Australian rules football in Europe
Australian rules football is played in Europe at an amateur level in a large number of countries. The oldest and largest leagues are those in the United Kingdom and Denmark, each nation having a number of clubs, organised junior programs and women's football; the British AFL has now expanded into the Welsh and English leagues. The Danish AFL has been responsible for the expansion of Australian Football into Sweden, Finland and Norway; the governing body for Australian Football in Europe was founded in Frankfurt in January 2010. It has 19 member nations. AFL Europe, with backing of the AFL in Australia has overseen a large improvement in the organisation of Australian football in Europe; the sport has grown from a few clubs and leagues started by expatriate Australians and returning nationals in the late 1980s and early 1990s, to now, having large established leagues in over 15 nations, with the majority of players being non-Australian. As of the 2017 edition of the tournament, Denmark, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Finland have sent national teams to the Australian Football International Cup.
The two main cup competitions played between nations in Europe are the 16-a-side European Championships in Australian Football, which are played under rules requiring teams to be composed of locals, the nine-a-side Euro Cup, where expat Australians could be included in the squads under a handicap system. Since 2011 however, teams have to be made up of European nation nationals; as of 2018 AFL Europe organises the Fitzpatrick Cup, AFL Europe Champions League and ANZAC Cup on an annual basis. Cup competitions held in the past have included the Atlantic Alliance Cup and Central European Australian Football League Championships. In addition, there are tests matches played between Great Britain and Ireland, a tri-series between Germany and Sweden, a tri-series between Croatia and the Czech Republic; the Australian rules football club of Andorra formed in early 2008, with plans to compete in the Catalan AFL. Logistical problems saw them withdraw from the league before the first round. Andorra made its first appearance at the WAFF World 9s in September 2008, played in Valls, Catalonia.
The first international goal for the Andorran team was kicked by Sumra Sallis and the team went on to defeat Spain in their first international match. Andorra finished equal third in the competition which included teams from Senegal, Argentina and Spain. France went on to win the final, played against Catalonia. In 2009 the Andorra Crows made their debut in the Catalan AFL; the team's Catalan name is Corbs d'Andorra, which translates at "Ravens", but they use the name Crows when referring to the team in English. Australian rules football in Austria has been played since 2004, when the nation's first club was founded in Vienna; the club began life as the Vienna Dingos, changing their name to the Vienna Kangaroos in 2006. In the same year and doubling as the National Team, the Kangaroos competed in a tri-nations series against Croatia and the Czech Republic. A second club was formed in Graz in 2008, named the Styrian DownUnderDogs; the first game between the two Austrian clubs was played on 25 October 2008 in Styria.
The first Austrian premiership series was contested between the two teams in 2010, with Vienna winning the series 3-2. The Austrian national team was considering attending the 2011 Australian Football International Cup, but set a debut at the 2014 tournament as a more realistic goal. In 2013, the first game between the two clubs in three years was held, which the Styrian DownUnderDogs won with 74:59. Furthermore, the national team of Austria, renamed to the Austrian Avalanche, made it to end 9th out of 12 teams at the EU-Cup in Bordeaux. 2013 was a turning point in Austrian football with the establishment of a local metro league in Graz the home of the Styrian Downunder Dogs. The Styrian Downunder Dogs compete against 5 other Croatian clubs in the Croatian league. Graz and four of the Croatian clubs benefit with an association with their respective universities. Australian rules football was first played in Chatelet in 1919 by Australian soldiers in World War I. Australian rules football has been played in Belgium with a team based in Brussels.
