A shock absorber is a mechanical or hydraulic device designed to absorb and damp shock impulses. It does this by converting the energy of the shock into another form of energy which is dissipated. Most shock absorbers are a form of dashpot and hydraulic shock absorbers are used in conjunction with cushions and springs. An automobile shock absorber contains spring-loaded check valves and orifices to control the flow of oil through an internal piston, one design consideration, when designing or choosing a shock absorber, is where that energy will go. In most shock absorbers, energy is converted to heat inside the viscous fluid, in hydraulic cylinders, the hydraulic fluid heats up, while in air cylinders, the hot air is usually exhausted to the atmosphere. In other types of shock absorbers, such as electromagnetic types, in general terms, shock absorbers help cushion vehicles on uneven roads. In a vehicle, shock absorbers reduce the effect of traveling over rough ground, leading to improved ride quality, while shock absorbers serve the purpose of limiting excessive suspension movement, their intended sole purpose is to damp spring oscillations.
Shock absorbers use valving of oil and gasses to absorb energy from the springs. Spring rates are chosen by the based on the weight of the vehicle. Some people use shocks to modify spring rates but this is not the correct use, along with hysteresis in the tire itself, they damp the energy stored in the motion of the unsprung weight up and down. Effective wheel bounce damping may require tuning shocks to an optimal resistance, spring-based shock absorbers commonly use coil springs or leaf springs, though torsion bars are used in torsional shocks as well. Ideal springs alone, are not shock absorbers, as only store. Vehicles typically employ both hydraulic shock absorbers and springs or torsion bars, in this combination, shock absorber refers specifically to the hydraulic piston that absorbs and dissipates vibration. Now, composite suspension system are used mainly in 2 wheelers, in common with carriages and railway locomotives, most early motor vehicles used leaf springs. However the amount of damping provided by leaf spring friction was limited and variable according to the conditions of the springs and it operated in both directions.
Motorcycle front suspension adopted coil sprung Druid forks from about 1906, and similar designs added rotary friction dampers and these friction disk shock absorbers were fitted to many cars. One of the problems with motor cars was the variation in sprung weight between lightly loaded and fully loaded, especially for the rear springs. What was called for was damping that operated on the rebound, horock came up with a design in 1901 that had hydraulic damping, it worked in one direction only
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south.
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. is an Italian car manufacturer, founded as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has involved in car racing since 1911. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat group, in February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy, the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly, on 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Initially still in partnership with Darracq, the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 191024 HP, designed by Merosi. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models.
In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, in 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto, which backed the Ing, Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among which was Alfa Romeo, through the Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali. In 1925, the activities were separated from the Romeo company. In 1933, the ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolinis government. The company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, in 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, and private entries.
The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, and Alfa Romeo won the world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. The company gained a name in motorsport, which gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team and it holds the worlds title of the most wins of any marque in the world. The companys name is a combination of the name, A. L. F. A. and the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera is an automobile coachbuilder established on 25 March 1926 in Milan, Italy by Felice Bianchi Anderloni and Gaetano Ponzoni. Carrozzeria Touring became well known for both the beauty of its designs and patented superleggera construction methods, the trademark was purchased by the current owner, a family business, which resumed business activities in 2006 under the name Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera S. r. l. The firm is headquartered nearby Milan, its hometown, the new owners changed the name of the firm to Carrozzeria Touring. Carrozzeria Tourings location at Via Ludovico da Breme 65 placed the coachbuilder in close proximity to automobile manufacturers Alfa Romeo, Citroën, Tourings first bodywork assignments were for chassis produced by these companies. Bianchi Anderloni came to Touring more as an automobile designer than a car constructor, the company licensed Charles Weymanns system of fabric-covered lightweight frames, a predecessor of their own Superleggera construction system.
Touring hired Giuseppe Seregni, who collaborated with Bianchi Anderloni on the 1927 Isotta-Fraschini Flying Star. This super lightweight system consists of a structure of small tubes to form the bodys shape with thin alloy panels attached to cover. Aside from light weight, the Superleggera construction system gave great flexibility, in 1937 at Mille Miglia, Alfa Romeo 6C 2300B was the first appearance of a Touring car built with the Superleggera system. Prior to World War II, Touring gained fame for their Superleggera bodies, particularly those made for the Alfa Romes 8C2900, the company quickly re-energized after the war, with the Superleggera system widely licensed and copied. Felice Bianchi Anderloni died in 1948 and his son, Carlo Felice Cici Bianchi Anderloni, the two would remain in charge of the firm until the company discontinued production in 1966. Cicis first major project was to create a body for the Ferrari 166 Mille Miglia Touring barchetta, automotive design critic Robert Cumberford has referred to the body design for the 166 as One of the most charismatic shapes ever.
