United States federal budget
The United States federal budget comprises the spending and revenues of the U. S. federal government. The budget is the financial representation of the priorities of the government, reflecting historical debates and competing economic philosophies; the government spends on healthcare and defense programs. The non-partisan Congressional Budget Office provides extensive analysis of the budget and its economic effects, it has reported that the U. S. is facing a series of long-term financial challenges, as the population of the country ages and healthcare costs continue growing faster than the economy, leading to the debt held by the public exceeding GDP by 2030. The United States has the largest external debt in the world and the 14th largest government debt as % of GDP in the world; the budget document begins with the President's proposal to Congress recommending funding levels for the next fiscal year, beginning October 1 and ending on September 30 of the year following. The fiscal year refers to the year.
However, Congress is the body required by law to pass appropriations annually and to submit funding bills passed by both houses to the President for signature. Congressional decisions are governed by rules and legislation regarding the federal budget process. Budget committees set spending limits for the House and Senate committees and for Appropriations subcommittees, which approve individual appropriations bills to allocate funding to various federal programs. If Congress fails to pass an annual budget several appropriations bills must be passed as "stop gap" measures. After Congress approves an appropriations bill, it is sent to the President, who may either sign it into law or veto it. A vetoed bill is sent back to Congress, which can pass it into law with a two-thirds majority in each legislative chamber. Congress may combine all or some appropriations bills into one omnibus reconciliation bill. In addition, the president may request and the Congress may pass supplemental appropriations bills or emergency supplemental appropriations bills.
Several government agencies provide analysis. These include the Government Accountability Office, the Congressional Budget Office, the Office of Management and Budget, the Treasury Department; these agencies have reported that the federal government is facing many important long-run financing challenges driven by an aging population, rising interest payments, spending for healthcare programs like Medicare and Medicaid. President Trump signed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act into law in December 2017. CBO forecasts that the 2017 Tax Act will increase the sum of budget deficits by $2.289 trillion over the 2018-2027 decade, or $1.891 trillion after macro-economic feedback. This is in addition to the $10.1 trillion increase forecast under the CBO June 2017 current law baseline and existing $20 trillion national debt. During FY2018, the federal government spent $4.11 trillion, up $127 billion or 3.2% vs. FY2017 spending of $3.99 trillion. Spending increased for all major categories and was driven by higher spending for Social Security, net interest on the debt, defense.
Spending as % GDP fell from 20.7% GDP to 20.3% GDP, equal to the 50-year average. During FY2018, the federal government collected $3.33 trillion in tax revenue, up $14 billion or less than 1% versus FY2017. Primary receipt categories included individual income taxes, Social Security/Social Insurance taxes, corporate taxes. Corporate tax revenues 32 % due to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. FY 2018 revenues were 16.4% of gross domestic product, versus 17.2% in FY 2017. Tax revenues averaged 17.4% GDP over the 1980-2017 period. Tax revenues in 2018 were about $275 billion below the CBO January 2017 forecast for 2018, indicating tax revenues would have been higher in the absence of the tax cuts; the budget deficit rose from $666 billion in FY2017 to $779 billion in FY2018, an increase of $113 billion or 17.0%. The 2018 deficit was an estimated 3.9% of GDP, up from 3.5% GDP in 2017. The historical average deficit is 2.9% GDP. During January 2017, just prior to President Trump's inauguration, CBO forecast that the FY 2018 budget deficit would be $487 billion if laws in place at that time remained in place.
The $779 billion actual result represents a $292 billion or 60% increase versus that forecast, driven by tax cuts and additional spending. The U. S. Constitution states that "No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; each year, the President of the United States submits a budget request to Congress for the following fiscal year as required by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. Current law requires the president to submit a budget no earlier than the first Monday in January, no than the first Monday in February. Presidents submit budgets on the first Monday in February; the budget submission has been delayed, however, in some new presidents' first year when the previous president belonged to a different party. The federal budget is calculated on a cash basis; that is, revenues and outlays are recognized when transactions are made. Therefore, the full long-term costs of programs such as Medicare, Social Security, the federal portion of Medicaid are not reflected in the federal budget.
By contrast, many businesses and some other national governments have adopted forms of accrual accounting, which recogniz
113th United States Congress
The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives based on the results of the 2012 Senate elections and the 2012 House elections; the seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census. It first met in Washington, D. C. on January 3, 2013, it ended on January 3, 2015. Senators elected to regular terms in 2008 were in the last two years of those terms during this Congress; the Senate had a Democratic majority. As of 2019, this is the most recent Congress. January 4, 2013: Joint session to count the Electoral College votes for the 2012 presidential election. January 20–21, 2013: Second inauguration of President Barack Obama; the term began January 20, but because, a Sunday, the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies scheduled the inauguration ceremony for the next day.
