The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Freeze branding is a branding process that involves the use of liquid nitrogen or dry ice and alcohol to cool a branding iron so that the iron may be used to alter the hair follicle of an animal to remove the pigmentation or to remove the hair altogether, depending on the color of the animal. Hair in the branded area will grow back white. On animals with white hair or no hair, the iron is left on the skin long enough so that the hair falls out and the area is balded or the skin depigmented, it is most used as an identification mark for ownership. Freeze branding is used as an alternative to the more traditional hot branding; this process involves the use of a hot iron to scar an animal's skin, which can be painful and traumatizing to the animal. Freeze branding has been gaining in popularity as a less painful way to permanently mark and identify animals. There has been debate whether freeze branding is less painful than hot branding, but studies conducted to compare the pain of the two methods have concluded that freeze branding is indeed less painful.
Freeze branding is done by cooling the branding iron to a temperature of -78 to -196 degrees Celsius, depending on the coolant used, pressing the brand to a shaved patch of skin on a pigmented animal. The area will heal within a few days; the hair falls out, after two to three months hair will be regrown, without pigment. The hair will continue to grow white from that point onward, so this is still permanent for animals that shed their coats. On white-haired animals, the brand is kept on longer, destroying the hair follicle altogether, the area remains bald, thus the brand can still be used to identify white-haired animals. Freeze branding was developed by Dr. Keith Farrell of Pullman and was first used in Sweden around 1966. Since it has become more popular for use in marking animals for identification, it is a painless and easy way to permanently distinguish animals. There are drawbacks to freeze branding as opposed to hot-iron branding; some of the benefits are that it causes no permanent harm to the animal’s skin, it is far less painful than a hot-iron brand, the freeze brands are visible no matter the time of year, there is less blotching and distortion with a freeze brand.
However freeze branding can have some problems. For example, it takes a lot longer to do properly than a hot brand and requires more specialized equipment; the hair on pigmented animals must grow back in before the brand can be read and results can vary from animal to animal. If it is to be used to denote ownership, some states do not recognize it as a legal brand for designating ownership of livestock. Freeze branding changes the color of the animal’s hair to white without preventing hair growth; this effect is created by killing the hair’s color follicle, causing the hair to grow without pigment. It therefore appears white though it is colorless. If the branding iron is applied for a longer period of time, it will freeze the growth follicle, causing the hair to stop growing entirely. On light colored animals, this is done intentionally to leave a bald patch of dark skin. There are a couple of pieces of equipment necessary for freeze branding; the first is a branding iron, made of a copper alloy because of its temperature holding capacity.
The second is a set of sharp hair clippers, used to expose bare skin. A liquid coolant, either dry ice or liquid nitrogen, will be used as well as a special container that can hold it and the irons. Alcohol is used to clean the area prior to the application of the brand; the alcohol must have a purity of 99%, or else it will not be effective because the other components will begin to freeze, turning the mixture into slush. Where multiple branding is performed, the alcohol is replaced after a time, because it automatically incorporates water from the air into itself. In order to prepare for branding, a site for the brand is selected; this is important for several reasons: First, certain states and counties have different laws on legal brand placement. Another factor is the muscle underneath the skin. If part of the brand is pressed against muscle and the other part against bone, this will cause the pressure exerted on the head of the brand to be uneven; this can result in an uneven brand. The branding irons take 20–30 minutes to cool, the entire iron must be submerged, because if the brand is not evenly cooled the brand itself will be uneven.
Liquid nitrogen cools the iron to a temperature of −196 °C. Dry ice can be used, but does not get as cold, only −78 °C. Before branding, the site of the brand must be shaved as close to the skin as possible and is soaked with alcohol for cleaning, removed and the area is re-wet with the alcohol before applying the iron; the brand is removed from the coolant and pressed to the animal’s hide for a few moments before being returned to the container. The length of time the brand is applied varies based on a number of factors, including composition of the metal the irons are made from, the age of the animal, the thickness of the skin, the color or pigment to the coat, the amount of hair in between the brand and skin. If more than one animal is being branded, the clippers must be washed with liquid solvent in between the shaving of the animals. Additional time is necessary in between brands for the iron to re-cool. Example times given: Darker animals require minimum amount of time suggested. After branding, an indented pattern of the brand shows for a few minutes.
