A hybrid sport is one which combines two or more sports in order to create a new sport, or to allow meaningful competition between players of those sports. The most popular hybrid sport in terms of attendance and television viewers is international rules football. BBASEketball - a fictional hybrid sport from the movie BASEketball which combines the game of basketball with baseball rules. Bossaball - a hybrid sport combining elements of volleyball, association football and Capoeira, played on the inflatable field with 2 trampolines at each side of the net. Allowing players per side to bounce high to spike or touch the ball and touch it with any part of the body arms and handsCChess boxing – a hybrid sport which combines the sport of boxing with games of chess in alternating rounds. Chess boxing fights have been organized since early 2003; the sport was started when Dutch artist Iepe Rubingh, inspired by fictional descriptions of the sport in the writing of Enki Bilal, organized actual matches.
The sport has become popular since then. To succeed players must be both skilled chess players and skilled boxers. Composite rules shinty-hurling – The Irish sports of hurling or camogie combined with the Scottish sport of shinty. Composite rules Softball-Baseball - a hybrid bat-and-ball sports which combines the elements of Baseball and Softball, played on the large identical baseball diamond with the larger ball, ten rather than nine innings, both underarm and overarm pitchings. DDisc Golf - a hybrid flying disc sport with elements of golfFFootball tennis – a hybrid of association football and tennis Footgolf - a hybrid of association football and golf Footvolley – a hybrid of association football and volleyballHHybrid martial arts - a full contact individual combat sports which allowed to use the wide range of all aspects and techniques of several different martial arts and combat sports. Hybrid rugby - a hybrid of rugby union and rugby league. IInternational rules football – a combination of Gaelic football and Australian rules football.
The International Rules Series, an annual series of two games between representative teams from Ireland and Australia, attracted sell-out crowds during its 2006 edition. KKorfball – several claims that it was developed as a hybrid of netball and basketball to enable play between teams of mixed gender. Despite the origins of korfball, today it does facilitate that purpose. Kronum – A hybrid of handball, soccer and rugby played on a circular field with four goals at each end. NNashball – a field sport mixing elements of soccer, basketball, ultimate frisbee, volleyball using horizontal end zone goals and strict no open-hand contact and strike. PPolocrosse - A hybrid of polo and lacrosse, played on horseback. SSamoa Rules – A hybrid of rugby union and Australian rules football Segway Rugpolocrosse - A field sport which combines elements of Segway polo and lacrosse, played on the segway allowing players to run with it either in hands or in the netted racket of lacrosse stick, contact and tackle each other with the player's body, lacrosse stick, segway.
Slamball - a full-contact team hybrid sports which will combine elements of basketball, American football, ice hockey and video games, played on the basketball court, surrounded by hockey-style plexiglass walls, with two sets of four trampolines at the front of net and boards around the edges of this court. Wwaterpolo - A hybrid of swimming and handball Austus – a combination of American football and Australian rules football played during World War II. However, this hybrid sport has not been recorded as having been played since the war. Iomain - a variation of shinty-hurling, using a compromise stick, piloted once in 2013. Universal football – a combination of rugby league and Australian rules football trialed in the early 20th century. Volata
Chess boxing, or chessboxing, is a hybrid that combines two traditional pastimes: chess, a cerebral board game, boxing, a physical sport. The competitors fight in alternating rounds of boxing. Chessboxing was invented by Dutch performance artist Iepe Rubingh as an art performance and has subsequently grown into a competitive sport. Chessboxing is popular in Germany, the United Kingdom and Russia. Chessboxing was invented by Dutch performance artist Iepe Rubingh. Rubingh's idea to create a new sport fusing the two disciplines and boxing, originates from the 1992 comic Froid Équateur—written by French comic book artist Enki Bilal —that portrays a chessboxing world championship. In the comic book version, the opponents fight an entire boxing match before they face each other in a game of chess. Finding this to be impractical, Rubingh developed the idea further until it turned into the competitive sport that chessboxing is today with alternating rounds of chess and boxing and a detailed set of rules and regulations.