February 12, 2013: Joint session to hear the 2013 State of the Union Address. March 6–7, 2013: Senator Rand Paul led a filibuster of the nomination of John O. Brennan for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency with a 12-hour, 52-minute speech. June 5, 2013: The first media reports of Edward Snowden's surveillance disclosures surfaced in the media. June 25, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 4 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in Shelby County v. Holder, ending the need for some counties and states to receive "preclearance" from the Justice Department before changing election laws. June 26, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act in United States v. Windsor, forcing the federal government to acknowledge same-sex marriages granted under the laws of states. July 16, 2013: The Senate reached a deal to allow some presidential nominations to come to a vote, avoiding the "Nuclear option" for filibuster reform. September 24–25, 2013: Senator Ted Cruz delivered a 21-hour, 19-minute speech, one of the longest in Senate history, in opposition to the Affordable Care Act.
Cruz's speech was not a filibuster. October 1–17, 2013: The United States federal government was shut down as most routine operations were curtailed after Congress failed to enact legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year 2014, or a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 2014. October 3, 2013: United States Capitol shooting incident November 21, 2013: In a 52–48 vote, the Senate ended the use of the filibuster on all executive branch nominees, as well as on most judicial nominees; the filibuster remained in place for legislation. November 4, 2014: United States elections, 2014, including United States Senate elections, 2014 and United States House of Representatives elections, 2014. March 7, 2013: Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–4 March 13, 2013: Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–5 March 26, 2013: 2013 United States federal budget, Pub. L. 113–6 June 3, 2013: Stolen Valor Act of 2013, Pub.
L. 113–12 August 9, 2013: Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–23 August 9, 2013: Bipartisan Student Loan Certainty Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–28 September 30, 2013: Pay Our Military Act, Pub. L. 113–39 November 27, 2013: Drug Quality and Security Act, Pub. L. 113–54 December 26, 2013: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014, Pub. L. 113–66 January 17, 2014: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, Pub. L. 113–76 February 7, 2014: Agricultural Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–79 March 21, 2014: Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–89 April 3, 2014: Gabriella Miller Kids First Research Act, Pub. L. 113–94 April 3, 2014: Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–95 May 9, 2014: Digital Accountability and Transparency Act, Pub. L. 113–101 May 20, 2014: Kilah Davenport Child Protection Act, Pub. L. 113–104 June 10, 2014: Water Resources Reform and Development Act, Pub. L. 113–121 July 23, 2014: Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub.
L. 113–128 August 1, 2014: Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act, Pub. L. 113–144 August 7, 2014: Veterans' Access to Care through Choice and Transparency Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–146 September 29, 2014: Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act, Pub. L. 113–183 October 6, 2014: IMPACT Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–185 November 26, 2014: Presidential and Federal Records Act Amendments of 2014, Pub. L. 113–187 November 26, 2014: Government Reports Elimination Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–188 December 18, 2014: Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013, Pub. L. 113–242 December 18, 2014: Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act, Pub. L. 113–245 December 18, 2014: American Savings Promotion Act, Pub. L. 113–251 December 18, 2014: Credit Union Share Insurance Fund Parity Act, Pub. L. 113–252 December 18, 2014: EPS Service Parts Act of 2014 Pub. L. 113–263 December 18, 2014: Venezuela Defense of Human Rights and Civil Society Act of 2014, Pub. L. 113–278 December 18, 2014: Insurance Capital Standards Clarification Act of 2014, Pub.
L. 113–279 2014 United States federal budget: H. Con. Res. 25, S. Con. Res. 8 Assault Weapons Ban of 2013 - Introduced after Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting Justice Safety Valve Act of 2013: S. 619, H. R. 1695 Marketplace Fairness Act of 2013: - Also known as the "Internet Sales Tax" Border Security, Economic Opportunity, Immigration Modernization Act of 2013 - Als
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Procedures of the United States Congress
Procedures of the United States Congress are established ways of doing legislative business. Congress has two-year terms with one session each year. There are rules and procedures complex, which guide how it converts ideas for legislation into laws. A term of Congress is divided into two "sessions". A new session commences on January 3 each year. Before the Twentieth Amendment, Congress met from the first Monday in December to April or May in the first session of their term; the Constitution forbids either house from meeting any place outside the Capital, or from adjourning for more than three days, without the consent of the other house. The provision was intended to prevent one house from thwarting legislative business by refusing to meet. To avoid obtaining consent during long recesses, the House or Senate may sometimes hold pro forma meetings, sometimes only minutes long, every three days; the consent of both bodies is required for Congress's final adjournment, or adjournment sine die, at the end of each congressional session.
