A wiki is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser. In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and edited with the help of a rich-text editor. A wiki is run using wiki software, otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system, but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software, in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, wikis have little inherent structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems; some wiki engines are open source. Some permit control over different functions. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content; the online encyclopedia project Wikipedia is the most popular wiki-based website, is one of the most viewed sites in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles. Ward Cunningham, the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work". "Wiki" is a Hawaiian word meaning "quick". Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. Instead, it seeks to involve the typical visitor/user in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that changes the website landscape. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear, evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, Steve Wheeler write that the open wikis produce a process of Social Darwinism. "'Unfit' sentences and sections are ruthlessly culled and replaced if they are not considered'fit', which results in the evolution of a higher quality and more relevant page. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page." Some wikis have an Edit button or link directly on the page being viewed, if the user has permission to edit the page. This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode.
An example of this is the VisualEditor on Wikipedia. WYSIWYG controls do not, always provide
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
A reference work is a book or periodical to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found when needed. Reference works are referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end; the writing style used in these works is informative. Many reference works are compiled by a team of contributors whose work is coordinated by one or more editors rather than by an individual author. Indices are provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some cases annually. Reference works include dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs and catalogs. Many reference works are available in electronic form and can be obtained as application software, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or online through the Internet. A reference work is useful to its users. In comparison, a reference book or reference-only book in a library is one that may only be used in the library and may not be borrowed from the library. Many such books are reference works, which are used or photocopied from, therefore, do not need to be borrowed.
Keeping reference books in the library assures that they will always be available for use on demand. Some reference-only books are too valuable to permit borrowers to take them out. Reference-only items may be shelved in a reference collection located separately from circulating items; some libraries consist or to a large extent, of books which may not be borrowed. An electronic resource is a piece of information, stored electronically, found on a computer, including information, available on the internet. Libraries offer numerous types of electronic resources, such as subject research guides, electronic books and texts, electronic journals, library catalogs, reference sources, statistical sources, sound recordings, image databases. Plagiarism GeneralAmerican Reference Books Annual: ARBA. Littleton, Col.: Libraries Unlimited, 1970- Bergenholtz, H. Nielsen, S. Tarp, S.: Lexicography at a Crossroads: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias Today, Lexicographical Tools Tomorrow. Peter Lang 2009. ISBN 978-3-03911-799-4 Higgens, G. ed.
Printed Reference Material London: Library Association Katz, W. A. Introduction to Reference Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Nielsen, Sandro "The Effect of Lexicographical Information Costs on Dictionary Making and Use". In: Lexikos 18, 170-189. Guides to reference worksSheehy's Guide is less international in its scope than Walford: "It seems that Walford is a somewhat better balanced work than Winchell, is much more comprehensive"--American Reference Books Annual, quoted in Walford, A. J. Walford's Concise Guide to Reference Material. London: Library Association ISBN 0-85365-882-X. Heeks, P. comp. Books of Reference for School Libraries: an annotated list. Les sources du travail bibligraphique. 3 vols. in 4. Geneva: Droz, 1950-58 Sheehy, E. P. et al. comps. Guide to Reference Books. Aufl. hrg. von W. Totok, K.-H. Weimann, R. Weitzel. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann Day, Alan. Walford's Guide to Reference Material. London: Library Association Publishing. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Walford, A. J.. Walford's Guide to Reference Material.
London: Library Association
Allusion is a figure of speech, in which an object or circumstance from unrelated context is referred to covertly or indirectly. It is left to the audience to make the direct connection. Where the connection is directly and explicitly stated by the author, it is instead termed a reference. In the arts, a literary allusion puts the alluded text in a new context under which it assumes new meanings and denotations, it is not possible to predetermine the nature of all the new meanings and inter-textual patterns that an allusion will generate. Literary allusion is related to parody and pastiche, which are "text-linking" literary devices. In a wider, more informal context, an allusion is a passing or casually short statement indicating broader meaning, it is an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication, such as "In the stock market, he met his Waterloo." In the most traditional sense, allusion is a literary term, though the word has come to encompass indirect references to any source, including allusions in film or the visual arts.
In literature, allusions are used to link concepts that the reader has knowledge of, with concepts discussed in the story. In the field of film criticism, a film-maker's intentionally unspoken visual reference to another film is called an homage, it may be sensed that real events have allusive overtones, when a previous event is inescapably recalled by a current one. "Allusion is bound up with a vital and perennial topic in literary theory, the place of authorial intention in interpretation", William Irwin observed, in asking "What is an allusion?"Without the hearer or reader's comprehending the author's intention, an allusion becomes a decorative device. Allusion is an economical device, a figure of speech that uses a short space to draw upon the ready stock of ideas, cultural memes or emotion associated with a topic. Thus, an allusion is understandable only to those with prior knowledge of the covert reference in question, a mark of their cultural literacy; the origin of allusion is in the Latin verb ludere, lusus est "to play with, jest."
Recognizing the point of allusion's condensed riddle reinforces cultural solidarity between the maker of the allusion and the hearer: their shared familiarity with allusion bonds them. Ted Cohen finds such a "cultivation of intimacy" to be an essential element of many jokes; some aspect of the referent must be identified for the tacit association to be made. Addressing such issues is an aspect of hermeneutics. William Irwin remarks that allusion moves in only one direction: "If A alludes to B B does not allude to A; the Bible does not allude to Shakespeare, though Shakespeare may allude to the Bible." Irwin appends a note: "Only a divine author, outside of time, would seem capable of alluding to a text." This is the basis for Christian readings of Old Testament prophecy, which asserts that passages are to be read as allusions to future events due to Jesus's revelation in Luke 24:25-27. Allusion differs from the similar term intertextuality in that it is an intentional effort on the author's part.
