The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing propeller-driven airliner. Its cruise speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and its lasting effect on the airline industry and World War II makes it one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made. The DC-3 was a twin-engine metal monoplane, developed as a larger and it had many exceptional qualities compared to previous aircraft. It was fast, had a range and could operate from short runways. It was reliable and easy to maintain and carried passengers in greater comfort, before the war it pioneered many air travel routes. Civil DC-3 production ended in 1942 with 607 aircraft being produced, together with its military derivative, the C-47 Skytrain, and with Russian- and Japanese-built versions, over 16,000 were built. Following the Second World War, the market was flooded with surplus C-47s and other transport aircraft. While the DC-3 was soon made redundant on main routes by more advanced such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed Constellation.
Large numbers continue to see service in a variety of niche roles well into the 21st century. In 2013 it was estimated that approximately 2,000 DC-3s and military derivatives were still flying, the DC-3 was the culmination of a development effort that began after an inquiry from Transcontinental and Western Airlines to Donald Douglas. TWA asked Douglas to design and build an aircraft that would allow TWA to compete with United, Douglas design, the 1933 DC-1, was promising, and led to the DC-2 in 1934. The DC-2 was a success, but there was room for improvement, Douglas agreed to go ahead with development only after Smith informed him of Americans intention to purchase twenty aircraft. The new aircraft was engineered by a led by chief engineer Arthur E. Raymond over the next two years, and the prototype DST first flew on December 17,1935. Its cabin was 92 in wide, and a version with 21 seats instead of the 14–16 sleeping berths of the DST was given the designation DC-3, there was no prototype DC-3, the first DC-3 built followed seven DSTs off the production line and was delivered to American Airlines.
The DC-3 and DST popularized air travel in the United States, eastbound transcontinental flights could cross the U. S. in about 15 hours with three refueling stops, westbound trips against the wind took 17 1⁄2 hours. A few years such a trip entailed short hops in slower and shorter-range aircraft during the day. A variety of engines were available for the DC-3. Early-production civilian aircraft used Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9s, but used the Pratt & Whitney R-1830 Twin Wasp
The Tupolev Tu-144 is a retired jet airliner and commercial supersonic transport aircraft. It is one of only two SSTs to enter service, the other being the Anglo-French Concorde. The design was a product of the Tupolev design bureau, headed by Alexei Tupolev, of the Soviet Union and it conducted 55 passenger service flights, at an average service altitude of 16,000 metres and cruised at a speed of around 2,000 kilometres per hour. The prototype first flew on 31 December 1968 near Moscow, two months before the first flight of the Concorde, the Tu-144 first went supersonic on 5 June 1969, and on 26 May 1970 became the first commercial transport to exceed Mach 2. A Tu-144 crashed in 1973 at the Paris Air Show, delaying its further development, the aircraft was introduced into passenger service on 1 November 1977, almost two years after Concorde, because of budget restrictions. In May 1978, another Tu-144 crashed on a test flight while being delivered, the aircraft remained in use as a cargo aircraft until 1983, by which point a total of 102 commercial flights had been completed.
The Tu-144 was used by the Soviet space program to train pilots of the Buran spacecraft, the Soviet government published the concept of the Tu-144 in an article in the January 1962 issue of the magazine Technology of Air Transport. The air ministry started development of the Tu-144 on 26 July 1963,10 days after the design was approved by the Council of Ministers, the plan called for five flying prototypes to be built in four years, with the first aircraft to be ready in 1966. The MiG-21I I = Imitator was a testbed for the design of the Tu-144. Despite the close similarity in appearance of the Tu-144 to the Anglo-French supersonic aircraft, there were significant differences in the control, the Tu-144 lagged behind Concorde in areas such as braking and engine control. Concorde utilized an engine control package from Lucas, which Tupolev was not permitted to purchase for the Tu-144 as it could be used on military aircraft. Concordes designers used fuel as coolant for the air conditioning. Tupolev used fuel/hydraulic heat exchangers but used cooling turbines for the cabin air, the Tu-144 prototype was a full-scale demonstrator aircraft with the very different production aircraft being developed in parallel.
