Bernard Rimland was an American research psychologist, writer and advocate for children with developmental disorders. Rimland's first book, Infantile Autism, sparked by the birth of a son who had autism, was instrumental in changing attitudes toward the disorder. Rimland founded and directed two advocacy groups: the Autism Society of America and the Autism Research Institute. Rimland completed his undergraduate studies and earned a master's degree in psychology at San Diego State University, he obtained his Ph. D. in experimental psychology and research design, from Pennsylvania State University in 1953. Upon completion of his doctorate and his wife moved back to San Diego. Rimland worked as a psychologist at the Point Loma Naval Station, where he remained until 1985. After the birth of his son and his subsequent diagnosis of autism around the age of 2, Rimland began researching the disorder; the prevailing theory in the 1950s was that autism was the reaction of children to mothers who were "cold and distant".
Rimland's personal experience contradicted this idea of "refrigerator mothers" and he began searching for alternative explanations. In 1964, Rimland published his book, Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and Its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior. In the book, Rimland asserted that autism was not a psychological manifestation caused by unfeeling parents, a held belief popularized by Bruno Bettelheim. Instead, Rimland suggested, autism was a result of biochemical defects "triggered by environmental assaults", he acknowledged that there may be a genetic component predisposing children to the disorder. Rimland argued that autism could "be treated—or at least ameliorated—with biomedical and behavioral therapies." Infantile Autism challenged the medical establishment's perceptions of autism. Rimland's message resonated with parents and, after the book was published, he began getting calls and letters from people who wanted to share their stories and ask for advice. In 1965, Rimland founded the Autism Society of America, a parent advocacy organization, to "work on behalf of autistic children and their families at local and national levels."In 1967, Rimland left the ASA to established the Autism Research Institute, a San Diego-based non-profit organization dedicated to researching and collecting data on autism and related disorders.
He kept a database of research and case histories, as well as conducted and sponsored research in an attempt identify the cause of autism and offer effective treatment solutions. Rimland supported Applied Behavioral Analysis, a systematic educational approach made popular by Ivar Lovaas, he published an ARI newsletter. Rimland was the editor of the Autism Research Review International, published by ARI, which covers biomedical and educational advances in autism research. In 1988, Rimland served as technical advisor on autism for the 1988 movie Rain Man. Rimland suggested giving Raymond Babbitt, the movie's main character portrayed by Dustin Hoffman, the extraordinary characteristics of someone with Savant syndrome. Hoffman interviewed Mark, in preparing for the role, he felt the movie portrayed people with disabilities, autism, sympathetically. The makers of the movie made a donation of $75,000, intended to go to Rimland's Autism Research Institute. However, the check was made out to the Autism Society of America in error.
Rimland sued to get the money returned, but lost in court because he failed to file the lawsuit in time. Defeat Autism Now!, established in 1995, brought together parents and researchers to "explore and establish effective biomedical interventions. Rimland was outspoken on what he believed to be the major causes for autism: environmental pollutants and vaccinations. Sometimes, this put him at odds with the established medical community. In a letter to the editor of the Washington Post in 1997, Rimland wrote: "The reason that the public–and Congress–supports alternative medicine is that conventional medicine, despite its arrogance, is far too ineffective, far too harmful and far too costly. Non-conventional medicine is a rational alternative to a much greater evil–conventional medicine." Rimland considered vaccinations to be a "prime suspect" in the onset of autism. He maintained that, while not proven, there was a direct link between autism, he supported Andrew Wakefield's now discredited suggestion that the MMR vaccine was linked to autism.
Rimland contended that the vaccination triggered autism by placing a burden on the immune systems of children between birth and age 2. Rimland linked the increase of late-onset autism during the 1980s with the introduction of the MMR vaccine, a correlation the Center for Disease Control, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Medical Association did not support, he rejected the idea that a diagnosis of autism at or around 18 months, the same time the vaccinations were administered, was coincidental. When the California Department of Health Services, along with studies from England and Finland, reported that the vaccine "plays little or no role in the disease," Rimland stated that it was "much too early to dismiss the hypothesis", he remained undeterred when a study by Robert L. Davis, published in the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, found no association between MMR and inflammatory bowel disease, discussed in the Wakefield report, "nor any evidence that the vaccine triggered acute onset of symptoms."
