The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Austria at the 2008 Summer Olympics
Austria sent a team to compete at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Track & road eventsField eventsWomen Track & road events Qualification Legend: QS = Qualify to semi-final. Men MenWomen MenWomenOpenM = Medal race. SinglesTeam Four Austrian beach volleyball teams had qualified for the Olympics, but the women's team Montagnolli - Swoboda was replaced by the Swiss team Kuhn - Schwer, because of medical reasons. There are now three beach volley teams in the games: Austria at the 2008 Summer Paralympics Austria NOC
Austria at the 2000 Summer Olympics
Austria competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 92 competitors, 55 men and 37 women, took part in 68 events in 17 sports. Men's 100 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 10.41 Round 2 — 10.44 Men's 200 m Martin Lachkovics Round 1 — 21 Men's 110 m Hurdles Elmar Lichtenegger Round 1 — 13.65 Round 2 — 13.73 Semifinal — 13.59 Men's 3,000 m Steeplechase Günther Weidlinger Round 1 — 08:24.07 Final — 08:26.70 Men's Javelin Throw Gregor Hoegler Qualifying — 80.89 Men's marathon Michael Buchleitner Final — 2:19:26 Men's Decathlon Klaus Ambrosch 100 m — 11.01 400 m — 50.23 100 m Hurdles — 14.92 1,500 m — 04:40.94 Shot Put — 15.30 Discus Throw — 41.22 Javelin Throw — 67.94 Long Jump — 7.17 High Jump — 1.91 Pole Vault — 4.60Points — 7917.00 Women's 100 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 11.50 Women's 200 m Karin Mayr Round 1 — 23.90 Women's 800 m Stephanie Graf Round 1 — 01:58.39 Semifinal — 01:57.56 Final — 01:56.64 Women's 5,000 m Susanne Pumper Round 1 — 15:16.66 Women's Shot Put Valentina Fedjuschina Qualifying — 17.84 Final — 17.14 Women's High Jump Linda Horvath Qualifying — 1.89 Women's Pole Vault Doris Auer Qualifying — 4.30 Final — 4.25 Nikolas Berger and Oliver Stamm — 9th place Women's Kayak Singles 500 m Uschi Profanter Qualifying Heat — 01:56.118 Semifinal — 01:55.626 Final — 02:20.598 Men's Kayak Singles Helmut Oblinger Qualifying — 253.94 Final — 226.45 Manuel Koehler Qualifying — 255.79 Final — 226.80 Women's Kayak Singles Violetta Oblinger-Peters Qualifying — 308.48 Final — 282.29 Men's Individual Time Trial Rene Haselbacher Final — 1:02:38 Men's Road Race Peter Wrolich Final — 5:30:46 Gerrit Glomser Final — 5:30:46 Matthias Buxhofer Final — 5:30:46 Rene Haselbacher Final — DNF Men's Point Race Franz Stocher Points — 8 Laps Down — 1 Men's Madison Werner Riebenbauer, Roland Garber Final — 10 points Women's Point Race Michaela Brunngraber Points — 0 Men's 3 Metre Springboard Richard Frece Preliminary — 328.68 Women's 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff Preliminary — 206.55 Women's 10 Metre Platform Anja Richter-Libiseller Preliminary — 314.31 Semi-final — 168.78- 483.09 Final — 313.38-482.16 Women's Synchronized 10 Metre Platform Marion Reiff, Anja RichterLib Final — 294 Six fencers, five men and one woman, represented Austria in 2000.
Men's foilBenny Wendt Michael LudwigMen's épéeOliver Kayser Christoph Marik Michael SwitakMen's team épéeOliver Kayser, Christoph Marik, Michael SwitakWomen's épéeAndrea Rentmeister Four men and one woman participated in the sailing competition for Austria. They won two gold medals. MenWomenOpen MenWomen Men's 400 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 04:03.66 Men's 1500 m Freestyle Hannes Kalteis Preliminary Heat — 15:32.90 Men's 200 m Butterfly Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:01.20 Men's 100 m Breaststroke Patrick Schmollinger Preliminary Heat — 01:02.87 Men's 200 m Breaststroke Maxim Podoprigora Preliminary Heat — 02:14.37 Semi-final — 02:14.20 Men's 100 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 57.35 Men's 200 m Backstroke Markus Rogan Preliminary Heat — 02:02.84 Men's 200 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 02:05.15 Men's 400 m Individual Medley Michael Windisch Preliminary Heat — 04:24.62 Women's 50 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 26.26 Women's 100 m Freestyle Judith Draxler Preliminary Heat — 57.4 Women's 200 m Butterfly Petra Zahrl Preliminary Heat — 02:13.29 Women's 200 m Breaststroke Elvira Fischer Preliminary Heat — 02:30.05 Men's Individual Competition: Johannes Enzenhofer — 1:51:02.48
Austria at the 2016 Summer Olympics
Austria competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, from 5 to 21 August 2016. It was the nation's twenty-seventh appearance at the Summer Olympics. Austrian athletes have appeared in every edition of the Summer Olympic Games, with the exception of the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp; the Austrian Olympic Committee confirmed a squad of 71 athletes, 37 men and 34 women, to compete across 22 sports at the Games. The nation's full roster had one more participant than the previous two Games; the Austrian roster featured 29 returning Olympians, with Chinese-born table tennis player Liu Jia, the nation's flag bearer in the opening ceremony, leading them as the only competitor going to her fifth consecutive Games. Apart from Liu and Beijing 2008 silver medalist Ludwig Paischer, dressage rider Victoria Max-Theurer, skiff duo Nico Delle-Karth and Nikolaus Resch in the 49er class topped the roster lineup to make their fourth Olympic appearance. Other notable Austrian athletes included world-ranked sailor Lara Vadlau and her Polish-born partner Jolanta Ogar in the women's 470, London 2012 sixth-place finalist Corinna Kuhnle in slalom kayaking, twin sisters Anna-Maria and Eirini Alexandri.