While both Concorde and the Tu-144 prototype had ogival delta wings, the Tu-144s wing lacked Concordes conical camber, Production Tu-144s replaced this wing with a double delta wing including spanwise and chordwise camber. They added two small retractable surfaces called Moustache canard, with fixed double-slotted LE slats and retractable double-slotted flaps and these were fitted just behind the cockpit and increased lift at low speeds. Moving the elevons downward in an aircraft increases the lift. The canards cancel out this moment, thus reducing the landing speed of the production Tu-144s to 315–333 km/h. The NASA study lists final approach speeds during Tu-144LL test flights as 315–335 km/h, an FAA circular lists Tu-144S approach speed as 329 km/h, as opposed to Concordes approach speed of 300 km/h, based on the characteristics declared by the manufacturers to Western regulatory bodies
The Blue Flame is a rocket-powered vehicle that was driven by Gary Gabelich and achieved the world land speed record on Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah on October 23,1970. The vehicle set the FIA world record for the mile at 622.407 mph. The Blue Flame used a combination of high-test peroxide and liquified natural gas, the effort was sponsored by the American Gas Association, with technical assistance from the Institute of Gas Technology of Des Plaines, IL. Reaction Dynamics was formed in 1965 and started out as DFK Enterprises, for Dausman, Farnsworth, at that time Keller worked part-time as a research assistant into gas technology at the Illinois Institute of Technology, which was the research arm of the American Gas Association. Farnsworth was a top alcohol dragster racer, the engine of the Blue Flame was designed by Reaction Dynamics, and some of the components were manufactured by Galaxy Manufacturing of Tonawanda, New York. Galaxy Mfg. was formed in 1966 by Donald J Magro and Gerald Muhs and was engaged in flow control systems, cavitating venturi.
The Blue Flames engine is a cooled, liquid-propellent engine of the variable thrust type. It can operate on either a single- or dual-propellant basis, in operation, the engine permits natural gas use as a liquid or gas or both with a two-stage combustion start. The oxidizer flow is established first, LNG enters a heat exchanger where it vaporizes and is brought to combustion temperature, the gas is injected into the combustion chamber with the oxygen provided by the hydrogen peroxide. A stable flame front is established and the remaining LNG is injected to bring the engine to full power, nominal design engine running time was 20 seconds at full thrust of 22,500 pounds-force generating the equivalent of 58,000 horsepower. Keller stated that the Goodyear Tire Company restricted their top speed to 700 mph, Reaction Dynamics subsequently modified the LNG flow in the two-stage LNG injector system to almost halve the maximum thrust. The actual thrust during the record runs was between 13,000 pounds and 15,000 pounds, according to Keller the kilometer timing traps were inside the mile.
The Blue Flames record runs involved accelerating continuously to the mile midpoint, the peak speed, of approximately 650 mph was reached at that point and the vehicle decelerated the rest of the way. The kilometer speed trap was biased towards one end of the mile, the frame of the Blue Flame is a semi-monocoque type aluminum, with welded tubular structure in the nose section and with an aluminum skin. The vehicle is 37 feet 4.6 inches long,8 feet 1.5 inches high to the top of the fin,7 feet 8 inches wide. It has an empty weight of 4,000 pounds and is approximately 6,600 pounds fully fueled and loaded. On 23 October 1970 at Bonneville, Gary Gabelich drove the Blue Flame to a new record of 622.407 miles per hour for the mile,630.388 miles per hour for the flying kilometre. The land speed record set by Blue Flame was broken on 4 October 1983 by Richard Noble driving his turbojet-powered Thrust2 and this broke the mile record of 622.407 mph, raising it to 633.468 mph
A supersonic transport is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound. To date, the only SSTs to see regular service have been Concorde, the last passenger flight of the Tu-144 was in June 1978 and it was last flown in 1999 by NASA. Concordes last commercial flight was in October 2003, with a November 26,2003 ferry flight being its last airborne operation, following the permanent cessation of flying by Concorde, there are no remaining SSTs in commercial service. However, some aerial company aims at Supersonic business jet, which may bring supersonic transport back again, Supersonic airliners have been the objects of numerous recent and ongoing design studies. Drawbacks and design challenges are excessive noise generation, high development costs, expensive materials, great weight. In 2016, NASA announced it had signed a contract for the design of a modern low-noise SST prototype, the designing team is led by Lockheed Martin Aeronautics.
Throughout the 1950s an SST looked possible from a technical standpoint, lift is generated using different means at supersonic speeds, and these methods are considerably less efficient than subsonic methods, with approximately one-half the lift-to-drag ratio. This implies that for any given required amount of lift, the aircraft will have to supply about twice the thrust and this effect is pronounced at speeds close to the speed of sound, as the aircraft is using twice the thrust to travel at about the same speed. The relative effect is reduced as the aircraft accelerates to higher speeds, serious work on SST designs started in the mid-1950s, when the first generation of supersonic fighter aircraft were entering service.2 M-Wing. Avro Canada proposed several designs to TWA that included Mach 1.6 double-ogee wing and Mach 1.2 delta-wing with separate tail, avros team moved to the UK where its design formed the basis of Hawker Siddeleys designs. In the early 1960s, various executives of US aerospace companies were telling the US public, Congress was soon funding an SST design effort, selecting the existing Lockheed L-2000 and Boeing 2707 designs, to produce an even more advanced, larger and longer ranged design.
The Boeing 2707 design was selected for continued work, with design goals of ferrying around 300 passengers. The Soviet Union set out to produce its own design, the Tu-144, the SST was seen as particularly offensive due to its sonic boom and the potential for its engine exhaust to damage the ozone layer. Both problems impacted the thinking of lawmakers, and eventually Congress dropped funding for the US SST program in 1971, and all overland commercial supersonic flight was banned. Presidential advisor Russell Train warned that a fleet of 500 SSTs flying at 65,000 ft. for a period of years could raise stratospheric water content by as much as 50% to 100%. According to Train, this could lead to greater ground-level heat, later, an additional threat to the ozone was hypothesized as a result of the exhausts nitrogen oxides, a threat that was, in 1974, seemingly validated by MIT. In 1981 models and observations were still irreconcilable, more recent computer models in 1995 by David W. Fahey expressed that this would not be a fatal obstacle for an advanced SST development - while a big caution flag.
Should not be a showstopper for advanced SST development because removing the sulfur in the fuel of the would essentially eliminate the hypothesized 1-2% ozone-destruction-reaction-pathway
Buran was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme. It carried the GRAU index serial number 11F35 K1 and is – depending on the source – known as OK-1K1, Orbiter K1, besides describing the first operational Soviet/Russian shuttle orbiter, Buran was the designation for the whole Soviet/Russian space shuttle project. OK-1K1 completed one unmanned spaceflight in 1988, and was destroyed in 2002 when the hangar it was stored in collapsed and it remains the only Soviet reusable spacecraft to be launched into space. The Buran-class orbiters used the expendable Energia rocket, a class of super heavy-lift launch vehicle, the construction of the Buran-class space shuttle orbiters began in 1980, and by 1984 the first full-scale orbiter was rolled out. Construction of a second started in 1988. The Buran programme was cancelled in 1993. The only orbital launch of a Buran-class orbiter occurred at 03,00,02 UTC on 15 November 1988 from Baikonur Cosmodrome launch pad 110/37, Buran was lifted into space, on an unmanned mission, by the specially designed Energia rocket.
The automated launch sequence performed as specified, and the Energia rocket lifted the vehicle into a temporary orbit before the orbiter separated as programmed. After making an approach to Site 251, Buran touched down under its own control at 06,24,42 UTC. Despite a lateral speed of 61.2 kilometres per hour. It was the first space shuttle to perform an unmanned flight and it was found that Buran had lost only eight of its 38,000 thermal tiles over the course of its flight. In 1989, it was projected that OK-1K1 would have a second flight by 1993. Because the Buran programme was cancelled after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, on 12 May 2002, the MIK112 hangar at the Baikonur Cosmodrome housing OK-1K1 collapsed, as a result of poor maintenance, during a massive storm in Kazakhstan. The collapse killed eight workers and destroyed the craft as well as an Energia carrier rocket, OK-GLI — Buran Analog BST-02 test vehicle Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 — Soviet orbital spaceplane Space Shuttle program Hendrickx, Vis, Bert.
Elser, Elser-Haft, Lukashevich, Vladim and Transportation of the Russian Space Shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Air France, stylized as AIRFRANCE, is the French flag carrier headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. It is a subsidiary of the Air France–KLM Group and a member of the SkyTeam global airline alliance. The airlines global hub is at Charles de Gaulle Airport with Orly Airport, Air Frances corporate headquarters, previously in Montparnasse, are located on the grounds of Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris. During the Cold War, from 1950 until 1990, it was one of the three main Allied scheduled airlines operating in Germany at West Berlins Tempelhof and Tegel airports. In 1990, it acquired the operations of French domestic carrier Air Inter and it served as Frances primary national flag carrier for seven decades prior to its 2003 merger with KLM. Between April 2001 and March 2002, the airline carried 43.3 million passengers and had a revenue of €12. 53bn. In November 2004, Air France ranked as the largest European airline with 25. 5% total market share, Air France operates a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing widebody jets on long-haul routes, and uses Airbus A320 family aircraft on short-haul routes.
Air France introduced the A380 on 20 November 2009 with service to New York Citys JFK Airport from Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport, the carriers regional airline subsidiary, HOP. operates the majority of its regional domestic and European scheduled services with a fleet of regional jet aircraft. Of these airlines, SGTA was the first commercial company in France. The constituent members of Air France had already built extensive networks across Europe, to French colonies in North Africa, during World War II, Air France moved its operations to Casablanca. In 1936, Air France added French-built twin engine Potez 62 aircraft to its featuring a two compartment cabin that could accommodate 14 to 16 passengers. A high wing monoplane, it had a fuselage with composite coating while the wings were fabric covered with a metal leading edge. Equipped with Hispano-Suiza V-engines, they were used on routes in Europe, South America, on 26 June 1945 all of Frances air transport companies were nationalised. On 29 December 1945, a decree of the French Government granted Air France the management of the entire French air transport network, Air France appointed its first flight attendants in 1946.
The same year the airline opened its first air terminal at Les Invalides in central Paris and it was linked to Paris Le Bourget Airport, Air Frances first operations and engineering base, by coach. At that time the network covered 160,000 km, claimed to be the longest in the world, Société Nationale Air France was set up on 1 January 1946. European schedules were initially operated by a fleet of Douglas DC-3 aircraft, on 1 July 1946, Air France started direct flights between Paris and New York via refuelling stops at Shannon and Gander. Douglas DC-4 piston-engine airliners covered the route in just under 20 hours, in September 1947 Air Frances network stretched east from New York, Fort de France and Buenos Aires to Shanghai
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Aérospatiale/BAC Concorde is a British-French turbojet-powered supersonic passenger jet airliner that was operated until 2003. It had a speed over twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued flying for the next 27 years and it is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially, the other is the Soviet-built Tupolev Tu-144, which was operated for a much shorter period. Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation under an Anglo-French treaty, twenty aircraft were built, including six prototypes and development aircraft. Air France and British Airways were the airlines to purchase. The aircraft was used by wealthy passengers who could afford to pay a high price in exchange for Concordes speed. In the UK, any or all of the type are known simply as Concorde, the type was retired in 2003 after the crash of Air France Flight 4590, in which all passengers and crew were killed.
The general downturn in the aviation industry after the September 11 attacks in 2001. The group met for the first time in February 1954 and delivered their first report in April 1955, at the time it was known that the drag at supersonic speeds was strongly related to the span of the wing. The team outlined a baseline configuration that looked like an enlarged Avro 730 and this same short span produced very little lift at low speed, which resulted in extremely long take-off runs and frighteningly high landing speeds. In an SST design, this would have required enormous engine power to lift off from existing runways, based on this, the group considered the concept of an SST infeasible, and instead suggested continued low-level studies into supersonic aerodynamics. Soon after, Johanna Weber and Dietrich Küchemann at the RAE published a series of reports on a new wing planform, the vortex will lower the air pressure and cause lift to be greatly increased. This effect had been noticed earlier, notably by Chuck Yeager in the Convair XF-92, Weber suggested that this was no mere curiosity, and the effect could be deliberately used to improve low speed performance.