If the two houses cannot agree on a date, the Constitution permits the President to settle the dispute. Joint Sessions of the United States Congress occur on special occasions that require a concurrent resolution from both House and Senate; these sessions include the counting of electoral votes following a Presidential election and the President's State of the Union address. Other meetings of both House and Senate are called Joint Meetings of Congress, held after unanimous consent agreements to recess and meet. Meetings of Congress for Presidential Inaugurations may be Joint Sessions, if both House and Senate are in session at the time, otherwise they are formal joint gatherings. At some time during the first two months of each session, the President customarily delivers the State of the Union Address, a speech in which he assesses the situation of the country and outlines his legislative proposals for the congressional session; the speech is modeled on the Speech from the Throne given by the British monarch, is mandated by the Constitution of the United States—though it is not required to be delivered each year or in the customary manner.
Thomas Jefferson discontinued the original practice of delivering the speech in person before both houses of Congress, deeming it too monarchical. Instead and his successors sent a written message to Congress each year. In 1913, President Woodrow Wilson reestablished the practice of attending to deliver the speech. Joint Sessions and Joint Meetings are traditionally presided over by the Speaker of the House except for the joint session to count electoral votes for President, when the Constitution requires the President of the Senate to preside. Ideas for legislation can come from many areas, including members, state legislatures, legislative counsel, an executive agency such as the president or cabinet officer or executive agency, the usual next step is for the proposal to be passed to a committee for review. A proposal has one of four principal forms: the bill, the joint resolution, the concurrent resolution, the simple resolution. Bills are laws in the making. A House-originated bill begins with the letters "H.
R." for "House of Representatives", followed by a number kept. It is presented to the president. Joint resolutions There is little practical difference between a bill and a joint resolution since both are treated similarly. J. Res." Followed by its number. Concurrent Resolutions affect only the House and Senate, accordingly aren't presented to the president for approval later. In the House, it begins with "H. Con. Res." Simple resolutions concern only the House or only the Senate and begin with "H. Res."Any member of Congress may introduce a bill at any time while the House is in session by placing it in the hopper on the Clerk's desk. A sponsor's signature is required, there can be many co-sponsors. It's assigned a number by the Clerk. It's referred to a committee. Committees study each bill intensely at this stage; the most important executive communication is the president's annual message which contains a lengthy budget proposal. Drafting statutes is an art that requires "great skill and experience."
Congressional committees sometimes draft bills after studies and hearings covering periods of a year or more. A proposal may be introduced in Congress as a bill, a joint resolution, a concurrent resolution, or a simple resolution. Most legislative proposals are introduced as bills. There is little practical difference between the two, except that joint resolutions may include preambles but bills may not. Joint resolutions are the normal method used to propose a constitutional amendment or to declare war. On the other hand, concurrent resolutions and simple resolutions do not have the force of law. Instead, they serve to regulate procedure. In many cases, lobbyists submit it to a member for introduction. Congressional lobbyists are required to be registered in a central database. Bills may be introduced by any member of either hou
Violence Against Women Act
The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 is a United States federal law signed as Pub. L. 103–322 by President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994. The Act provided $1.6 billion toward investigation and prosecution of violent crimes against women, imposed automatic and mandatory restitution on those convicted, allowed civil redress in cases prosecutors chose to leave un-prosecuted. The Act established the Office on Violence Against Women within the Department of Justice. VAWA was drafted by the office of Senator Joe Biden and co-written by Democrat Louise Slaughter, the Representative from New York, with support from a broad coalition of advocacy groups; the Act passed through Congress with bipartisan support in 1994, clearing the United States House of Representatives by a vote of 235–195 and the Senate by a vote of 61–38, although the following year House Republicans attempted to cut the Act's funding. In the 2000 Supreme Court case United States v. Morrison, a divided Court struck down the VAWA provision allowing women the right to sue their attackers in federal court.
By a 5–4 majority, the Court overturned the provision as exceeding the federal government's powers under the Commerce Clause. VAWA was reauthorized by bipartisan majorities in Congress in 2000 and again in December 2005; the Act's 2012 renewal was opposed by conservative Republicans, who objected to extending the Act's protections to same-sex couples and to provisions allowing battered undocumented immigrants to claim temporary visas, but it was reauthorized in 2013, after a long legislative battle. As a result of the United States federal government shutdown of 2018–2019, the Violence Against Women Act expired on December 21, 2018, it was temporarily reinstated via a short-term spending bill on January 25, 2019, but expired again on February 15, 2019. The House of Representatives passed a bill reauthorizing VAWA in April 2019; the World Conference on Human Rights, held in Vienna, Austria, in 1993, the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in the same year, concluded that civil society and governments have acknowledged that domestic violence is a public health policy and human rights concern.