An earlier version of combining chess and boxing was said to have taken place in a boxing club outside London in the late 1970s. The Robinson brothers were in the habit of playing a round of chess against one another after a training session at their boxing club. However, no direct correlation can be made between the Robinson brothers' chess playing and chessboxing; the same goes for the Kung-Fu movie Mystery of Chessboxing as well as the Wu-Tang Clan's song "Da Mystery of Chessboxin'". The first chessboxing competition took place in Berlin in 2003; that same year, the first world championship fight was held in Amsterdam in cooperation with the Dutch Boxing Association as well as the Dutch Chess Federation and under the auspices of the World Chess Boxing Organization, founded in Berlin shortly before. Dutch middleweight fighters Iepe Rubingh and Jean Louis Veenstra faced each other in the ring. After his opponent exceeded the chess time limit, Rubingh won the fight in the 11th round going down in the history books as the first World Chess Boxing Champion.
The same goes for the Chess Boxing Club Berlin, created in the following year, the first of its kind making Berlin the birthplace of chessboxing. Two years after the first world championship, the first European Chess Boxing Championship took place in Berlin on October 1, 2005. Present day chessboxing commentator Andreas Dilschneider was defeated by Tihomir Atanassov Dovramadjiev when he resigned in the 7th round, crowning the latter by being the first European Chess Boxing Champion. In 2006, more than 800 spectators filled the Gloria Theatre in Cologne for the world championship qualification fight between Zoran Mijatovic and Frank Stoldt; the 36-year-old Frank Stoldt, a former UN-Peacekeeper in Kosovo and Afghanistan, won when his opponent resigned in chess in the 7th round. After qualifying himself to fight for the title in 2006, Frank Stoldt went up against the American David Depto in November 2007 in Berlin to fight for the first world championship title in the light heavyweight division.
More than 800 tickets were sold for the event at the Tape Club in Berlin, making it the biggest chessboxing title fight to that date. Frank Stoldt defeated Depto in the 7th round, thereby cemented Berlin's status as the leading city in the chessboxing world becoming the first German world champion. Chessboxing first received credit from the international Chess Federation FIDE, in April 2008. At the same time, the chessboxing community began to grow globally at an faster rate. In 2008, chessboxing clubs were founded in Krasnoyarsk. Created in 2009, the Los Angeles Chessboxing Club was the first of its kind in the United States and was directly followed by the New York Chessboxing Club in 2010; the Boxwerk in Munich opened in 2010 and offers chessboxing training. In addition to the WCBO's European and later world championships taking place worldwide, the scene at the London Chessboxing Club grew where chessboxing events take place on a regular basis. In 2011, the first international club matchup took place with Berlin and London in the ring—London came out the winner with 2:1 won bouts.
In 2011, the WCBO and with it the global chessboxing community made the biggest leap forward in its development to date with the foundation of the Chessboxing Organisation of India and its expansion in Asia, including Chessboxing China and the Chessboxing Organisation of Iran which were founded in 2012. Furthermore, the third chessboxing organisation in the United States, USA Chessboxing, was founded in 2011 and the European movement was being reinforced by the foundation of the Italian Chessboxing Federation in 2012. What's more, the professionalisation of chessboxing started to take shape in the second decade of the 21st century. In addition to the WCBO that became a registered association under German law in 2014, the Chess Boxing Global Marketing CBGM GmbH—called Chess Boxing Global, CBG—was founded, that as of May 2013, is responsible for organising all of the professional chessboxing fights worldwide and above all, for the organisation of the Chess Boxing World Championships; the Chess Boxing Organisation India was founded in 2011 by kickboxing official and former Indian kickboxing and karate champion Montu Das.
With this, the growth of chessboxing in Asia gained momentum with the first Chess Boxing Organisation in Western Asia being built in the following year by another experienced official in the kickboxing world: Fereydoun Pouya started the Chess Boxing Organisation Iran. At the same time, the process of turning chessboxing professional reached a milestone: The 2013 World Champions
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
Korfball is a ball sport, with similarities to netball and basketball. It is played by two teams of four males in each team; the objective is to throw a ball into a bottomless basket, mounted on a 3.5 m high pole. The sport was invented by Dutch school teacher Nico Broekhuysen in 1902. In the Netherlands, there are over 90,000 people playing korfball; the sport is very popular in Belgium and Taiwan, is played in nearly 70 countries. In 1902 Nico Broekhuysen, a Dutch school teacher from Amsterdam, was sent to Nääs, a town in Sweden, to follow an educational course about teaching gymnastics to children; this is where he was introduced to the Swedish game'ringboll'. In ringboll one could score points by throwing the ball through a ring, attached to a 3 m pole. Men and women played together, the field was divided into three zones. Players could not leave their zone. Broekhuysen was inspired and when he returned to Amsterdam he decided to teach his students a similar game, he replaced the ring with a basket, so it was easier to see if a player had scored or not.