The success of an allusion depends in part on at least some of its audience "getting" it. Allusions may be made obscure, until at last they are understood by the author alone, who thereby retreats into a private language. In discussing the richly allusive poetry of Virgil's Georgics, R. F. Thomas distinguished six categories of allusive reference, which are applicable to a wider cultural sphere; these types are: Casual Reference, "the use of language which recalls a specific antecedent, but only in a general sense", unimportant to the new context. A type of literature has grown round explorations of the allusions in such works as Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock or T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land. In Homer, brief allusions could be made to mythic themes of generations previous to the main narrative because they were familiar to the epic's hearers: one example is the theme of the Calydonian boarhunt. In Hellenistic Alexandria, literary culture and a fixed literary canon known to readers and hearers made a densely allusive poetry effective.
Martin Luther King, Jr. alluded to the Gettysburg Address in starting his "I Have a Dream" speech by saying'Five score years ago...". King's allusion called up parallels in two historic moments without overwhelming his speech with details. A sobriquet is an allusion. By metonymy one aspect of a p
"A. E. I. O. U." was a symbolic device used by Habsburg emperor Frederick III, who had a fondness for mythical formulae. He habitually signed buildings such as Burg Wiener Neustadt or Graz Cathedral as well as his tableware and other objects with the vowel graphemes; as of 2017, A. E. I. O. U. is the motto of the Theresian Military Academy, established in 1751. Frederick's first use of the five-letter monogram was in 1437. One note in his notebook, though not in the same hand, explains it in German and Latin as "All the world is subject to Austria". Another passage in the same notebook, uses the letters in sequence as the initial letters of the words in the first line of a couplet poem, showing the meaning as "I am loved by the elect". Other interpretations have been put forth by contemporary heraldists. Several explanations proceed on the assumption that it was meant as a political slogan, from the Latin phrases: Austria est imperio optime unita. Austria erit in orbe ultima. Austriae est imperare orbi universo.
Since Friderick wrote this acronym when he was not yet the ruler of the Archduchy of Austria and at that time, Styria was separated from Austria and was not considered to be its part until the next century, the term "Austria" in this context would not mean Austria as a territory or a nation, but rather the "House of Austria", that is, the Habsburg dynasty. More than 300 Latin and German interpretations have been attempted over the centuries. Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus – the motto of Ferdinand I. FERT – Another motto of a European dynasty whose meaning and origin is unclear. In his novel Ulysses, Irish novelist James Joyce uses the device for comic effect after Stephen Dedalus borrows money from George Russell, a Dublin writer whose pen name was AE: "A. E. I. O. U." Andrew Wheatcroft's The Habsburgs: Embodying Empire, ISBN 0-14-023634-1. Media related to A. E. I. O. U. At Wikimedia Commons
Information systems are formal, organizational systems designed to collect, process and distribute information. In a sociotechnical perspective, information systems are composed by four components: task, people and technology. A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or interprets information; the term is sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system. Information Systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, process and distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a definitive boundary, processors, inputs and the aforementioned communication networks. Any specific information system aims to support operations and decision-making. An information system is the information and communication technology that an organization uses, the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes.
Some authors make a clear distinction between information systems, computer systems, business processes. Information systems include an ICT component but are not purely concerned with ICT, focusing instead on the end use of information technology. Information systems are different from business processes. Information systems help to control the performance of business processes. Alter argues for advantages of viewing an information system as a special type of work system. A work system is a system in which humans or machines perform processes and activities using resources to produce specific products or services for customers. An information system is a work system whose activities are devoted to capturing, storing, retrieving and displaying information; as such, information systems inter-relate with data systems on the one hand and activity systems on the other. An information system is a form of communication system in which data represent and are processed as a form of social memory. An information system can be considered a semi-formal language which supports human decision making and action.
Information systems are the primary focus of study for organizational informatics. Silver et al. provided two views on IS that includes software, data and procedures. Zheng provided another system view of information system which adds processes and essential system elements like environment, boundary and interactions; the Association for Computing Machinery defines "Information systems specialists focus on integrating information technology solutions and business processes to meet the information needs of businesses and other enterprises."There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, learning management systems, database management systems, office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, controlling many simultaneous processes.
Information technologies are a important and malleable resource available to executives. Many companies have created a position of chief information officer that sits on the executive board with the chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief operating officer, chief technical officer; the CTO may serve as CIO, vice versa. The chief information security officer focuses on information security management; the six components that must come together in order to produce an information system are: Hardware: The term hardware refers to machinery. This category includes the computer itself, referred to as the central processing unit, all of its support equipment. Among the support, equipment are input and output devices, storage devices and communications devices. Software: The term software refers to computer programs and the manuals that support them. Computer programs are machine-readable instructions that direct the circuitry within the hardware parts of the system to function in ways that produce useful information from data.
Programs are stored on some input/output medium a disk or tape. Data: Data are facts that are used by programs to produce useful information. Like programs, data are stored in machine-readable form on disk or tape until the computer needs them. Procedures: Procedures are the policies that govern the operation of a computer system. "Procedures are to people what software is to hardware" is a common analogy, used to illustrate the role of procedures in a system. People: Every system needs people if it is to be useful; the most overlooked element of the system are the people the component that most influence the success or failure of information systems. This includes "not only the users, but those who operate and service the computers, those who maintain the data, those who support the network of computers." <Kroenke, D. M.. MIS Essentials. Pearson Education>'. D
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea