The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
Fair use is a doctrine in the law of the United States that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder. Fair use is one of the limitations to copyright intended to balance the interests of copyright holders with the public interest in the wider distribution and use of creative works by allowing as a defense to copyright infringement claims certain limited uses that might otherwise be considered infringement; the 1710 Statute of Anne, an act of the Parliament of Great Britain, created copyright law to replace a system of private ordering enforced by the Stationers' Company. The Statute of Anne did not provide for legal unauthorized use of material protected by copyright. In Gyles v Wilcox, the Court of Chancery established the doctrine of "fair abridgement", which permitted unauthorized abridgement of copyrighted works under certain circumstances. Over time, this doctrine evolved into the modern concepts of fair dealing. Fair use was a common-law doctrine in the U.
S. until it was incorporated into the Copyright Act of 1976, 17 U. S. C. § 107. The term "fair use" originated in the United States. Although related, the limitations and exceptions to copyright for teaching and library archiving in the U. S. are located in a different section of the statute. A similar-sounding principle, fair dealing, exists in some other common law jurisdictions but in fact it is more similar in principle to the enumerated exceptions found under civil law systems. Civil law jurisdictions have other exceptions to copyright. In response to perceived over-expansion of copyrights, several electronic civil liberties and free expression organizations began in the 1990s to add fair use cases to their dockets and concerns; these include the Electronic Frontier Foundation, the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Coalition Against Censorship, the American Library Association, numerous clinical programs at law schools, others. The "Chilling Effects" archive was established in 2002 as a coalition of several law school clinics and the EFF to document the use of cease and desist letters.
Most in 2006, Stanford University began an initiative called "The Fair Use Project" to help artists filmmakers, fight lawsuits brought against them by large corporations. Examples of fair use in United States copyright law include commentary, search engines, parody, news reporting and scholarship. Fair use provides for the legal, unlicensed citation or incorporation of copyrighted material in another author's work under a four-factor test; the U. S. Supreme Court has traditionally characterized fair use as an affirmative defense, but in Lenz v. Universal Music Corp. the U. S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit concluded that fair use was not a defense to an infringement claim, but was an expressly authorized right, an exception to the exclusive rights granted to the author of a creative work by copyright law: "Fair use is therefore distinct from affirmative defenses where a use infringes a copyright, but there is no liability due to a valid excuse, e.g. misuse of a copyright." 17 U. S. C. § 107Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 17 U.
S. C. § 106 and 17 U. S. C. § 106A, the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include: the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; the fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors. The four factors of analysis for fair use set forth above derive from the opinion of Joseph Story in Folsom v. Marsh, in which the defendant had copied 353 pages from the plaintiff's 12-volume biography of George Washington in order to produce a separate two-volume work of his own; the court rejected the defendant's fair use defense with the following explanation: reviewer may cite from the original work, if his design be and to use the passages for the purposes of fair and reasonable criticism.
On the other hand, it is as clear, that if he thus cites the most important parts of the work, with a view, not to criticize, but to supersede the use of the original work, substitute the review for it, such a use will be deemed in law a piracy... In short, we must often... look to the nature and objects of the selections made, the quantity and value of the materials used, the degree in which the use may prejudice the sale, or diminish the profits, or supersede the objects, of the original work. The statutory fair use factors quoted above come from the Copyright Act of 1976, codified at 17 U. S. C. § 107. They were intended by the prior judge-made law; as Judge Pierre N. Leval has written, the statute does not "define or explain contours or objectives." While it "leav open the possibility that other factors may bear on the question, the statute identifies none." That is, courts are entitled to consider other factors in addition to the four statutory factors. The first factor is "the purpose and character of the use, including whether
James Gleick is an American author and historian of science whose work has chronicled the cultural impact of modern technology. Recognized for his writing about complex subjects through the techniques of narrative nonfiction, he has been called "one of the great science writers of all time", he is part of the inspiration for Jurassic Park character Ian Malcolm. Gleick's books include the international bestsellers Chaos: Making a New Science and The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. Three of his books have been Pulitzer National Book Award finalists. O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award in 2012 and the Royal Society Winton Prize for Science Books 2012, his books have been translated into more than thirty languages. A native of New York City, Gleick attended Harvard College, where he was an editor of the Harvard Crimson, graduating in 1976 with an A. B. linguistics. He moved to Minneapolis and helped found an alternative weekly newspaper, Metropolis. After its demise a year he returned to New York and in 1979 joined the staff of the New York Times.