The Brussels Saints have played matches against the Paris Cockerels and teams from around Europe, including winning the 2005 EU Cup, although since this era, the club has gone into recess and is not active. A new Belgian club played matches against Dutch sides Amsterdam and The Hague in late 2012, the first Australian rules football match played by a Belgian team in over five years. Australian rules football in Croatia began with the first official team, known as the Zagreb Giants, in January 2006, although there had been efforts for many years before this to found a team in Zagreb. In 2006, the team began a tri-nations series against the Czech Republic and Austria, winning the first event. In late 2006 plans were laid for a new team in Rijeka called the Sharks, although these did not come to fruition; the Zagreb Giants formed an alliance with Australian Football League club the Hawthorn Hawks, changing their name to the Zagreb Hawks. Croatia's second club was created in 2008 under the name Kapitol Saints, with a series of domestic matches played between the Saints and the Hawks.
This series has continued in 2009
Dragoons were a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility, but dismounted to fight on foot. From the early 18th century onward, dragoons were also employed as conventional cavalry, trained for combat with swords from horseback. Dragoon regiments were established in most European armies during the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the name is derived from a type of firearm, called a "dragon", a handgun version of a blunderbuss, carried by dragoons of the French Army. The title has been retained in modern times by a number of ceremonial mounted regiments; the establishment of dragoons evolved from the practice of sometimes transporting infantry by horse when speed of movement was needed. In 1552 Prince Alexander of Parma mounted several companies of infantry on pack horses to achieve surprise. Another early instance was ordered by Louis of Nassau in 1572 during operations near Mons in Hainaut, when 500 infantry were transported this way, it is suggested the first dragoons were raised by the Marshal de Brissac in 1600.
According to old German literature, dragoons were invented by Count Ernst von Mansfeld, one of the greatest German military commanders, in the early 1620s. There are other instances of mounted infantry predating this; however Mansfeld, who had learned his profession in Hungary and the Netherlands used horses to make his foot troops more mobile, creating what was called an "armée volante". The name derives from an early weapon, a short wheellock called a dragon, because the first dragoons raised in France had their carbine's muzzle decorated with a dragon's head; the practice comes from a time when all gunpowder weapons had distinctive names, including the culverin, falcon, etc. It is sometimes claimed a galloping infantryman with his loose coat and the burning match resembled a dragon, it has been suggested that the name derives from the German "tragen" or the Dutch "dragen", both being the verb "to carry" in their respective languages. Howard Reid claims that the role descend from the Latin Draconarius.
Dragoon is used as a verb to mean to subjugate or persecute by the imposition of troops. The term dates from 1689, at a time when dragoons were being used by the French monarchy to persecute Protestants by forcing Protestants to lodge a dragoon in their house to watch over them, at the householder's expense. Early dragoons were not organized in squadrons or troops as were cavalry, but in companies like the infantry: their officers and non-commissioned officers bore infantry ranks. Dragoon regiments used drummers, not buglers; the flexibility of mounted infantry made dragoons a useful arm when employed for what would now be termed "internal security" against smugglers or civil unrest, on line of communication security duties. During the English Civil War dragoons were used for a variety of tasks: providing outposts, holding defiles or bridges in the front or rear of the main army, lining hedges or holding enclosures, providing dismounted musketeers to support regular cavalry.. In the closing stages of the Battle of Naseby Okey's Dragoons, who had started the action as dismounted musketeers, got on their horses and charged the first time this was done.
Supplied with inferior horses and more basic equipment, the dragoon regiments were cheaper to recruit and maintain than the expensive regiments of cavalry. When in the 17th century Gustav II Adolf introduced dragoons into the Swedish Army, he provided them with a sabre, an axe and a matchlock musket, utilizing them as "labourers on horseback". Many of the European armies henceforth imitated this all-purpose set of weaponry. A non-military use of dragoons was the 1681 Dragonnades, a policy instituted by Louis XIV to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or re-converting to Catholicism by billeting ill-disciplined dragoons in Protestant households. While other categories of infantry and cavalry were used, the mobility and available numbers of the dragoon regiments made them suitable for repressive work of this nature over a wide area. In the Spanish Army, Pedro de la Puente organized a body of dragoons in Innsbruck in 1635. In 1640, a tercio of a thousand dragoons armed with the arquebus was created in Spain.
