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AutoCAD DXF is a CAD data file format developed by Autodesk for enabling data interoperability between AutoCAD and other programs. DXF was introduced in December 1982 as part of AutoCAD 1.0, was intended to provide an exact representation of the data in the AutoCAD native file format, DWG, for which Autodesk for many years did not publish specifications. Because of this, correct imports of DXF files have been difficult. Autodesk now publishes the DXF specifications as a PDF on its website. Versions of AutoCAD from Release 10 and up support both ASCII and binary forms of DXF. Earlier versions support only ASCII; as AutoCAD has become more powerful, supporting more complex object types, DXF has become less useful. Certain object types, including ACIS solids and regions, are not documented. Other object types, including AutoCAD 2006's dynamic blocks, all of the objects specific to the vertical market versions of AutoCAD, are documented, but not well enough to allow other developers to support them.

For these reasons many CAD applications use the DWG format which can be licensed from Autodesk or non-natively from the Open Design Alliance. DXF coordinates are always without dimensions so that the reader or user needs to know the drawing unit or has to extract it from the textual comments in the sheets. ASCII versions of DXF can be read with any text editor; the basic organization of a DXF file is as follows: HEADER section – General information about the drawing. Each parameter has an associated value. CLASSES section – Holds the information for application-defined classes whose instances appear in the BLOCKS, ENTITIES, OBJECTS sections of the database. Does not provide sufficient information to allow interoperability with other programs. TABLES section – This section contains definitions of named items. Application ID table Block Record table Dimension Style table Layer table Linetype table Text style table User Coordinate System table View table Viewport configuration tableBLOCKS section – This section contains Block Definition entities describing the entities comprising each Block in the drawing.

ENTITIES section – This section contains the drawing entities, including any Block References. OBJECTS section – Contains the data that apply to nongraphical objects, used by AutoLISP and ObjectARX applications. THUMBNAILIMAGE section – Contains the preview image for the DXF file. END OF FILEThe data format of a DXF is called a "tagged data" format which "means that each data element in the file is preceded by an integer number, called a group code. A group code's value indicates; this value indicates the meaning of a data element for a given object type. All user-specified information in a drawing file can be represented in DXF format.".dwg Design Web Format QCad, an open source CAD application that uses the DXF file format internally and to save and import files LibreCAD, a version of QCAD Community Edition ported to Qt4 Open Design Alliance ShareCAD, a free online CAD viewer that supports DXF, among other formats DXF Reference from Autodesk Developer Network. Menu of documentation for chronological versions of DXF back to 1994.

AutoCAD DXF Reference AutoCAD DXF File Format Summary. Annotated example DXF file Paul Bourke. "Minimum Requirements for Creating a DXF File of a 3D Model". AutoDesk Online DXF File Viewer


The original meaning of the word shuttle is the device used in weaving to carry the weft. By reference to the continual to-and-fro motion associated with that, the term was applied in transportation and in other spheres, thus the word may now refer to: Air shuttle, a type of flight which connects nearby destinations Delta Shuttle, the brand name for Delta Air Lines' air shuttle service Rossi Shuttle Quik, an Italian ultralight trike design Shuttle America, a regional airline based in Indianapolis, Indiana Shuttle by United, a regional airline operated as a subsidiary of United Airlines Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, modified Boeing 747 airliners used to transport Space Shuttle orbiters US Airways Shuttle, the brand name for an hourly service offered by US Airways The callsign for domestic British Airways flights - international flights use Speedbird Fit Shuttle, the station wagon version of Honda Fit Honda Shuttle, the first generation Honda Odyssey Transport systems operating at frequent intervals on a short, non-stop route between two places Shuttle bus service Shuttle train service Car shuttle train Eurotunnel Shuttle, the car-carrying trains used in the Channel Tunnel S, three shuttle train routes 42nd Street Shuttle, shuttle train between Grand Central and Port Authority Franklin Avenue Shuttle Rockaway Park Shuttle Shuttle Shuttle van, a New Zealand term for shared taxis Buran-class shuttle, the vehicle for the Soviet Buran programme.

Space Shuttle, the vehicle for the NASA Space Shuttle program from 1981 to 2011. Space Shuttle orbiter, a spaceplane, the manned part of the Space Shuttle. Shuttle, a smaller spacecraft used for ship-to-ship and ship-to-ground transport in theory and science fiction River Shuttle, a river of southeast London in England Shuttle, a 2008 thriller film Shuttle, a video game produced by Virgin Molecular shuttles, a molecule capable of nanoscale transportation Multi-project wafer service shuttle, an integrated circuit production run for multi-chip or multi-project wafers Shuttle bombing, a World War II strategic bombing tactic Shuttle vector, vector that shuttles between species, genetics 20-yard shuttle, test performed by American football players Shuttlecock or birdie, the object batted back and forth in badminton Shuttle, school bullying in South Korea Shuttle Inc. a manufacturer of small form-factor computers Shuttle trading, a form of goods distribution USS Shuttle, a United States Navy patrol vessel in commission from 1918 to 1919 Shuttle used by a weavers at textile mill or on a loom