The area begins to exhibit swelling, which will subside after about five days. After a month the top layer of skin will shed and, on pigmented animal
General Stud Book
The General Stud Book is a breed registry for horses in Great Britain and Ireland. More it is used to document the breeding of Thoroughbreds and related foundation bloodstock such as the Arabian horse. Today it is published every four years by Weatherbys. Volume 47 was published in 2013. In 1791, James Weatherby published Introduction to a General Stud Book, an attempt to collect pedigrees for the horses racing and that had raced in the past, it was filled with errors and was not at all complete, but it was popular and led in 1793 to the first volume of the General Stud Book which had many more pedigrees and was more accurate. Volume one was revised many times, the most important being in 1803, 1808, 1827, 1859 and 1891; the General Stud Book has been owned by Weatherbys since. This differs from the American Stud Book, owned by the United States Jockey Club. American Stud Book Australian Stud Book British Racing History
Thoroughbred horse racing is a worldwide sport and industry:(involving the racing of Thoroughbred horses. It is governed by different national bodies. There are two forms of the sport: Flat racing and jump racing, called National Hunt racing in the UK and steeplechasing in the US. Jump racing can be further divided into steeplechasing. Traditionally racehorses have been owned by wealthy individuals, it has become common in the last few decades for horses to be owned by syndicates or partnerships. Notable examples include the 2005 Epsom Derby winner Motivator, owned by the Royal Ascot Racing Club, 2003 Kentucky Derby winner Funny Cide, owned by a group of 10 partners organized as Sackatoga Stable. 2008 Kentucky Derby winner Big Brown, owned by IEAH stables, a horse racing hedgefund organization. Most race horses were bred and raced by their owners. Beginning after World War II, the commercial breeding industry became more important in North America and Australasia, with the result that a substantial portion of Thoroughbreds are now sold by their breeders, either at public auction or through private sales.
Additionally, owners may acquire Thoroughbreds by "claiming" them out of a race. A horse runs in the unique colours of its owner; these colours must be registered under the national governing bodies and no two owners may have the same colours. The rights to certain colour arrangements are valuable in the same way that distinctive car registration numbers are of value, it is said. If an owner has more than one horse running in the same race some slight variant in colours is used or the race club colours may be used; the horse owner pays a monthly retainer or, in North America, a "day rate" to his or her trainer, together with fees for use of the training center or gallops and farrier fees and other expenses such as mortality insurance premiums, stakes entry fees and jockeys' fees. The typical cost of owning a race horse in training for one year is in the order of £15,000 in the United Kingdom and as much as $35,000 at major race tracks in North America; the facilities available to trainers vary enormously.
Some trainers pay to use other trainers' gallops. Other trainers have every conceivable training asset, it is a feature of racing that a modest establishment holds its own against the bigger players in a top race. This is true of national hunt racing. In 1976, Canadian Bound became the first Thoroughbred yearling racehorse to be sold for more than US$1 million when he was purchased at the Keeneland July sale by Canadians, Ted Burnett and John Sikura, Jr. Racing is governed on an All-Ireland basis, with two bodies sharing organising responsibility; the Irish Horseracing Regulatory Board is the rulemaking and enforcement body, whilst Horse Racing Ireland governs and promotes racing. In 2013, Ireland exported more than 4,800 Thoroughbreds to 37 countries worldwide with a total value in excess of €205 million; this is double the number of horses exported annually from the U. S. In Great Britain, Thoroughbred horse racing is governed by the British Horseracing Authority which makes and enforces the rules, issues licences or permits to trainers and jockeys, runs the races through their race course officials.
The Jockey Club in the UK has been released from its regulatory function but still performs various supporting roles. A significant part of the BHA's work relates to the disciplining of trainers and jockeys, including appeals from decisions made by the course stewards. Disciplinary enquiries relate to the running of a horse, for example: failure to run a horse on its merits, interference with other runners, excessive use of the whip; the emergence of internet betting exchanges has created opportunities for the public to lay horses and this development has been associated with some high-profile disciplinary proceedings. In order to run under rules a horse must be registered at Weatherbys as a Thoroughbred, it must reside permanently at the yard of a trainer licensed by the BHA or a permit holder. The horse's owner or owners must be registered as owners. Thoroughbred racing is governed on a state-by-state basis in Australia; the Australian Turf Club administers racing in New South Wales, the Victoria Racing Club is the responsible entity in Victoria, the Brisbane Racing Club was an amalgamation in 2009 of the Queensland Turf Club and Brisbane Racing Club, administers racing in Queensland.
Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne is home to the Melbourne Cup, the richest "two-mile" handicap in the world, one of the richest turf races. The race is held on the first Tuesday in November during the Spring Racing Carnival, is publicised in Australia as "the race that stops a nation". Regulation and control of racing in the United States is fragmented. A state government entity in each American state that conducts racing will license owners and others involved in the industry, set racing dates, enforce drug restrictions and other rules. Pedigree matters and the registration of racing colors, are the province of The Jockey Club, which maintains the American Stud Book and approves the names of all Thoroughbreds; the National Steeplechase Association is the official sanctioning body of American steeplechase horse racing. Regulation of horse racing in Canada is under the Jockey Club of Canada. There are a few racing venues across Canada, but the major events are in Ont
Thoroughbred racing in Australia
Thoroughbred horse racing is an important spectator sport in Australia, gambling on horse races is a popular pastime with A$14.3 billion wagered in 2009/10 with bookmakers and the Totalisator Agency Board. The two forms of Thoroughbred horseracing in Australia are flat racing, races over fences or hurdles in Victoria and South Australia. Thoroughbred racing is the third most attended spectator sport in Australia, behind Australian rules football and rugby league, with two million admissions to 360 registered racecourses throughout Australia in 2009/10. Horseracing commenced soon after European settlement, is now well-appointed with automatic totalizators, starting gates and photo finish cameras on nearly all Australian racecourses. On an international scale Australia has more racecourses than any other nation, it is second to the United States in the number of horses starting in races each year. Australia is third, after the U. S. and Japan for the amount of prize money, distributed annually.
Racing in Australia is administered by the Australian Racing Board, with each state's Principal Racing Authority agreeing to abide by, to enforce, the Australian Rules of Racing. Besides being a spectator sport, horseracing is an industry, which provides full- or part-time employment for 250,000 people, the equivalent of 77,000 jobs. About 300,000 people have a direct interest as individual owners of, or members of syndicates which own, the 30,000 horses in training in Australia. There are bookmakers, over 3,600 registered trainers and more than 1,000 jockeys, plus farriers and veterinarians involved at race meetings alone. Race meetings are oraganised by 374 race clubs that conduct about 2,694 meetings on 360 racecourses around Australia for over $427,245,000 in prize money. Public interest in Thoroughbred racing during the main spring and autumn racing carnivals, has been growing in recent years with over 100,000 attracted to the running of the Melbourne Cup, the Victoria Derby and the VRC Oaks race meets.
The Golden Slipper Stakes, Caulfield Cup and W S Cox Plate are major attractions. The first horses that came to Australia arrived on the Lady Penrhyn with the First Fleet on 26 January 1788, it is thought that they consisted of one stallion, one colt, three mares, two fillies from Cape Town, South Africa. Rockingham was one of the first bloodhorses to be imported into Australia, c.1797. In 1802, the stallion Northumberland and an English mare were imported, followed shortly thereafter by Washington, a stallion from America. Hector, was an important Arabian horse, imported to Australia c.1803 and whose bloodlines have survived in Australian Thoroughbred pedigrees. Northumberland and Hector were the two leading sires in Australia until 1820; these sires and a number of other Arabian stallions contributed to the breeding up of the bloodhorse population prior to 1825. Manto, imported in 1825, was the first General Stud Book recorded Thoroughbred mare known by name to arrive in Australia, her family is still producing winners.
In 1826 the Thoroughbred stallion Peter Fin, mares Cutty Sark and Spaewife, were imported. The first recorded public auction of bloodstock took place in 1805. After the 1830s more English bred horses were imported for racing, as more racing clubs were formed in the country areas of New South Wales. Malua, foaled in 1879, was the most versatile Australian Thoroughbred racehorse, winning classic races on the flat and the VRC Grand National Hurdle before becoming a good sire; the New Zealand bred Carbine was one of the early champions of the Australian turf, was inducted into the Australian Racing Hall of Fame and the New Zealand Racing Hall of Fame. His descendants, the New Zealand bred horses, Phar Lap and Tulloch became champions of the Australian turf. Bernborough, Kingston Town and Makybe Diva were other champions that have been inducted into the Australian Racing Hall of Fame. On 31 March 2011 Black Caviar was rated the best Thoroughbred racehorse in the world by Timeform for the period of 1 October 2010 to 27 March 2011.