Austria left Rio de Janeiro with only a bronze medal, won by sailing duo of Thomas Zajac and Tanja Frank in the Nacra 17 class, saving its pride from returning empty-handed as they had done at London 2012. Slalom canoeist Corinna Kuhnle, rifle shooter Olivia Hofmann, discus thrower Lukas Weißhaidinger, rower Magdalena Lobnig were among the Austrian athletes progressing to the finals of their respective sporting events, but came closest to the nation's medal haul. Austria participated in twenty-seven Summer Olympics between its debut at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens and the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; the nation chose table tennis player Liu Jia as its flagbearer in the opening ceremony and the sailing duo of Thomas Zajac and Tanja Frank for the closing ceremony. They were one of the three nations who used more than one person to bear the flag in the closing ceremony. A delegation of 71 athletes, 37 men and 34 women, travelled to Rio de Janeiro and competed across 22 sports.
Among the sports represented by its athletes, Austria marked its Olympic debut in golf, as well as its return to diving after 8 years and weightlifting after 12 years, archery after 32 years. Austrian athletes have won a total of 86 medals at the Summer Olympic Games. Laurence Baldauff qualified for the women's individual recurve by obtaining one of the eight Olympic places available from the 2015 World Archery Championships in Copenhagen, Denmark; each match consisted of up to 5 sets of 3 arrows per archer. The archer with the best score in each set won the set. If the score was tied, each archer received 1 point, she achieved a score of 619 to seal a forty-first seed in the ranking round. Baldauff was eliminated in the round of 64 by Bombayla Devi Laishram of India. Austrian athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events: KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round Men Field events Combined events – DecathlonWomen Track & road events Combined events – Heptathlon Austria has qualified two badminton players for each of the following events into the Olympic tournament.
Elisabeth Baldauf was selected among the top 34 individual shuttlers in the women's singles based on the BWF World Rankings as of 5 May 2016, while David Obernorsterer picked up one of the spare athlete berths from the doubles as the next highest-ranked eligible player in the men's singles. The duo, which plays together in international open events, both made their individual Olympic debut. Both of them came last in their groups. Obernosterer competed in group E of the men's singles event together with Lin Dan, Vladimir Malkov, Nguyễn Tiến Minh, his first game was against Lin. Lin has won two gold medals in the 2012 Olympics and 2008 Olympics. On 11 August, Obernosterer lost the first set 5–21 and the second 11–21; the following day, he lost 14 -- 21 against Minh. On 14 August, he lost 11–21 and 10–21 to Malkov, he failed to qualify for the round of 16. Meanwhile, Elisabeth Baldauf was in group N of the women's singles along with Tai Tzu-ying and Natalia Perminova, she lost her first game on 11 August against Tai 11 -- 21 in 9 -- 21 in the second.
Two days she lost her second and final game against Perminova 17–21 and 8–21. Tai ended up qualifying for the elimination round by beating Perminova 21-12 and 21-9 but was eliminated by Pusarla Sindhu who won the silver medal. For the K-1 slalom events, 21 boats qualified for the heats; the 15 best times from the two runs in the heats qualified for the semifinals, the best 10 boats from the semifinals qualified for the finals. Austrian canoeists have qualified a maximum of one boat in each of the following classes through the 2015 ICF Canoe Slalom World Championships. London 2012 sixth-place finalist Corinna Kuhnle and rookie Mario Leitner were named to the Austrian roster on June 20, 2016. Mario Leitner finished his first run in the men's kayaking event in 93.29 seconds and his second run with a worse time of 93.89 seconds. He finished in the fifteenth allotted position. Howeve
Austria the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2, a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion, it is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps; the majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, Slovene. Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century, it emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history.
As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars. Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms; the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995.