By the end of the 17th century, the Spanish Army had three tercios of dragoons in Spain, plus three in the Netherlands and three more in Milan. In 1704, the Spanish dragoons were reorganised into regiments by Philip V, as were the rest of the tercios. Towards the end of 1776, George Washington realized the need for a mounted branch of the American military. In January 1777 four regiments of light dragoons were raised. Short term enlistments were abandoned and the dragoons joined for three years, or "the war", they participated in most of the major engagements of the American War of Independence, including the Battles of White Plains, Princeton, Germantown, Saratoga and Monmouth, as well as the Yorktown campaign. Dragoons were at a disadvantage when engaged against true cavalry, sought to improve their horsemanship and social status. By the Seven Years' War the primary role of dragoons in most European armies had progressed from that of mounted infantry to that of heavy cavalry. Earlier dragoon responsibilities for scouting and picket duty had passed to hussars and similar light cavalry corps in the French, Austrian and other armies.
In the Imperial Russian Army, due to the availability of the Cossack troops, the dragoons were retained in their original role for much longer. An exception t
Australian rules football in Canada
Australian rules football is a growing sport in Canada. Australian football is played in six Canadian provinces - Ontario, Nova Scotia and Labrador, Quebec and British Columbia. Saskatchewan is in the formative stages of development; the Ontario league, centred on Toronto but including sides from cities as far afield as Guelph and Ottawa, is considered the largest league outside Australia. In western Canada, there are a six-team league in the Vancouver area. There is a number of junior and women's clubs across Canada; this has increased after the introduction of the Aussie x program in Ontario and Vancouver. The performance of Canadian Mike Pyke in the 2012 AFL Grand Final has brought added publicity to the game of Australian Football in Canada. Between 1987 and 1989, the Australian Football League staged several exhibition matches in Canada, attracting large crowds and much interest; the 1987 game holds the record for a VFL/AFL match held outside Australia. In the late 1980s, regional ESPN broadcasts in Canada showed highlights of the Victorian Football League from Australia.
The Canadian Australian Football League was established in May 1989 when two clubs, the Mississauga Mustangs and the Toronto Panthers, were formed and played in the inaugural Conacher Cup game in Toronto, Ontario. Since the game of Australian football in Canada has expanded nationwide. In 1990, the Scarborough Rebels, the North York Hawks and the Hamilton Wildcats joined, with the Balmy Beach Saints coming on board in 1992; the North York Hawks relocated and became known as the Broadview Hawks. The Brampton Wolverines, the league's seventh team, were formed in 1993; the Scarborough Rebels became the Lawrence Park Rebels. In 1993, a Canadian representative team, known as the Northwind, beat a British representative team. In 1994 and 1995, the Canadians again defeated the British at home. In 1995, several local CAFA games were broadcast on a Hamilton cable television channel. In July 1995, the Hamilton Wildcats played a Canadian All-Star team in front of 21,000 fans during the half-time break at a Canadian Football League match.
In 1999, the first USA v Canada game was played. The Revolution narrowly defeated Team Canada. Matches enforced strict rules based on player origins; the 49th Parallel Cup is held every two years. In 2002, Canada participated in the inaugural Australian Football International Cup, with Canada represented by the Northwind team consisting purely of Canadian-born players; the Canadian national team has competed in every International Cup since its inception and now competes with its national women's team named the Northern Lights. In 2003, the first junior league in Canada, the North Delta Junior Australian Football League, was formed. AFL Canada was formed as governing body on 30 July 2004, when the Canadian Australian Football League changed its official name; the move corresponded with funding from the Australian Football League, a junior participation program was put in place. The clubs were split into two regional leagues, the Ontario Australian Football League and the North West Pacific Football League.