He worked there for ten years as an editor on the metropolitan desk and as a science reporter. Among the scientists Gleick profiled in the New York Times Magazine were Douglas Hofstadter, Stephen Jay Gould, Mitchell Feigenbaum, Benoit Mandelbrot, his early reporting on Microsoft anticipated the antitrust investigations by the U. S. Department of Justice and the European Commission, he wrote the "Fast Forward" column in the New York Times Magazine from 1995 to 1999, his essays charting the growth of the Internet formed the basis of his book What Just Happened. His work has appeared in The New Yorker, the Atlantic and the Washington Post, he is a regular contributor to The New York Review of Books, his first book, Chaos: Making a New Science, reported the development of the new science of chaos and complexity. It made the Butterfly Effect a household term, introduced the Mandelbrot Set and fractal geometry to a broad audience, sparked popular interest in the subject, influencing such diverse writers as Tom Stoppard and Michael Crichton.
In 1993, Gleick founded one of the earliest Internet service providers, The Pipeline, in New York City. It was the first ISP to offer a graphical user interface, incorporating e-mail, chat and the World Wide Web, through software for Windows and Mac operating systems; the software, created by Gleick's business partner, Uday Ivatury, was licensed to other Internet service providers in the United States and overseas. Gleick sold the Pipeline in 1995 to PSINet, it was absorbed into MindSpring and EarthLink. On December 20, 1997, Gleick was attempting to land his Rutan Long-EZ experimental plane at Greenwood Lake Airport in West Milford, New Jersey when a build-up of ice in the engine's carburetor caused the aircraft engine to lose power and the plane landed short of the runway into rising terrain; the impact killed Gleick's eight-year-old son and left Gleick injured. Gleick's writing style has been described as a combination of "clear mind, magpie-styled research and explanatory verve." After the publication of Chaos, Gleick collaborated with the photographer Eliot Porter on Nature's Chaos and with developers at Autodesk on Chaos: The Software.
He was the McGraw Distinguished Lecturer at Princeton University in 1989–90. He was the first editor of The Best American Science Writing series, his next books included two biographies, Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman, Isaac Newton, which John Banville said would "surely stand as the definitive study for a long time to come."Gleick was elected president of the Authors Guild in 2017. 1987 Chaos: Making a New Science, Viking Penguin. 1992 Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman, Pantheon Books. 1999 Faster: The Acceleration of Just About Everything, Pantheon. 2000 The Best American Science Writing 2000, HarperCollins. 2002 What Just Happened: A Chronicle from the Electronic Frontier, Pantheon. 2003 Isaac Newton, Pantheon. 2011 The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books. 2016 Time Travel: A History, Pantheon Books. Quotations related to James Gleick at Wikiquote James Gleick's website with selections of his work. A Miracle Made Lyrical, Christopher Lydon interview with James Gleick.
The Narrative Thread, James Gleick talks with Robert Birnbaum on Identity Theory. Leave Cyberspace, Meet in article on the culture of Wikipedia. If Shakespeare Had Been Able to Google, article by Gleick from The New York Review of Books. Audio: James Gleick in conversation with Janna Levin at the Key West Literary Seminar, 2008.'Science writer James Gleick explains the physics that define new media in the ongoing communications revolution' by Peter Kadzis, interview in the Boston Phoenix, April 6, 2011. Appearances on C-SPAN Time Travel
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Robert Allan Caro is an American journalist and author known for his biographies of United States political figures Robert Moses and Lyndon B. Johnson. After working for many years as a reporter, Caro wrote The Power Broker, a biography of New York urban planner Robert Moses, chosen by the Modern Library as one of the hundred greatest nonfiction books of the twentieth century, he has since written four of a planned five volumes of The Years of Lyndon Johnson, a biography of the former president. For his biographies, he has won two Pulitzer Prizes in Biography, two National Book Awards, the Francis Parkman Prize, three National Book Critics Circle Awards, the H. L. Mencken Award, the Carr P. Collins Award from the Texas Institute of Letters, the D. B. Hardeman Prize, a Gold Medal in Biography from the American Academy of Arts and Letters. In 2010 President Barack Obama awarded Caro the National Humanities Medal. Due to Caro's reputation for exhaustive research and detail, he is sometimes invoked by reviewers of other writers who are called "Caro-esque" for their own extensive research.