In 2004, all but 13 of the original co-authors of the Wakefield study recanted their findings due to insufficient evidence. The United States Institute of Medicine in its 2004 report
Vitamin B12 known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin, involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, in the maturation of developing red blood cells in the bone marrow. Vitamin B12 is one of eight B vitamins, it consists of a class of chemically related compounds. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt positioned in the center of a corrin ring; the only organisms to produce vitamin B12 are certain bacteria, archaea. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses; because there are no common vegetable sources of the vitamin, vegans must use a supplement or fortified foods for B12 intake or risk serious health consequences. Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk and fish. Staple foods those that form part of a vegan diet, are fortified by having the vitamin added to them.
Vitamin B12 supplements are available in single multivitamin tablets. The most common cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B12 in order for absorption to occur. Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy, using proton pump inhibitors, H2 blockers or other antacids; this condition may be characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia, a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more after age 60, increases in incidence with advancing age. Dietary deficiency is rare in developed countries due to access to dietary meat and fortified foods, but children in some regions of developing countries are at particular risk due to increased requirements during growth coupled with lack of access to dietary B12. Other causes of vitamin B12 deficiency are much less frequent.
B12 is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. The structure of B12 is based on a corrin ring, similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme; the central metal ion is cobalt. Four of the six coordination sites are provided by the corrin ring, a fifth by a dimethylbenzimidazole group; the sixth coordination site, the reactive center, is variable, being a cyano group, a hydroxyl group, a methyl group or a 5′-deoxyadenosyl group (here the C5′ atom of the deoxyribose forms the covalent bond with cobalt to yield the four vitamers of B12. The covalent C-Co bond is one of the first examples of carbon-metal bonds to be discovered in biology; the hydrogenases and, by necessity, enzymes associated with cobalt utilization, involve metal-carbon bonds. Vitamin B12 is a generic descriptor name referring to a collection of cobalt and corrin ring molecules which are defined by their particular vitamin function in the body. All of the substrate cobalt-corrin molecules from which B12 is made must be synthesized by bacteria.
After this synthesis is complete, the human body has the ability to convert any form of B12 to an active form, by means of enzymatically removing certain prosthetic chemical groups from the cobalt atom and replacing them with others. The four vitamers of B12 are all red-colored crystals and water solutions, due to the color of the cobalt-corrin complex. Cyanocobalamin is one form of B12 because it can be metabolized in the body to an active coenzyme form; the cyanocobalamin form of B12 does not occur in nature but is a byproduct of the fact that other forms of B12 are avid binders of cyanide which they pick up in the process of activated charcoal purification of the vitamin after it is made by bacteria in the commercial process. Since the cyanocobalamin form of B12 is easy to crystallize and is not sensitive to air-oxidation, it is used as a form of B12 for food additives and in many common multivitamins. Pure cyanocobalamin possesses the deep pink color associated with most octahedral cobalt complexes and the crystals are well formed and grown up to millimeter size.
Hydroxocobalamin is another vitamer of B12 encountered in pharmacology, but is not present in the human body. Hydroxocobalamin is sometimes denoted B12a; this is the form of B12 produced by bacteria, and, converted to cyanocobalmin in the commercial charcoal filtration step of production. Hydroxocobalamin has an avid affinity for cyanide ions and has been used as an antidote to cyanide poisoning, it is supplied in water solution for injection. Hydroxocobalamin is thought to be converted to the active enzymic forms of B12 more than cyanocobalamin, since it is little more expensive than cyanocobalamin, has longer retention times in the body, has been used for vitamin replacement in situations where added reassurance of activity is desired. Intramuscular administration of hydroxocobalamin is the preferred treatment for pediatric patients with intrinsic cobalamin metabolic diseases, for vitamin B12 deficient patients with tobacco amblyopia.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Occupational therapy is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and Occupational Therapy Assistants. OTs work with people with mental health problems, injuries, or impairments; the American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities. Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes."Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice. Occupational therapists work with professionals in physical therapy, speech therapy, nursing, social work, clinical psychology, medicine.
The earliest evidence of using occupations as a method of therapy can be found in ancient times. In c. 100 BCE, Greek physician Asclepiades treated patients with a mental illness humanely using therapeutic baths, massage and music. The Roman Celsus prescribed music, travel and exercise to his patients. However, by medieval times the use of these interventions with people with mental illness was rare, if not nonexistent. In 18th-century Europe, revolutionaries such as Philippe Pinel and Johann Christian Reil reformed the hospital system. Instead of the use of metal chains and restraints, their institutions used rigorous work and leisure activities in the late 18th century; this was the Moral Treatment era, developed in Europe during the Age of Enlightenment, where the roots of occupational therapy lie. Although it was thriving in Europe, interest in the reform movement fluctuated in the United States throughout the 19th century, it re-emerged in the early decades of the 20th century as Occupational Therapy.