The remaining Alberta-based clubs participate in AFL Canada organised regional conferences such as the British Columbia Cup. In 2005, the Northwind participated in the 2005 International Cup. In early 2006, AFL Canada sent a small delegation to the AFL exhibition match in Los Angeles. London and Windsor folded due to distance but the new OAFL club, the Central Blues and began competing. In Alberta, the Calgary Bears formed and the Westcoast challenge commenced. In early 2007, the Ottawa Swans formed, affiliated with the OAFL, the Demons relocated from Mississauga to High Park in Toronto. In late 2007, AFL Canada hosted the Ironbark challenge, including the 49th Parallel Cup between Canada vs United States, including historic first women's and junior tests between the two countries. Canada defeated the United States for the first time at both senior and junior level, but were soundly defeated in the women's match; the tournament included a touring Japanese team and attracted a record attendance of 2,500 at Thunderbird Stadium in Vancouver.
In early 2008, Canadian junior Scott Fleming moved to Australia to play with the Broadbeach Cats semi-professional club in the AFL Queensland State League at 17 years of age. The same year, former Canadian rugby union international Mike Pyke was signed by the Sydney Swans AFL team as an international rookie at 24 years of age. Andrew McGrath, born in Canada, was drafted first overall in the 2016 AFL draft by Essendon. Kendra Heil has signed with Collingwood of AFL Women's; the governing body for Aussie Rules in Canada is AFL Canada. Team Canada for men is known as the Northwind. Team Canada for women is known as the Northern Lights. In 2006, there were over 420 senior Australian rules football players in Canada out of a total of 484, an increase of 25% from 2005. By the end of 2007, this figure had increased to a total of 825 players in organised competitions, of which 525 were senior and 300 were junior, an increase of over 70% from 2006, a total of 95% increase over 2 years. Canada boasts 9 women's football clubs nationwide.
Youth girls development programs operate in Alberta, British Columbia and Quebec. The national team, formed in 2007, is known as the "Northern Lights", they were known as the "Eagles". They played in the first women's international footy matches during 2007, when they lost twice to the USA Freedom. In 2011 the national women's team competed in the inaugural women's division of
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Gujranwala is a city in Punjab, located north of the nearby provincial capital of Lahore. The city is Pakistan's 7th most-populous metropolitan area, its 5th most populous city proper. Founded in the 18th century, Gujranwala is a modern town compared to the many nearby millennia-old cities of northern Punjab; the city served as the capital of the Sukerchakia Misl state between 1763 and 1799, is the birthplace of the founder of the Sikh Empire, Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Gujranwala is now Pakistan's third largest industrial centre after Karachi and Faisalabad, contributes 5% of Pakistan's national GDP; the city is part of a network of large urban centres in north-east Punjab province that forms one of Pakistan's highly industrialized regions. Along with the nearby cities of Sialkot and Gujrat, Gujranwala forms part of the so-called Golden Triangle of industrial cities with export-oriented economies. Gujranwala's name means "Abode of the Gujjars" in Punjabi, was named in reference to the Gujjar tribe of nomads and grazers that live in northern Punjab.
One local narrative suggests that town was named in reference to a specific Gujjar, Choudhry Gujjar, owner of the town's Persian wheel that supplied water to the town. Evidence suggests, that the city derives its name from Serai Gujran - a village once located near what is now Gujranwala's Khiyali Gate; the exact origins of Gujranwala are unclear. Unlike the ancient nearby cities of Lahore and Eminabad, Gujranwala is a modern city, it may have been established as a village in the middle of the 16th century. Locals traditionally believe that Gujranwala's original name was Khanpur Shansi, though recent scholarship suggests that the village was Serai Gujran instead - a village once located near what is now Gujranwala's Khiyali Gate, mentioned by several sources during the 18th century invasion of Ahmad Shah Durrani. Following the 1707 death of the last of the great Mughal emperors and the subsequent decline of Mughal power, various Sikh states came to control the region around what is now modern Gujranwala.