Gleichen is the name of two groups of castles in Germany, thus named from their resemblance to each other. The first is a group of three, each situated on a hill in Thuringia between Erfurt. One of these called Gleichen, the Wanderslebener Gleiche, was besieged unsuccessfully by the emperor Henry IV in 1088, it was the seat of a line of counts, one of whom, Ernest III, a crusader, is the subject of a romantic legend. Having been captured, he was released from his imprisonment by a Turkish woman, who returned with him to Germany and became his wife, a papal dispensation allowing him to live with two wives at the same time. After belonging to the elector of Mainz the castle became the property of Prussia in 1803; the second castle is called Mühlburg. This existed as early as 704 and was besieged by Henry IV in 1087, it came into the hands of Prussia in 1803. The third castle, was still inhabited in 1911 and contained a collection of weapons and pictures belonging to its owner, the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, whose family obtained possession of it in 1368.

It was built about 935. The other group consists of Neuen-Gleichen and Alten-Gleichen; the former is in ruins, while the latter is discernible under the forest cover. They crown two hills south-east of Göttingen, over Bremke; the name of Gleichen is taken by the family descended from Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg through his marriage with Laura Wilhelmina Seymour, sister of the 5th Marquess of Hertford and daughter of Admiral Sir George Francis Seymour, a branch of the Hohenlohe family having at one time owned part of the county of Gleichen. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gleichen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press


ICT4peace is a policy and capacity-building oriented international foundation. The purpose is to save lives and protect human dignity through Information and Communication Technology; the Foundation promotes cybersecurity and a peaceful cyberspace through international negotiations with governments and non-state actors. It explores and champions the use ICTs to facilitate communication between peoples and stakeholders involved in humanitarian or conflict-related crisis management and crisis mapping, humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding, it is registered as ICT for Peace in the Geneva business directory. ICT4peace is supported by governments and philanthropic foundations and proposes analysis and counselling services as well as capacity-building programs, it works with the United Nations in strengthening the organisation’s capacities to map and use data across its various agencies and locations and by contributing to the creation of best practices in Crisis Information Management across the organisation.

ICT4peace intervened for instance in the project "Strengthening Crisis Information and Management at the United Nations", described in the UN Secretary general report of 5 October 2010 on ICTs in the United Nations. The way early warning systems help reduce the human cost of earthquakes, ICT-based platform can help save lives during natural or man-made disasters, said ICT4peace founder, Daniel Stauffacher, former Ambassador and Special Representative of the Swiss Government for the first phase of the World Summit on Information Society, which took place in Geneva in 2003. ICT4peace called for international norms of responsible state behaviour and disarmament negotiations for a peaceful cyberspace. Although the idea of considering the use of ICTs in promoting peace was mentioned in the lead-up to WSIS 1, in particular by Maurice Strong, senior advisor to United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan, the topic was left out from WSIS 1. In the run-off to the WSIS 2nd phase, that took place in November 2005 in Tunisia, the UN published the document "Information and Communication Technology for Peace, the role of ICT in Preventing, Responding to and Recovering from conflict".

This document presented the ICT4peace project, that began in 2004 and formed part of Switzerland’s contribution to WSIS 2. The project aim was to explore and map the possible uses of ICTs in the field of prevention of conflicts, peace building and post conflict reconstruction. Crisis situations such as natural disaster were considered for their similarities with conflicts situations. Subsequently WSIS 2 in The Tunis Commitment for the Information Society adopted para 36 and valued "the potential of ICTs to promote peace and to prevent conflict which, inter alia, negatively affects achieving development goals. ICTs can be used for identifying conflict situations through early-warning systems preventing conflicts, promoting their peaceful resolution, supporting humanitarian action, including protection of civilians in armed conflicts, facilitating peacekeeping missions, assisting post conflict peace-building and reconstruction". In October 2006, under the Communities of Expertise established within the framework of the Global Alliance for Information and Communication Technologies and Development, the ICT4peace Foundation was invited to a partnership with the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs and GAID.

The Foundation’s role is that of a focal point for overseeing and promoting the spirit of Paragraph 36 of the WSIS Tunis Commitment. The Foundation participates as a co-host and facilitator in the annual Meeting of the UN Crisis Information Management Advisory Group, reviewing and supporting progress of the UN Crisis Information Management Strategy; the CiMS aims at helping all actors, including the UN’s member states and agencies, in dealing with all stages of a crisis lifecycle more efficiently and effectively. ICT4peace supports and intervenes in both in the annual Crisis Mappers Conference and BuildPeace Conference. A full list of ICT4peace publications is available on the website of the ETH Zurich International Security Network. Official website

Largetooth cookiecutter shark

The largetooth cookiecutter shark is a rare species of squaliform shark in the family Dalatiidae, reported from depths of 60–200 m at scattered locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. As its common name suggests, it is similar in appearance to the cookiecutter shark but has much larger lower teeth. Most individuals lack the dark "collar" of I. brasiliensis. This species reaches a maximum known length of 42 cm; the largetooth cookiecutter shark feeds by gouging out chunks of flesh from larger animals, including bony fishes and marine mammals, is able to take larger bites than I. brasiliensis. Little is known of its life history; this shark is an infrequent bycatch of commercial trawl and longline fisheries, but is not thought to be much threatened by these activities. The largetooth cookiecutter shark was described by Jack Garrick and Stewart Springer, in a 1964 issue of the scientific journal Copeia, their description was based on a 42 cm long adult female caught in a midwater trawl in the Gulf of Mexico, some 160 km south of Dauphin Island, Alabama.