The Arts and Crafts movement that took place between 1860 and 1910 impacted occupational therapy. In the US, a industrialized country, the arts and crafts societies emerged against the monotony and lost autonomy of factory work. Arts and crafts were used as a way of promoting learning through doing, provided a creative outlet, served as a way to avoid boredom during long hospital stays. Eleanor Clarke Slagle is considered to be the “mother” of occupational therapy. Slagle, one of the founding members of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, proposed habit training as a primary occupational therapy model of treatment. Based on the philosophy that engagement in meaningful routines shape a person's wellbeing, habit training focused on creating structure and balance between work and leisure. Although habit training was developed to treat individuals with mental health conditions, its basic tenets are apparent in modern treatment models that are utilized across a wide scope of client populations.
In 1915 Slagle opened the first occupational therapy training program, the Henry B. Favill School of Occupations, at Hull House in Chicago. Slagle went on to serve as secretary. In 1954, AOTA created the Eleanor Clarke Slagle Lectureship Award in her honor; each year, this award recognizes a member of AOTA “who has who has creatively contributed to the development of the body of knowledge of the profession through research, and/or clinical practice.” The health profession of occupational therapy was conceived in the early 1910s as a reflection of the Progressive Era. Early professionals merged valued ideals, such as having a strong work ethic and the importance of crafting with one's own hands with scientific and medical principles; the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, now called the American Occupational Therapy Association, was founded in 1917 and the profession of Occupational Therapy was named in 1921. William Rush Dunton, one of the founders of NSPOT and visionary figure in the first decades of the profession struggled with "the cumbersomeness of the term occupational therapy", as it lacked the "exactness of meaning, possessed by scientific terms".
Other titles such as "work-cure","ergo therapy", "creative occupations" were discussed as substitutes, but none possessed the broad meaning that the practice of occupational therapy demanded in order to capture the many forms of treatment that existed from the beginning. The emergence of occupational therapy challenged the views of mainstream scientific medicine. Instead of focusing purely on the medical model, occupational therapists argued that a complex combination of social and biological reasons cause dysfunction. Principles and techniques were borrowed from many disciplines—including but not limited to physical therapy, psychiatry, self-help and social work—to enrich the profession's scope. Between 1900 and 1930, the founders developed supporting theories. By the early 1930s, AOTA had established educational guidelines and accreditation procedures; the early twentieth century was a time in which the rising incidence of disability related to industrial accidents, World War I, mental illness brought about an increasing social awareness of the issues involved.
The entry of the United States into World War I was a crucial event in the history of the profession. Up until this time, occupational therapy had been concerned primaril
The chairman is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly. The person holding the office is elected or appointed by the members of the group, the chairman presides over meetings of the assembled group and conducts its business in an orderly fashion. In some organizations, the chairman position is called president, in others, where a board appoints a president, the two different terms are used for distinctly different positions. Other terms sometimes used for the office and its holder include chair, chairwoman, presiding officer, moderator and convenor; the chairman of a parliamentary chamber is called the speaker. The term chair is sometimes used in lieu of chairman, in response to criticisms that using chairman is sexist, it is used today, has been used as a substitute for chairman since the middle of the 17th century, with its earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary dated 1658–1659, only four years after the first citation for chairman.
Major dictionaries state that the word derives from a person. A 1994 Canadian study found the Toronto Star newspaper referring to most presiding men as "chairman", to most presiding women as "chairperson" or as "chairwoman"; the Chronicle of Higher Education uses "chairman" for men and "chairperson" for women. An analysis of the British National Corpus found chairman used 1,142 times, chairperson 130 times and chairwoman 68 times; the National Association of Parliamentarians adopted a resolution in 1975 discouraging the use of “chairperson” and rescinded it in 2017. The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times and United Press International all use "chairwoman" or "chairman" when referring to women, forbid use of "chair" or of "chairperson" except in direct quotations. In World Schools Style debating, male chairs are called "Mr. Chairman" and female chairs are called "Madame Chair"; the FranklinCovey Style Guide for Business and Technical Communication, as well as the American Psychological Association style guide, advocate using "chair" or "chairperson", rather than "chairman".