Broekhuysen simplified the rules so children could understand and play it. Korfball was born; the main idea was the same as ringboll. The oldest still existing korfball club to never have merged with any other club is a Dutch korfball club H. K. C. ALO from The Hague, Netherlands. H. K. C. ALO was founded on 1 February 1906. At first, there was considerable controversy about the sport, because the players were of both sexes. Several sports journalists refused to pay the slightest attention to the new sport. Korfball players were accused of being immoral; the sportswear was criticized, because the women were showing bare knees and ankles. Yet korfball was featured as a demonstration sport in the Summer Olympics of 1920 and 1928; the International Korfball Federation was founded in 1933 in Belgium. Korfball is played in 69 countries including: United States, England, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia, South Africa, India, The Netherlands, Nigeria, Ghana, Germany, Turkey, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Sweden, the Philippines, Italy, Spain and Romania.
It is growing in popularity in the UK and in a unique reference to the sport, is featured in a song by the band Half Man Half Biscuit entitled "Joy in Leeuwarden" on their 2011 album 90 Bisodol. Korfball has been played in the World Games since 1985. IKF World Korfball Championships have been held every four years since 1978; the leading nations are The Netherlands, Chinese Taipei, Belgium. Hong Kong hosted its first international tournament, the IKF Asia Oceania Korfball Championship in 2006. New Zealand hosted the IKF Asia Oceania Youth Korfball Championships in 2007. Korfball is played inside in winter and outdoors in autumn; the size of the indoor court is 20 m. The court is divided into halves called zones. In each zone is a 3.5 m tall post with a basket at the top. This is positioned two-thirds of the back of the zone. A korfball team consists of eight players. An international korfball match consists of four periods, with the length varying depending on the competition, but between 7 and 10 minutes, with a 1-minute break between period 1, 2, 3 and 4.
At half time - after period 2 - the break is 5 minutes. Four players of each team are in one zone and the other four are in the other zone. Within each zone, a player may only defend a member of the opposite team of the same gender. At the beginning of the match, one team chooses one-half of the court; that half will be their defending zone, with'their' basket in it. Players score by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket. After two goals, the teams change zones: defenders become attackers become defenders. In between those zone-changes, attackers can not set foot on their defending vice versa. At half-time teams swap halves; the rules prevent physical strength dominating the game. Blocking and holding are not allowed, as well as kicking the ball. Once a player has the ball, one cannot dribble, run or walk with it, one can move one foot as long as the foot the player landed on when they caught the ball stays in the same spot; therefore and efficient teamwork is required, because players need each other to keep the ball moving, throwing the ball to each other.
A player may not attempt to score when defended, which occurs when the defender is in between the opponent and the basket, is facing his/her opponent, is within arm's length and attempting to block the ball. This rule encourages fast movement while limiting the impact of players' height compared to their opponents; the national teams competition organized by the International World Games Association has been played every four years since 1981. The national teams competition organized by the International Korfball Federation has been played every four years since 1978. 2008 Kaohsiung, Taiwan – Winner: Netherlands 2012 Barcelona, Spain – Winner: Netherlands 2016 Olomouc, Czech Republic – Winner: Netherlands IKF promotes four continental championships: European Korfball Championship, All-Africa Korfball Championship, Pan-American Korfball Championship and Asia-Oceania Korfball Championship. Every year the IKF organises the Europ
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Ern Cowley was an Australian rules footballer who played for Carlton in the Victorian Football League. Cowley came to Carlton from Brunswick and had a strong debut season, kicking 35 goals to top the VFL's goalkicking, he played just one more year with Carlton before returning to the VFA. Cowley was a proficient baseball pitcher who represented Victoria in interstate competition. Cowley invented the football game called "Austus", a combination of Australian and American football, played between Australians and visiting American servicemen during World War II, he was a journalist with the Sporting Globe and wrote on American sports baseball. Ern Cowley's playing statistics from AFL Tables Holmesby and Main, Jim; the Encyclopedia of AFL Footballers. 7th ed. Melbourne: Bas Publishing
Beach Soccer known as beach football, sand football or beasal, is a variant of association football played on a beach or some form of sand. The game emphasises skill and accuracy in shooting at the goal. Whilst football has been played informally on beaches for many years, the introduction of beach soccer was an attempt to codify rules for the game; this was done in 1992 by the founders of Beach Soccer Worldwide, a company set up to develop the sport and responsible for the majority of its tournaments to this day. This was a major foundation for what is now known as beach soccer and what has led to the sport growing in popularity; the irregularity of the soft-sand playing surface leads to a different style of play than is used in football, with a greater degree of improvisation. The compact field, much smaller than a normal football field, allows players to score from anywhere on the sand, leading to an average of sixty attempts at goal in a single game. With an average scoring rate of one goal every three or four minutes, around eleven goals are scored in total during an average game.