Australian Thoroughbred breeding has long been involved in the importation of horses from Europe and the US. The British importations were identified on records with or an asterisk added as a suffix to indicate that they were not locally bred. With the advent of importations from other countries and the use of shuttle stallions that stand at stud in Australia during the northern hemisphere’s winter, these suffixes were replaced by an abbreviated country suffix; these took e.g. and etc.. Australian-bred stallions exported to America have proved successful at stud there; some of these exported horses include, Shannon, Sailor's Guide, Tobin Bronze and Royal Gem. Throughout its history, horseracing has become part of the Australian culture and has developed a rich and colourful language. Horseracing had become well established in and around Sydney by 1810; the first official race meeting was organised by officers of Governor Macquarie's visiting 73rd Regiment and held at Hyde Park, Sydney in October 1810, starting on Monday 15th and continuing on the Wednesday and the Friday.
The Australian Jockey Club held its meetings at Homebush from 1842 to 1859, before moving to Randwick in 1860. The AJC has its headquarters at Randwick; the Sydney Turf Club was formed in 1943 and held races on the Rosehill Gardens track and at Canterbury. This club was the initiator of the world’s richest race for two-year-olds, the Golden Slipper Stakes; the Australian Jockey and Sydney Turf
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Australian Turf Club
Australian Turf Club owns and operates thoroughbred racing and hospitality venues across Sydney, Australia. The ATC came into being on 7 February 2011 when the Australian Jockey Club and the Sydney Turf Club merged; the ATC operates out of their offices at Randwick Racecourse and employs 250 full-time staff and over 1,000 casual staff across the five venues. The venues include Royal Randwick, Rosehill Gardens, Canterbury Park, Warwick Farm and the Rosehill Bowling Club; the Australian Jockey Club was founded in January 1842. It morphed from the former Australian Racing Committee set up in May 1840 to set the standards for racing in the colony. Races were held at the newly established Homebush Course, headquarters of NSW racing until 1860; the AJC was considered the senior racing club in Australia and was responsible for founding the Australian Stud Book, which the combined club still oversees today. The club in conjunction with the Victoria Racing Club, formulated the Rules of Racing that are followed by all Australian race clubs.
The Sydney Turf Club was the youngest of Australia's principal race clubs. It was formed following an Act passed by the New South Wales parliament called the Sydney Turf Club Act; the Act had taken 40 years to draft and gave the club the power to hold 62 race meetings a year at the tracks and empowered it to wind up other proprietary clubs that still existed in the Sydney area through a special Racing Compensation Fund. Both the Australian Jockey Club and the Sydney Turf Club had co-existed as independent bodies since the early 1940s. However, the first push for a merger came at the start of the century, with STC chairman Graeme Pash opening up the possibility of a merger during his tenure. Mentioned in jest by Sydney Morning Herald journalist Craig Young in 2003, the first real push for a merger came with the release of a report by Ernst and Young in June 2009 which recommended that a merger would save the New South Wales racing industry from collapse; the NSW Government pledged $174 million for Sydney racing if the merger went ahead, including a major revitalisation of Randwick racecourse.
The move for a merger was controversial, with members of both clubs hesitant to lose their respective identities. While AJC members voted in favour of a merger, STC members voted against a merger; the board of the STC decided to proceed with a merger. The Australian Jockey and Sydney Turf Clubs Merger Act 2010 merged the two clubs under the name of the Australian Turf Club. Five venues are operated by the ATC: Royal Randwick Racecourse Rosehill Gardens Racecourse Canterbury Park Racecourse Warwick Farm Racecourse Rosehill Bowling Club The Everest Golden Slipper Stakes Rosehill Guineas Canterbury Guineas Sydney Cup Australian Derby Epsom Handicap Doncaster Handicap The Galaxy All Aged Stakes Chipping Norton Stakes Australian Turf Club's Autumn Carnival includes the Longines Golden Slipper Carnival at Rosehill Gardens, followed by race days at Royal Randwick that include Derby Day, Longines Queen Elizabeth Stakes Day and Schweppes All Aged Stakes Day; the Spring features the worlds richest race on turf, $14m The Everest, run in October over 1200m at Royal Randwick.
In 2008 the Autumn Carnival was delayed by four weeks due to the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak. Australian Turf Club website Australian Turf Club Rosehill Gardens Royal Randwick Sydney Carnival