The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style suggests that the gender-neutral forms are gaining ground. It advocates using "chair" to refer both to women; the Telegraph style guide bans the use of both "Chair" and "Chairperson" on the basis that "Chairman" is correct English. The word chair can refer to the place from which the holder of the office presides, whether on a chair, at a lectern, or elsewhere. During meetings, the person presiding is said to be "in the chair" and is referred to as "the chair". Parliamentary procedure requires that members address the "chair" as "Mr. Chairman" rather than using a name – one of many customs intended to maintain the presiding officer's impartiality and to ensure an objective and impersonal approach. In the United States, the presiding officer of the lower house of a legislative body, such as the House of Representatives, is titled the Speaker, while the upper house, such as the Senate, is chaired by a President. In his 1992 State of the Union address, then-U.
S. President George H. W. Bush used "chairman" for men and "chair" for women. In the British music hall tradition, the Chairman was the master of ceremonies who announced the performances and was responsible for controlling any rowdy elements in the audience; the role was popularised on British TV in the 1960s and 1970s by Leonard Sachs, the Chairman on the variety show The Good Old Days."Chairman" as a quasi-title gained particular resonance when socialist states from 1917 onward shunned more traditional leadership labels and stressed the collective control of soviets by beginning to refer to executive figureheads as "Chairman of the X Committee". Vladimir Lenin, for example functioned as the head of Soviet Russia not as tsar or as president but in roles such as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR". Note in particular the popular standard method for referring to Mao Zedong: "Chairman Mao". In addition to the administrative or executive duties in organizations, the chairman has the duties of presiding over meetings.
Such duties at meetings include: Calling the meeting to order Determining if a quorum is present Announcing the items on the order of business or agenda as they come up Recognition of members to have the floor Enforcing the rules of the group Putting questions to a vote Adjourning the meetingWhile presiding, the chairman should remain impartial and not interrupt a speaker if the speaker has the floor and is following the rules of the group. In committees or small boards, the chairman votes along with the other members. However, in assemblies or larger boards, the chairman should vote only when it can affect the result. At a meeting, the chairman only has one vote; the powers of the chairman vary across organizations. In some organizations the chairman has the authority to hire staff and make financial decisions, while in others the chairman only makes recommendations to a board of directors, still others the chairman has no executive powers and is a spokesman for the organization; the amount of power given to the chairman depends on the type of organization, its structure, the rules it has created for itself.
If the chairman exceeds the given authority, engages in misconduct, or fails to perform t
A hug machine known as a hug box, a squeeze machine, or a squeeze box, is a deep-pressure device designed to calm hypersensitive persons individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The therapeutic, stress-relieving device was invented by Temple Grandin while she was attending college. Autism disorders have profound effects upon both social interactions and sensitivity to sensory stimulation in persons with such conditions making it uncomfortable or impractical for them to turn to other human beings for comfort. Grandin addressed this by designing the hug machine for sensory relief; the hug machine consists of two hinged side-boards, each four by three feet with thick soft padding, which form a V-shape, with a complex control box at one end and heavy-duty tubes leading to an air compressor. The user squats, between the side-boards, for as long or short a period as desired. Using pressure exerted by the air compressor and controlled by the user, the side-boards apply deep pressure stimulation evenly across the lateral parts of the body.
The machine and its development are depicted in the biopic Temple Grandin. As a young child, Grandin realized she would seek out deep pressure stimulation, but she felt over-stimulated when someone hugged or held her; the idea for the hug machine came to her during a visit to her aunt's Arizona ranch, where she noted the way cattle were confined in a squeeze chute for inoculation, how some of the cattle calmed down after pressure was administered. She realized that the deep pressure from the chute had a calming effect on the cattle, she decided that something similar might well settle down her own hypersensitivity. Grandin's device met with disapproval as psychologists at her college sought to confiscate her prototype hug machine, her science teacher, encouraged her to determine the reason it helped resolve the anxiety and sensory issues. Several therapy programs in the United States now use hug machines achieving general calming effects among both children and adults with autism. A 1995 study on the efficacy of Grandin's device, conducted by the Center for the Study of Autism, working with Willamette University in Salem, involved ten children with autism and found a reduction in tension and anxiety.