It is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, adopted the euro currency in 1999; the German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. This word is a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" - because it is steep on both sides. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976; the word "Austria" was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria was the easternmost extent of Bavaria; the Central European land, now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was invaded by Bavarians and Avars. Charlemagne, King of the Franks, conquered the area in AD 788, encouraged colonization, introduced Christianity; as part of Eastern Francia, the core areas that now encompass Austria were bequeathed to the house of Babenberg. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976; the first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs acquired the Duchy of Styria. With the death of Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished; as a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia assumed control of the duchies of Austria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat at Dürnkrut at the hands of Rudolph I of Germany in 1278. Thereafter, until World War I, Austria's history was that of its ruling dynasty, the Habsburgs.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria. In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception; the Habsburgs began to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress Maria of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Netherlands for the family. In 1496, his son Philip the Fair married Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, Bohemia and the part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans came under Austrian rule. Ottoman expansion into Hungary led to frequent conflicts between the two empires evident in the Long War of 1593 to 1606.
The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times, of which some are c
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad known as Atlanta 1996, referred to as the Centennial Olympic Games, were an international multi-sport event, held from July 19 to August 4, 1996, in Atlanta, United States. These Games, which were the fourth Summer Olympics to be hosted by the United States, marked the century of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens—the inaugural edition of the modern Olympic Games, they were the first since 1924 to be held in a different year from a Winter Olympics, under a new IOC practice implemented in 1994 to hold the Summer and Winter Games in alternating, even-numbered years. More than 10,000 athletes from 197 National Olympic Committees competed in 26 sports, including the Olympic debuts of beach volleyball, mountain biking, softball, as well as the new disciplines of lightwight rowing and women's football. 24 countries made their Summer Olympic debut in Atlanta, including eleven former Soviet republics participating for the first time as independent nations.
The hosting United States led the medal count with a total of 101 medals, the most gold and silver medals out of all countries. The U. S. topped the medal count for the first time since 1984, for the first time since 1968 in a non-boycotted Summer Olympics. Notable performances during competition included those of Andre Agassi—who became the first men's singles tennis player to combine a career Grand Slam with an Olympic gold medal, Donovan Bailey—who set a new world record of 9.84 for the men's 100 meters, Lilia Podkopayeva—who became the second gymnast to win an individual event gold after winning the all-round title in the same Olympics. The festivities were marred by violence on July 27, when Eric Rudolph detonated pipe bombs at Centennial Olympic Park—a downtown park, built to serve as a public focal point for the Games' festivities, injuring 111. In 2003, Rudolph confessed to the bombing and a series of related attacks on abortion centers and a gay bar, was sentenced to life in prison.
He claimed that the bombing was meant to protest the U. S. government's sanctioning of "abortion on demand". The Games turned a profit, helped by record revenue from sponsorship deals and broadcast rights, reliance on private funding, among other factors; the Games faced criticism for being overly commercialized, as well as other issues noted by European officials, such as the availability of food and transport. The event had a lasting impact on the city. Atlanta was selected on September 18, 1990, in Tokyo, over Athens, Manchester and Toronto at the 96th IOC Session; the city entered the competition as a dark horse. The US media criticized it as a second-tier city and complained of Georgia's Confederate history. However, the IOC Evaluation Commission ranked Atlanta's infrastructure and facilities the highest, while IOC members said that it could guarantee large television revenues similar to the success of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Additionally, former US ambassador to the UN and Atlanta mayor Andrew Jackson Young touted Atlanta's civil rights history and reputation for racial harmony.
Young wanted to showcase a reformed American South. The strong economy of Atlanta and improved race relations in the South helped to impress the IOC officials; the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games proposed a substantial revenue-sharing with the IOC, USOC, other NOCs. Atlanta's main rivals were Toronto, whose front-running bid that began in 1986 had chances to succeed after Canada had held a successful 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Melbourne, who hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and after Brisbane, Australia's failed bid for the 1992 games and prior to Sydney, Australia's successful 2000 Summer Olympics bid; this would be Toronto's fourth failed attempt since 1960. Greece, the home of the ancient and first modern Olympics, was considered by many observers the "natural choice" for the Centennial Games. However, Athens bid chairman Spyros Metaxa demanded that it be named as the site of the Olympics because of its "historical right due to its history", which may have caused resentment among delegates.
Furthermore, the Athens bid was described as "arrogant and poorly prepared", being regarded as "not being up to the task of coping with the modern and risk-prone extravaganza" of the current Games. Athens faced numerous obstacles, including "political instability, potential security problems, air pollution, traffic congestion and the fact that it would have to spend about $3 billion to improve its infrastructure of airports, rail lines and other amenities"; the total cost of the 1996 Summer Olympics was estimated to be around $1.7 billion. The venues and the Games themselves were funded via private investment, the only public funding came from the U. S. government for security, around $500 million of public money used on physical public infrastructure including streetscaping, road improvements, Centennial Olympic Park, expansion of the airport, improvements in public transportation, redevelopment of public housing projects. $420 million worth of tickets wer
Canoeing at the 1996 Summer Olympics
The canoeing competition at the 1996 Summer Olympics was composed of 16 events in two disciplines and sprint. Timing in 1/1000ths of a second began at these games for the sprint events. Slalom events took place at Ocoee Whitewater Center near Tennessee. Sprint events were held at Georgia. 1996 Summer Olympics official report Volume 3. Pp. 162–74. & "Olympic Medal Winners". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2006-12-20