Charat Singh, ruler of the Sukerchakia Misl Sikh estate and the local Muslim chief Muhammad Yar joined forces to defeat Nader Shah's 1738 invasion of the region, which would culminate in the sacking of Delhi. Charat Singh had a fort built in the area between 1756 and 1758, laid siege to in September 1761 by Khwaja Ubaid, Governor of Lahore, he elevated the city to status of capital of his Misl in 1763. Charat Singh's grandson Ranjit Singh was born in Gujranwala in 1780 in the city's Purani Mandi market, would established the Sikh Empire that would control Punjab until the arrival of the British. Maharaja Ranjit Singh maintained Gujranwala as his capital after rising to power in 1792, his military commander, Hari Singh Nalwa, built a high mud wall around Gujranwala during this era, established the city's new grid street-plan that exists until present day. Gujranwala remained Ranjit Singh's capital until he captured the nearby old Mughal capital of Lahore from the Durranis in 1799, at which point the capital was moved there, leading to the relative decline of Gujranwala in favour of Lahore.
Maharani Jind Kaur, the last queen of Ranjit Singh and mother of Maharaja Duleep Singh, was born in Gujranwala in 1817. By 1839, the city's bazaars were home to an estimated 500 shops, while the city had been surrounded by a number of pleasure gardens, including one established by Hari Nalwa Singh, famous for its vast array of exotic plants; the area was captured by the British Empire in 1848, developed thereafter. Gujranwala was incorporated as a municipality in 1867, the city's Brandreth and Lahori Gates built atop the site of a Sikh-era gates were completed in 1869. A new clocktower was built in central Gujranwala to mark the city's centre in 1906. Christian missionaries were brought to the region during British colonial rule, Gujranwala became home to numerous churches and schools; the city's first Presbyterian Church was established in 1875 in the Civil Lines area - a settlement built one mile north of the old city to house Gujranwala's European population. A theological seminary was established in 1877, a Christian technical school in 1900.
The North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities in British India by rail in 1881. The major Sikh higher learning institution, Gujranwala Guru Nanak Khalsa College, was founded in Gujranwala in 1889, though it shifted to Ludhiana; the nearby Khanki Headworks were completed in 1892 under British rule, helped irrigate 3 million acres in the province. Gujranwala's population, according to the 1901 census of British India, was 29,224; the city continued to grow for the remainder of British rule. Riots erupted in Gujranwala following the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in Amritsar in April 1919, were the most violent reaction to the British massacre in all of the Indian Subcontinent. Riots lead to the damage of the city's railway station, burning of the city's Tehsil Office, Clock Tower, Dak Bangla, city courts. Much of the city's historical record was burnt in the attacked offices. Protestors in the city, nearby villages, a procession from Dhullay were fired upon with machine-guns mounted to low-flying planes, subjected to aerial bombardment from the Royal Air Force under the control of Reginald Edward Harry Dyer.
According to the 1941 census, 269,528 out of the Gujranwala District's 912,234 residents were non-Muslim. 70% of Gujranwala city residents were Muslims prior to Partition, though non-Muslims controlled much of the city's economy. Hindus and Sikhs together owned two thirds of Gujranwala's properties. Sikhs were concentrated in the localities of Guru
Australian rules football in England
Australian rules football in England is a team sport and spectator sport with a long history and has grown since 1989 to a number of local and regional leagues coordinated by AFL England. In 2018, these regional divisions will be the AFL London, AFL Central & Northern England and Southern England AFL. Australian rules football exhibition matches have been held in London every few years since 1972 and have been well attended. In 1883, during a visit to Australia, English journalist and rugby player Richard Twopeny wrote of Australian Football: A good football match in Melbourne is one of the sights of the world... The quality of the play... is much superior to anything the best English clubs can produce... There is much more'style' about the play. Australian rules football was played by a British representative rugby team which toured Australia in 1888; the team arrived in Tasmania on 18 April. They attended a social function with the Southern Tasmanian Football Association, before going to New Zealand for a series of rugby matches.
After they returned to Australia they again trained in Australian rules in Sydney, before leaving for Victoria in mid-June. The tour included, they played against several of the stronger football clubs from Melbourne including the Carlton Football Club, South Melbourne Football Club, Essendon Football Club, Fitzroy Football Club and Port Melbourne Football Club. Additionally, they played against some strong regional Victorian clubs including two teams from Ballarat, the Ballarat Football Club and Ballarat Imperials, as well as two teams from Bendigo as well as playing against the Castlemaine Football Club, Maryborough Football Club, Horsham Football Club and Kyneton Football Club; the team played against several of the stronger South Australian teams including South Adelaide Football Club, Port Adelaide Football Club, Adelaide Football Club, Norwood Football Club. The only club from outside of Victoria or South Australia which played against them was the Maitland Football Club; the British team won six matches, including a win over Port Adelaide at Adelaide Oval on 10 July 1888, drew one.
The reigning Victorian premiers, Carlton defeated Great Britain at the MCG 14.17 to 3.8. At this stage goals and points were recorded but only goals counted in the score. Great Britain played 35 games of rugby, making a total of 54 games in 21 weeks. A star of the team's Australian rules games was Andrew Stoddart, who captained the team for part of its tour and captained England in cricket; the 1888 tour had been organised by the English cricketer Arthur Shrewsbury but his involvement with Australian Rules football did not end there. He planned to have an Australian team sent to the United Kingdom to play a series of demonstration matches and to that end he looked to Scotland where he had identified possible opponents. Shrewsbury's plans are outlined in his correspondence with Alfred Shaw and Turner, the Nottingham Cricket Club Secretary. Between 1870 and World War I many overseas students studied medicine in Scotland, some went down to England to play the Australian Rules teams in that country.
On 14 April 1888, the Edinburgh Australians played an Australian Rules game against the University of London at Balham, a match which drew considerable praise in UK newspapers such as the Times and the Scotsman. Shrewsbury suggested that the'Edinburgh Australians' team at Edinburgh University should travel down to England to meet the Australian team in a series of demonstration matches in Lancashire and Yorkshire, his bold plan did not eventuate as the authorities in Australia aborted the venture and a possible expansion of Australian Rules in the UK was lost. In 1916, a match was held at the Queen's Club in London between Australian Army teams, representing the Combined Training Units and the 3rd Division, in which many senior Australian rules footballers from all over Australia took part. However, the end of World War I put an end to organised Australian rules competition in England. After the war, in 1921, the annual Oxford University–Cambridge University Varsity match was played for the first time between expatriate Australian students.
This game is still played, is the longest running Australian rules fixture outside Australia. The match is an official Varsity competition. Over the years, some distinguished Australians to have played in the match include Mike Fitzpatrick, Chris Maxwell, Joe Santamaria, Sir Rod Eddington and Andrew Michelmore. Men's ResultsIn 2018, amid the growth of the sport in England, there was the first women's Australian Rules Football Varsity, ending in a tie. Women's Results RAAF. In November of the same year, a game was played in Sussex between No.11 Personnel despatch and Reception centre team based in Brighton vs RAAF Headquarters from London. Teams representing RAAF, Headquarters vs Sunderland, met in Hyde Park in 1944 in front of a sizeable crowd. Headquarters defeated Sunderland 12.7 to 5.4. In 1967, a charity match was played in Regent's Park in London, attracting a crowd of 1,000 spectators, it was followed by matches arranged against Royal Australian Navy personnel and local school sides and rugby clubs.
A league was formed which by 1970 had six teams, including two English rugby sides which used the sport to keep fit in the off-season. Among the supporters were Rolf Harris, Barry Humphries and Michael Cyril Ha
Australian rules football in Africa
Australian rules football in Africa is only played at an organised level in South Africa, although there are programs under development in Ghana, Kenya and Zimbabwe, there have been attempts to introduce the sport in other African nations. The first African born person to play Australian rules football professionally in the VFL/AFL was South African born Stephen Lawrence, while the first indigenous African born in Africa to play in the AFL was South African born Damien Cupido. Majak Daw, born in Sudan, was the first African to be born outside South Africa drafted into the AFL. Australian rules football had been played in South Africa since around the time of the Boer War, although there was an eighty-year period between World War I and the 1990s when the sport was not played at any level. In recent times, South Africa has been home to an increased amount of effort in introducing the sport both from the Australian Football League and the South African Government; the sport is now played in the North West Province and there are plans to increase registered playing numbers nationwide to 20,000 by 2008.