The specific epithet plutodus is derived from the Greek odous. This species may be referred to as the bigtooth or longtooth cookiecutter shark, or the Gulf dogfish. Much rarer than I. brasiliensis, only ten specimens of largetooth cookiecutter shark are known, caught from a handful of scattered localities: off Alabama in the United States, Bahia in Brazil, the Azores, Western Sahara in the Atlantic Ocean, off Okinawa and New South Wales in the Pacific. Those captures were made in the epipelagic zone 60–200 m down, close to land over continental shelves, continental slopes, or oceanic trenches that may descend as far as 6.44 km. The shark's rarity may be due to a restricted distribution or, more it preferring deeper waters; the largetooth cookiecutter shark has a long, cigar-shaped body with an short, blunt head and snout. The large, oval eyes are positioned to allow binocular vision, are followed by wide, angled spiracles; the nostrils are small, each with a pointed skin lobe in front. The mouth is transverse, with a fleshy suctorial lips.

The jaws are larger and more powerful than those of I. brasiliensis, contain fewer tooth rows, numbering around 29 in the upper jaw and 19 in the lower jaw. The upper teeth are small and smooth-edged, upright at the center of the jaw and becoming more angled towards the corners; the lower teeth are massive. They are triangular with minutely serrated edges and interlocking rectangular bases; the five pairs of gill slits are minute. The small dorsal fins are placed far back, on the last third of the body; the first dorsal fin originates ahead of the pelvic fins, while the second dorsal originates behind and measures a third again the height of the first. The pectoral fins are small and rounded, positioned high on the body behind the fifth gill slit; the pelvic fins are tiny, there is no anal fin. The caudal fin is short, with the upper lobe twice as long as the lower and bearing a prominent ventral notch near the tip; the coloration is a plain dark brown, with translucent margins on the fins and sparsely scattered light-emitting photophores on the belly.

Most specimens have lacked the dark "collar" found on the throat of I. brasiliensis. However, a specimen caught in 2004 off the Azores did possess the collar; the maximum recorded length is 42 cm. Based on its smaller dorsal and caudal fins, the largetooth cookiecutter shark is believed to be less active than I. brasiliensis and an overall weak swimmer. Much of its body cavity is occupied by an enormous oil-filled liver, which allows it to maintain neutral buoyancy in the water column with little effort. Unlike I. brasiliensis, this shark possesses binocular vision, which may allow it to target its prey with greater precision. Nothing is known of its biology. Like I. brasiliensis, the largetooth cookiecutter shark is an ectoparasite that feeds by excising plugs of flesh from larger animals. While I. brasiliensis is theorized to latch onto the surface of its prey and bite with a twisting motion, producing a circular wound containing spiral grooves inside from its lower teeth, the largetooth cookiecutter shark seems to employ a "sweeping" bite that produces a larger, more elongate, oval wound containing parallel tooth grooves.

This shark has been known to bite bony fishes and marine mammals. One study has found that the largetooth cookiecutter shark is responsible for 80% of the cookiecutter wounds found on cetaceans off Bahia, Brazil; the flank was the most often-attacked area, followed by the abdomen. In at least three cases, bites to dolphins appeared to have resulted in their subsequent deaths by stranding. Another prey species in the area is the subantarctic fur seal. Other than damaging billfishes or other valued species, the largetooth cookiecutter shark is of no import to commercial fisheries. All but one of the known specimens have been caught as bycatch in commercial longlines. However, given the infrequency of these catches and this species' probable wide distribution, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed it as of

Return to Treasure Island (1954 film)

Return to Treasure Island is a 1954 Pathécolor American film directed by Ewald André Dupont. The film is about modern-day adventurers exploring the desert island from Robert Louis Stevenson's filmed novel Treasure Island. Though Stevenson's story was fictional, it is treated as historical for the purposes of the film's plot. Tab Hunter as Clive Stone Dawn Addams as Jamesina "Jamie" Hawkins Porter Hall as Maximillian "Maxie" Harris James Seay as Felix Newman Harry Lauter as Parker William Cottrell as Cookie Lane Chandler as Capt. Cardigan Henry Rowland as Williams Dayton Lummis as Capt. Flint Robert Long as Long John Silver Ken Terrell as Thompson Long John Silver, a 1954 Australian film directed by Byron Haskin starring Robert Newton as Long John Silver Return to Treasure Island on IMDb Return to Treasure Island at AllMovie Return to Treasure Island at the TCM Movie Database Return to Treasure Island at the American Film Institute Catalog Return to Treasure Island is available for free download at the Internet Archive