Caro was born in New York City, the son of Celia born in New York, Benjamin Caro, born in Warsaw, Poland. He grew up on Central Park West at 94th Street, his father, a businessman, spoke Yiddish as well as English, but he didn't speak either often. He was'very silent,' Caro said, became more so after Caro's mother died, after a long illness, when Robert was 12, it was his mother's deathbed wish that he should go to the Horace Mann School, an exclusive private school in the Riverdale section of The Bronx. As a student there, Caro translated an edition of his school newspaper into Russian and mailed 10,000 copies to students in the USSR. Graduated in 1953, he went on to Princeton University, he became managing editor of The Daily Princetonian, second to Johnny Apple a prominent editor at The New York Times. His writings, both in class and out, had been lengthy since his years at Horace Mann. A short story he wrote for The Princeton Tiger, the school's humor magazine, took up an entire issue, his senior thesis on existentialism in Hemingway was so long, Caro claims, that the university's English department subsequently established a maximum length for senior theses by its students.
He graduated cum laude in 1957. According to a 2012 The New York Times Magazine profile, "Caro said he now thinks that Princeton, which he chose because of its parties, was one of his mistakes, that he should have gone to Harvard. Princeton in the mid-1950s was hardly known for being hospitable towards the Jewish community, though Caro says he did not suffer from anti-Semitism, he saw plenty of students who did." He had a sports column in the Princetonian and wrote for the Princeton Tiger humor magazine. Caro began his professional career as a reporter with the New Brunswick Daily Home News in New Jersey, he took. He left politics after an incident where he was accompanying the party chair to polling places on election day. A police officer reported to the party chair that some African-Americans Caro saw being loaded into a police van, under arrest, were poll watchers who "had been giving them some trouble." Caro left politics right there. "I still think about it," he recalled in the 2012 Times Magazine profile.
"It wasn't the roughness of the police. It was the—meekness isn't the right word—the acceptance of those people of what was happening."After enrolling in the English doctoral program at Rutgers University, he went on to six years as an investigative reporter with the Long Island newspaper Newsday. One of the articles he wrote was a long series about why a proposed bridge across Long Island Sound from Rye to Oyster Bay, championed by Robert Moses, would have been inadvisable, requiring piers so large it would disrupt tidal flows in the sound, among other problems. Caro believed that his work had influenced the state's powerful governor Nelson Rockefeller to reconsider the idea, until he saw the state's Assembly vote overwhelmingly to pass a preliminary measure for the bridge."That was one of the transformational moments of my life," Caro said years later. It led him to think about Moses for the first time. "I got in the car and drove home to Long Island, I kept thinking to myself:'Everything you've been doing is baloney.
You've been writing under the belief. But here's a guy who has never been elected to anything, who has enough power to turn the entire state around, you don't have the slightest idea how he got it.'"Caro gave a speech to introduce Senator Ted Kennedy at the 2004 Democratic National Convention. Caro spent the academic year of 1965–1966 as a Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. During a class on urban planning and land use, the experience of watching Moses returned to him, they were talking one day about highways and where they got built...and here were these mathematical formulas about traffic density and population density and so on, all of a sudden I said to myself: "This is wrong. This isn't. Highways get built. If you don't find out and explain to people where Robert Moses gets his power everything else you do is going to be dishonest. To do so, Caro began work on a biography of Moses, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of
Books in the United States
As of 2018, several firms in the United States rank among the world's biggest publishers of books in terms of revenue: Cengage Learning, HarperCollins, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, McGraw-Hill Education, Simon & Schuster, Wiley. See also: English Short Title Catalogue, 15th-18th centuries; the American Library Association formed in 1876, the Bibliographical Society of America in 1904. The national Center for the Book began in 1977. Children's books: United States and List of American children's books American cookbooks See also: Bookselling in the US, Bookstores of the US, List of US booksellers' associations, Antiquarian book trade in the US, List of booksellers in BostonPopular books in the 19th century included Sheldon's In His Steps. 20th century bestsellers included Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Carnegie’s How to Win Friends and Influence People, Spock’s Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, Harris’ I'm OK – You're OK, Woodward and Bernstein's All the President's Men. Recent bestsellers have included Brown's Da Vinci Code.