Beach football started in Brazil, more at Rio de Janeiro. In 1950 the first official tournament was created to unite neighborhood small tourneys that happened since 1940. After huge popularity it has grown to be an international game; the participation of internationally renowned players such as flamboyant Frenchman Eric Cantona, legendary Spanish strikers Michel and Julio Salinas and Brazilian stars such as Romário, Júnior and Zico has helped to expand television coverage to large audiences in over 170 countries worldwide. Beach soccer had been played recreationally all over the world for many years and in many different formats. In 1992 the laws of the game were envisioned and a pilot event was staged by the founding partners of BSWW in Los Angeles. By 1993, the first professional beach soccer competition was organized at Miami Beach, with teams from the United States, Brazil and Italy taking part. In April 1994 the first event to be covered by network television transmissions was held on Copacabana Beach in Rio de Janeiro, the city hosted the first Beach Soccer World Championship in 1995.
The competition was won by the host nation, making Brazil the first-ever World Champions of Beach Soccer. The success of the tournament saw commercial interest begin to match developments on the field, growing demand for the sport around the world gave rise to the Pro Beach Soccer Tour in 1996; the first Pro Beach Soccer Tour included a total of 60 games in two years across South America, Europe and the United States, attracting major names both on and off the field. Interest generated by the tour in Europe led to the creation of the European Pro Beach Soccer League in 1998, providing a solid infrastructure that would increase the professionalism of the spectacle on all levels; the EPBSL, now known as the Euro BS League, brought promoters together from across the continent and satisfied the demands of the media and fans. Only four years on from its creation, the successful first step in the building of a legitimate worldwide competition structure for the sport of pro beach soccer had been taken.
Behind the scenes key developments were taking place, with the Beach Soccer Company relocating its headquarters to Europe, firstly to Monaco and Barcelona, before becoming Pro Beach Soccer, S. L. in April 2000. One year they would join forces with Octagon Koch Tavares, who had continued to organise the World Championships and events in South America, to form a single entity known as Beach Soccer Worldwide, with the aim of unifying all major Pro Beach Soccer tournaments in the world under the same structure and providing representation of the sport to major sponsors, the media and FIFA; the EPBSL was flourishing, a nail-biting 2000 season was decided in the closing match of the final tournament when Spain beat Portugal in an intense encounter. The Americas League took shape, with teams entered from North and South America, whilst the Pro Beach Soccer Tour extended its horizons to the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, Japan and the United Kingdom. FIFA became the global governing body of the sport in 2005, acknowledging BSWW's framework and organizing the first FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup.
The next four years would see this growth consolidated by further progress both on and off the field, with the EPBSL emerging as the strongest pro beach soccer competition in the world. By 2004, some seventeen nations had entered teams, with this number expected to rise to over stage events; such interest has allowed BSWW to strike major sponsorship deals with international companies including McDonald's, Coca-Cola and MasterCard, who stepped up their involvement in 2004 and are now title sponsors of the Euro BS League. Recognition has come from FIFA, who have cited BSWW as the major entity behind the creation and growth of Beach Soccer, forming a promising partnership, in its full splendour seen in the 2005 world cup, held in Copacabana Beach, Brazil. France won the next year Brazil won it at the same venue; the World Cup has continued to flourish with the first held outside Brazil in 2008, future World Cups spreading as far out as Tahiti in 2013 and Portugal in 2015As of 2017, FIFA and the continental confederations do not host women's beach soccer tournaments.
The Asian Beach Games, European Games and South American Beach Games do not have women's beach soccer tournaments. The rules of beach soccer are based on the Laws of the Game of association football, with several modifications. A beach soccer field is a level sandy area smaller than a regular football field; the field is cleared of pebbles and seashells, along wi