The sport is controlled by the AFL South Africa. The government of Botswana approached the AFL in 2009 with a view to extending the FootyWILD program from South Africa across the border into Botswana. Australian football in South Africa began in the North West Province, an area bordering Botswana and with numerous cultural and historical ties to the neighboring country. Australian football was played on a non-organised level in Ghana in 2007, where traveling Australians played with children. In early 2009, AFL club the Western Bulldogs announced that they were in talks with Azumah Nelson regarding the introduction of Australian rules football at the Azumah Nelson Foundation Sports Academy. Nelson was quoted as saying "Once we become familiar with handling the oval shaped ball, I am sure that Ghana will produce many champions for the AFL Clubs in Australia" The Bulldogs stated that they may travel to Ghana to visit the AZNEF Sports Academy in future. There have been efforts to start the sport at junior level since 2004.
Gus Horsey from the Baltimore Washington Eagles from the United States Australian Football League visited the country in February and September, running several footy clinics and organising a grand final between four local teams in Nairobi. During Horsey's second visit to Kenya to coach Australian rules, he trained over 100 children after school with help from local soccer coaches, although plans through USFooty Kids to continue the clinics in the future did not go ahead; the AFL reported in 2009 that junior clinics were being conducted in Kenya under the same model as FootyWILD in South Africa. Australian rules football was played sporadically in Senegal during the 1990s, after Darwin-based Mark Moretti visited Dakar for two months in 1991. Moretti had introduced the sport to local children as an example of overseas culture, but there was interest from both the children and some local soccer administrators in continuing the sport; when Moretti returned in 1997 there had not been any progress, so he organised some footballs and other material to be sent to Senegal and the country was represented at the International Australian Football Council AGM in Darwin in 1999.
Around this time, two teams were established, named the Crocodiles and the Hares, but the sport has since disappeared in the country. A team representing Senegal appeared at the "World 9s" in Catalonia in 2008, consisting of Senegalese nationals resident in Spain and competing in the Catalan AFL. Non-organised Australian football at junior level featuring locals has been played in Uganda in 2006. Australian football was played on an informal basis in Western Sahara in 2008; the sport of Australian rules football is in its early stages of development in Zimbabwe, with Australian Football Zimbabwe in the planning stage, with its main aims being to combine Aussie rules football as a developing sport, with health clinics and information sessions to be run to assist disadvantaged and sick children. Some Australians of African descent have played professionally in the Australian Football League, including Afro-Brazilian Heritier Lumumba and African Americans Dwayne Armstrong and Sanford Wheeler. Ethiopian refugee Goaner Tutlan was trialled by Essendon in 2004, although he did not play senior football.
The Sudanese, Ethiopian and Eritrean refugee communities in Melbourne have attracted some attention as a future source of AFL talent, with clubs in suburbs such as Flemington seeing increasing numbers of African players. Sudanese-born Majak Daw began playing for the Western Jets in the elite U-18 TAC Cup in Victoria in 2009. Daw was considered for drafting by Footscray and North Melbourne. On 15 December 2009, Daw was drafted to North Melbourne's rookie list, becoming the first AFL player from Sudan and reported the first African-born AFL player. Sudanese refugee Mayong Akoon played in the TAC Cup with the Calder Cannons in 2005. A team known as Team Africa, drawn from various Melbourne African communities, competed in the 2008 Australian Football International Cup's Multicultural Challenge, playing matches against South Africa, Tonga and an Asian community side dubbed Team Asia, a number of whom played for the Elgar Park Dragons. Team Africa's players were from countries including Somalia, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa and Djibouti