The influential "New York Times Best Seller list" first appeared in 1931. The online bookseller Amazon.com began business based in the state of Washington. BookExpo America, trade fair New York Antiquarian Book Fair Book of the Month Club, subscription business, est. 1926 Oprah's est.. 1996 Fellowship of American Bibliophilic Societies, est. 1993. Members include: Book Club of California, San Francisco, California. 1912 The Caxton Club, Illinois. 1895 Florida Bibliophile Society, Bayonet Point, Florida. 1983 The Grolier Club, New York, New York. 1884 The Ticknor Society, Massachusetts. 2002 Some notable collections of books of the United States include: American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts Library of Congress, Washington DC The nonprofit Internet Archive began scanning books in 2004, in the same year that Google Inc. launched Google Book Search. In 2005, Google began scanning pages of volumes in several large research libraries in the US, as part of its new Google Books Library Project; the Open Content Alliance formed in 2005.
You've Got Mail, 1998 The Ninth Gate, 1999 Portlandia, 2011-, includes satirical sketches set in fictional "Women and Women First" bookstore, Oregon The End of the Tour, 2015, about a book tour Copyright law of the United States African-American book publishers in the United States, 1960–80 American literature Category:American writers Literacy in the United States Reading education in the United States Book censorship in the United States List of most challenged books in the United States One City One Book, initiated in Seattle in 1998 Media of the United States and Category:American media history Joseph Sabin. Bibliotheca Americana: a Dictionary of Books relating to America, from its Discovery to the Present Time. New York. OCLC 13972268. Publishers Weekly, ISSN 0000-0019 1872- G. W. Porter. K. Fortescue, eds.. "Bibliographies of Countries: United States of America". List of Bibliographical Works in the Reading Room of the British Museum. London. OCLC 3816244 – via Internet Archive; the New York Times Book Review, ISSN 0028-7806 1896- Charles Evans, American BibliographyCS1 maint: Date format Booklist, American Library Association, ISSN 0006-7385 1905-.
Alice Bertha Kroeger. "Bibliography: National and Trade: American". Guide to the Study and Use of Reference Books. American Library Association. Henry Walcott Boynton. Annals of American Bookselling, 1638-1850. J. Wiley & Sons – via HathiTrust. Lawrence C. Wroth, The Colonial Printer, Maine: Southworth-Anthoensen Press – via Internet Archive Bureau of the Census, Industry Division, Book Publishing Industry in the United States: 1945, Facts for Industry, OCLC 67889130 Hellmut Lehmann-Haupt; the book in America: a history of the making and selling of books in the United States. Bowker. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Cecil J. McHale, Guide to General Book Publishers in the United States, Ann Arbor, MI New York Review of Books, ISSN 0028-7504 1963- Charles A. Madison. Book Publishing in America. McGraw-Hill. OCLC 729685674. John Tebbel. History of Book Publishing in the United States. Bowker. ISBN 0835204898. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Date format Allen Kent. "Printers and Printing: the United States".
Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. 23. Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-2023-0. U. S. Book Publishing Yearbook and Directory, ISSN 0193-6417 1979- Michael Hackenberg, ed. Getting the Books Out: Papers of the Chicago Conference on the Book in 19th-century America, Washington DC: Center for the Book. Chapters include: "Institutional Book Collecting in the Old Northwest, 1876-1900" by Terry Belanger "Copyright and Books in Nineteenth-century America" by Alice D. Schreyer "Dissemination of Popular Books in the Midwest and Far West during the Nineteenth-century" by Madeleine B. Stern "Getting the Books Out: trade sales, parcel sales, book fairs in the nineteenth-century United States" by Michael Winship Margaret A. Blanchard, ed.. History of the Mass Media in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-91749-4. André Schif