Pachycheilosuchus had among its armor a unique shield of bony scutes for its neck, composed of six individual fused scutes. Using a cladistic analysis, Rogers found that Pachycheilosuchus was most closest to the Atoposauridae; this clade of small crocodylomorphs is known from the Early Cretaceous, includes some members with procoelous vertebrae. Glen Rose crocodylomorph fossils had been known under the informal designation of the "Glen Rose Form". Fossils known under this name include a skull at the National Museum of Natural History and two partial skeletons at the Texas Memorial Museum, along with isolated bones.

With the description of Pachycheilosuchus, it appears. Thus, there were at least two crocodylomorphs in the Glen Rose Formation

Ruth Welting

Ruth Welting was an American operatic soprano who had an active international career from the early 1970s through the mid-1990s. A specialist in the coloratura soprano repertoire, she was associated with the Metropolitan Opera where she performed from 1976 until her retirement from performance in 1994. Endowed with a powerful coloratura voice, she is remembered as one of a few sopranos capable of singing the Mad Scene from Lucia di Lammermoor in the original F major key. Born in Memphis, Welting was the youngest of four sisters, her older sister, Patricia Welting, was a soprano who performed roles at the Metropolitan Opera during the late 1960s. Ruth began studying the piano at the age of 3. While a student at Messick High School she won the Ignacy Jan Paderewski Gold Medal from the National Guild of Piano teachers. After graduating from Messick in 1966, she spent three years studying piano on full scholarship at the University of Memphis where she sang leading roles in student opera productions.

She spent a summer during these years studying voice with Pablo Casals. After her junior year at Memphis State, Welting left the school to become a student at the American Opera Center at the Juilliard School. After only a few months in the program, she toured with the Juilliard Opera to Italy where she performed at the Spoleto Festival USA. What was intended to be a short trip, turned into a long term venture, she remained in Italy, dropped out of Juilliard, spent the next three years studying voice with Luigi Ricci in Rome. She studied voice with Daniel Ferro in New York City and Janine Reiss in Paris. In 1968 she won the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, debuted there in 1976 as Zerbinetta in Richard Strauss's Ariadne auf Naxos, her official operatic debut came as Blonde in Mozart's Die Entführung aus dem Serail. She temporarily retired in 1986-87 due to the murder of Patricia Welting, but resumed work in 1988, she retired in 1994 due to a change of interest, started to pursue government and foreign affairs.

She continued her studies at Syracuse University until she was diagnosed with cancer in early 1999. She died aged 51 in North Carolina, she was the third wife of conductor Edo de Waart. Delibes: Lakmé Donizetti: La fille du régiment, Lucia di Lammermoor, Don Pasquale Humperdinck: Hänsel und Gretel Massenet: Cendrillon Moore: The Ballad of Baby Doe Mozart: Der Schauspieldirektor, Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Die Zauberflöte, Le nozze di Figaro Offenbach: Les contes d'Hoffmann Rossini: The Barber of Seville, Il turco in Italia Sauguet: Les caprices de Marianne R. Strauss: Ariadne auf Naxos, Der Rosenkavalier, Arabella Thomas: Mignon Verdi: Rigoletto Humperdinck: Hänsel und Gretel Massenet: Cendrillon Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier Thomas: Mignon Interview with Ruth Welting, October 20, 1981

Salt and pepper

Salt and pepper is the common name for edible salt and ground black pepper, which are traditionally paired on Western dining tables where food is eaten so as to allow for the additional seasoning of food after its preparation. During food preparation or cooking, they may be added in combination mixed together, they may be considered seasonings. The pairing of salt and pepper as table accessories dates to seventeenth-century French cuisine, which considered black pepper the only spice that did not overpower the true taste of food, they are found in a set of salt and pepper shakers a matched set. Salt and pepper are maintained in separate shakers on the table, but may be mixed in the kitchen; some food writers like Sara Dickerman have argued that, in modern cookery, a new spice could be used in place of the historic ground black pepper. In Hungary, paprika may replace pepper on the dinner table, in Basque cuisine, Espelette pepper replaces black pepper