Küchemanns and Webers papers changed the nature of supersonic design almost overnight. Although the delta had already used on aircraft prior to this point. Such a layout would still have good supersonic performance inherent to the span, while offering reasonable take-off. It would need to have landing gear to produce the required angle of attack while still on the runway. Küchemann presented the idea at a meeting where Morgan was present, test pilot Eric Brown recalls Morgans reaction to the presentation, saying that he immediately seized on it as the solution to the SST problem
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the lift of an airfoil. The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation, crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as type, aircraft propulsion, usage. Each of the two World Wars led to technical advances. Consequently, the history of aircraft can be divided into five eras, Pioneers of flight, first World War,1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars,1918 to 1939, Second World War,1939 to 1945. Postwar era, called the jet age,1945 to the present day, aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a relatively low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, which is less dense than the surrounding air.
When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, a balloon was originally any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – usually fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to ships of the air, in the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as ships of the air or flying-ships. – though none had yet been built, the advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, and of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by an outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a balloon is an aerostat and an airship is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible, sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back and these soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons, in windy weather
Junkers Ju 52
The Junkers Ju 52/3m is a German trimotor transport aircraft manufactured from 1931 to 1952. Initially designed with an engine but subsequently produced as a trimotor it saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over twelve air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner, in a military role, it flew with the Luftwaffe as a troop and cargo transport and briefly as a medium bomber. The Ju 52 continued in service with military and civilian air fleets well into the 1980s. The Ju 52 was similar to the companys previous Junkers W33, in 1930, Ernst Zindel and his team designed the Ju 52 at the Junkers works at Dessau. The aircrafts unusual corrugated duralumin metal skin, pioneered by Junkers during World War I, the Ju 52 had a low cantilever wing, the midsection of which was built into the fuselage, forming its underside. It was formed around four pairs of circular cross-section duralumin spars with a surface that provided torsional stiffening.
A narrow control surface, with its outer section functioning as the aileron, the inner flap section lowered the stalling speed and the arrangement became known as the Doppelflügel, or double wing. The outer sections of this operated differentially as ailerons, projecting slightly beyond the wingtips with control horns, the strutted horizontal stabilizer carried horn-balanced elevators which again projected and showed a significant gap between them and the stabilizer, which was adjustable in-flight. The fuselage was of rectangular section with a domed decking, all covered with corrugated light alloy, there was a port side passenger door just aft of the wings, with windows stretching forward to the pilots cockpit. The main undercarriage was fixed and divided, some aircraft had wheel fairings, there was a fixed tailskid, or a tailwheel. Some aircraft were fitted with floats or skis instead of the main wheels, in its original configuration, designated the Ju 52/1m, the Ju 52 was a single-engined aircraft, powered by either a BMW IV or Junkers liquid-cooled V-12 engine.
However, the model was underpowered, and after seven prototypes had been completed. Originally powered by three Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines, models mainly received 574 kW BMW132 engines. Export models were built with 447 kW Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp and 578 kW Bristol Pegasus VI engines. In 1932, James A. Richardsons Canadian Airways received CF-ARM and it was used to supply mining and other operations in remote areas with equipment too big and heavy for other aircraft in use. The Ju 52/1m was able to land on wheels, skis or floats, before the nationalisation of the German aircraft industry in 1935, the Ju 52/3m was produced principally as a 17-seat airliner. It was used mainly by Luft Hansa and could fly from Berlin to Rome in eight hours, the Luft Hansa fleet eventually numbered 80 and flew from Germany on routes in Europe and South America
A technology museum is a museum devoted to applied science and technological developments. Many museums are both a museum and a technology museum. Further technology museums in Germany include the Deutsche Technikmuseum in Berlin-Kreuzberg, the Technoseum in Mannheim, the Technik Museum Speyer, the most prestigious of its kind in Austria is the Technische Museum in Vienna. Many other independent museums, such as museums, cover certain technical genres, processes or industries, for example mining, metrology, musical instruments. This article is based upon a translation of the German language version as at November 2013