In the United States, according to the National Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Survey of 2010 1 in 6 women suffered some kind of sexual violence induced by their intimate partner during the course of their lives. The Violence Against Women Act was developed and passed as a result of extensive grassroots efforts in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with advocates and professionals from the battered women's movement, sexual assault advocates, victim services field, law enforcement agencies, prosecutors' offices, the courts, the private bar urging Congress to adopt significant legislation to address domestic and sexual violence. One of the greatest successes of VAWA is its emphasis on a coordinated community response to domestic violence, sex dating violence, sexual assault, stalking. VAWA supports the work of community-based organizations that are engaged in work to end domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking. Additionally, VAWA provides specific support for work with tribes and tribal organizations to end domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking against Native American women.
Many grant programs authorized in VAWA have been funded by the U. S. Congress; the following grant programs, which are administered through the Office on Violence Against Women in the U. S. Department of Justice have received appropriations from Congress: STOP Grants Transitional Housing Grants Grants to Encourage Arrest and Enforce Protection Orders Court Training and Improvement Grants Research on Violence Against Native American Women National Tribal Sex Offender Registry Stalker Reduction Database Federal Victim Assistants Sexual Assault Services Program Services for Rural Victims Civil Legal Assistance for Victims Elder Abuse Grant Program Protections and Services for Disabled Victims Combating Abuse in Public Housing National Resource Center on Workplace Responses Violence on College Campuses Grants Safe Havens Project Engaging Men and Youth in Prevention The American Civil Liberties Union had expressed concerns about the Act, saying that the increased penalties were rash, that the increased pretrial detention was "repugnant" to the U.
S. Constitution, that the mandatory HIV testing of those only charged but not convicted was an infringement of a citizen’s right to privacy, that the edict for automatic payment of full restitution was non-judicious. In 2005, the ACLU had, enthusiastically supported reauthorization of VAWA on the condition that the "unconstitutional DNA provision" be removed; that provision would have allowed law enforcement to take DNA samples from arrestees or from those, stopped by police without the permission of a court. The ACLU, in its July 27, 2005'Letter to the Senate Judiciary Committee Regarding the Violence Against Women Act of
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Act of Congress
An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals; the term can be used in other countries with a legislature named "Congress", such as the Congress of the Philippines. In the United States, Acts of Congress are designated as either public laws, relating to the general public, or private laws, relating to specific institutions or individuals. Since 1957, all Acts of Congress have been designated as "Public Law X-Y" or "Private Law X-Y", where X is the number of the Congress and Y refers to the sequential order of the bill. For example, P. L. 111-5 was the fifth enacted public law of the 111th United States Congress. Public laws are often abbreviated as Pub. L. No. X-Y; when the legislation of those two kinds is proposed, it is called public bill and private bill respectively. The word "act", as used in the term "Act of Congress", is a common, not a proper noun.
The capitalization of the word "act" is deprecated by some dictionaries and usage authorities. Some writers, in particular the U. S. Code, capitalize "Act"; this is a result of the more liberal use of capital letters in legal contexts, which has its roots in the 18th century capitalization of all nouns as is seen in the United States Constitution. "Act of Congress" is sometimes used in informal speech to indicate something for which getting permission is burdensome. For example, "It takes an Act of Congress to get a building permit in this town." An Act adopted by simple majorities in both houses of Congress is promulgated, or given the force of law, in one of the following ways: Signature by the President of the United States, Inaction by the President after ten days from reception while the Congress is in session, or Reconsideration by the Congress after a presidential veto during its session. The President promulgates Acts of Congress made by the first two methods. If an Act is made by the third method, the presiding officer of the house that last reconsidered the act promulgates it.
Under the United States Constitution, if the President does not return a bill or resolution to Congress with objections before the time limit expires the bill automatically becomes an Act. In addition, if the President rejects a bill or resolution while the Congress is in session, a two-thirds vote of both houses of the Congress is needed for reconsideration to be successful. Promulgation in the sense of publishing and proclaiming the law is accomplished by the President, or the relevant presiding officer in the case of an overridden veto, delivering the act to the Archivist of the United States. After the Archivist receives the Act, he or she provides for its publication as a slip law and in the United States Statutes at Large. Thereafter, the changes are published in the United States Code. An Act of Congress that violates the Constitution may be declared unconstitutional by the courts; the judicial declaration of an Act's unconstitutionality does not remove the law from the statute books.
However, future publications of the Act are annotated with warnings indicating that the statute is no longer valid law. Legislation List of United States federal legislation for a list of prominent acts of Congress. Procedures of the United States Congress Act of Parliament Coming into force Enactment Federal Register http://bensguide.gpo.gov/6-8/glossary.html