Other studies, including one by Dr. Margaret Creedon, have yielded similar results. A small pilot study published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reported that the machine produced a significant reduction in tension, but only a small decrease in anxiety. Grandin continued to use her own hug box on a regular basis to provide the deep pressure necessary to relieve symptoms of her anxiety. "I concentrate on how I can do it," she has said. Grandin has written a paper on her hug machine and the effects of deep pressure stimulation, published in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. In a February 2010 Time magazine interview, Grandin stated that she no longer uses a hug machine: "It broke two years ago, I never got around to fixing it. I'm into hugging people now." For several years in the 1990s, urban interventionist/artist Wendy Jacob worked with Grandin in developing furniture that squeezes or'hugs' users, inspired by Grandin's hug machine. Dr. Temple Grandin's Webpage: Livestock Behaviour, Design of Facilities and Humane Slaughter Description and schematic details of the squeeze machine Hug Machine Building Directions
Tampa Bay Times
The Tampa Bay Times named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, United States, it has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, in 2009, won two in a single year for the first time in its history, one of, for its PolitiFact project. It is published by the Times Publishing Company, owned by The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, a nonprofit journalism school directly adjacent to the University of South Florida St. Petersburg campus. Many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is available for the Amazon Kindle and iPad; the newspaper traces its origins to the West Hillsborough Times, a weekly newspaper established in Dunedin, Florida on the Pinellas peninsula in 1884. At the time, neither St. Petersburg nor Pinellas County existed; the paper was published weekly in the back of a pharmacy and had a circulation of 480. It subsequently changed ownership six times in seventeen years. In December 1884 it was bought by A. C.
Turner, who moved it to Clear Water Harbor. In 1892 it moved to St. Petersburg, by 1898 it was renamed the St. Petersburg Times; the Times became bi-weekly in 1907, began publication six days a week in 1912. Paul Poynter, a publisher from Indiana, bought the paper in September 1912 and converted to a seven-day paper, though it was financially stable. Paul's son, Nelson Poynter, became editor in 1939 and took majority control of the paper in 1947, set about improving the paper's finances and prestige. Nelson Poynter controlled the paper until his death in 1978, when he willed the majority of the stock to the non-profit Poynter Institute. In November 1986, the Evening Independent was merged into the Times. Poynter was succeeded by Andrew Barnes, Paul Tash and Neil Brown. On January 1, 2012, the St. Petersburg Times was renamed the Tampa Bay Times; as the newly rechristened Tampa Bay Times, the paper's weekday tabloid tbt*, a free daily publication and which used "" as its subtitle, became just tbt when the name change took place.
The St. Pete Times name lives on as the name for the Times' neighborhood news sections in southern Pinellas County, serving communities from Largo southward; the Times has done significant investigative reporting on the Church of Scientology, since the church's acquisition of the Fort Harrison Hotel in 1975 and other holdings in Clearwater. The Times has published special reports and series critical of the church and its current leader, David Miscavige. In 2010, the Times published an investigative report questioning the validity of the United States Navy Veterans Association, leading to significant reaction and official investigations into the group nationwide. On May 3, 2016, the Times acquired its longtime competitor The Tampa Tribune, with the latter publication ceasing publishing and Tribune features and some writers expected to be merged into the Times; as reported by other local media outlets in the Tampa Bay area at the time of this acquisition, for many years the Tampa Tribune was considered to be the more conservative newspaper in the region, while the Tampa Bay Times was thought of as more liberal.
The Times' purchase of The Tribune allowed its circulation area to be expanded into Polk County, placing it in competition with other newspapers such as The Lakeland Ledger and The Polk County Democrat, as well as into the south central region of the state known as the Florida Heartland. In the case of the latter, the Times published Highlands Today, a daily news supplement of The Tribune for readers in Highlands County; the Times sold the paper in 2016 to Sun Coast Media Group. The newspaper created PolitiFact.com, a project in which its reporters and editors "fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House and interest groups…" They publish original statements and their evaluations on the PolitiFact.com website, assign each a "Truth-O-Meter" rating, with ratings ranging from "True" for true statements to "Pants on Fire" for false and ridiculous statements. The site includes an "Obameter", tracking U. S. President Barack Obama's performance with regard to his campaign promises.
PolitiFact.com was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 2009 for "its fact-checking initiative during the 2008 presidential campaign that used probing reporters and the power of the World Wide Web to examine more than 750 political claims, separating rhetoric from truth to enlighten voters." The Times sold PolitiFact.com to its parent company, the Poynter Institute, in 2018. List of newspapers in Florida Media in the Tampa Bay Area James F. Tracy. "Strikebusting in St. Petersburg: Nelson Poynter's Postwar Assault on Union Printers". American Journalism. 25. T. R. Goldman. "What will happen to the Tampa Bay Times?". Columbia Journalism Review. 53. Official website Today's Tampa Bay Times front page at the Newseum websitePolitiFact.com website