The egg-crate grill of the 166 became a signature Ferrari design element and is still in use by Ferrari today, the Aston Martin DB4, the DB5 and the DB6 were named after David Brown’s initials. He entrusted Touring Superleggera to design their next generation GT after the introduction of the successful DB2, Tourings fortunes began to decline as automobile manufacturers replaced body-on-frame construction with monocoque construction. The carmakers began to build their own bodies in their production lines, they were not able to produce less than a few thousand units yearly. Therefore, they decided to assign the body production to coachbuilders and this led coachbuilders to invest in additional manufacturing capacity. Once Touring Superleggera had the new plant in Nova Milanese completed, the company had to wind-up in 1966, although bankruptcy never occurred. During the winding up, roughly the 80% of Touring Superleggera’s archives caught fire, the documents included precious information Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni cherished the most.
Therefore, he devoted energy to get in touch with every owner
The 508 Balilla was a compact car designed and developed by Fiat in 1932. It is effectively the replacement of the Fiat 509, although production of the model had ceased back in 1929. It had a transmission, seated four, and had a top speed of about 50 mph. The car was assembled by Walter Motors a. s. in Czechoslovakia, in the Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe factory in Poland, by NSU-Fiat in Germany. The car was developed by some of the leading Italian automotive engineers of the day, including Nebbia, the goal was to incorporate some of the qualities of a high class automobile into a modestly priced vehicle. The car had its unveiling on 12 April 1932 at a show being held on the Fiera Milano trade fair site. Many believe that the Balilla name was connected with Italian Fascism, the action triggered a Genoese revolt against the Austrians and for this Balilla was celebrated as a local hero in Northern Italy through the intervening two centuries. Fiat themselves had used the name on the Fiat A1 aeroplane, it had been used by a Milan-based firm as the name for a tractor.
The first 508 came with a four cylinder petrol/gasline side-valve engine of 995cc. Maximum power was listed as 20 hp at 3500 rpm, providing for a top speed of approximately 80 km/h, power passed to the rear wheels through a 3-speed manual gear box without the assistance of synchromesh on any of the ratios. Stopping power was provided by drum brakes on all four wheels, at the end of 1933 power was increased to 24 hp at 3500 rpm, and the maximum speed went up to 85 km/h. Transmission was upgraded to a four speed gear box, for 1934 the car now came with a slightly more aerodynamic looking berlina body, available with either two or four doors. This version was identified as the Fiat 508B, and the original 1932 model was now, the Fiat 508 was fitted with a 995 cc side valve engine. The first 508A, introduced in 1932, was a 2-door Berlina with four seats, the front seats could be slid forwards and the backrests tilted in order to facilitate access to the back seat in what was a relatively small car.
The interior used rubber mats while the seats were cloth covered, a Lusso version featured a better type of cloth covering for the seats as well as extra bright work around the lights, front grille and door handles. The gear box was upgraded, now offering four forward speeds, and while the a 2-door Berlina remained on offer for a few more months and Lusso versions of the 4-door Berlina were both offered. The 508 Spider was a small 2-door 2-seater cabriolet bodied car, the driver and passenger sat side by side, but the drivers seat was fixed a few centimetres further back than the passenger seat. On the Spider the seat coverings were made from leather, the car was available in both standard and Lusso versions
The Ferrari 328 GTB and GTS was the successor to the Ferrari 308 GTB and GTS. 7,400 Ferrari 328s were produced by the time the model was replaced by the new 348 in 1989, bringing the total for the 308/328 generation to nearly 20,000. The 328 is considered by some Ferrari enthusiasts to be one of the most reliable Ferraris, unlike some models, the GTB referred to the Gran Turismo Berlinetta body while the GTS was a Gran Turismo Spider. In 1985, the 328 retailed from $58, 400-$62,500 in the United States, the 328 GTS model, together with the fixed roof 328 GTB, were the final developments of the normally aspirated transverse V8 engine 2-seat series. The 328 figures in the title referred to the total cubic capacity of the engine,3.2 litres. The new model was introduced at the 1985 Frankfurt Salon alongside the Mondial 3.2 series, thus all the eight-cylinder cars in the range shared fairly unified front and rear aspects, providing a homogeneous family image. In the middle of 1988 ABS brakes were available as an option.
This in turn meant that the wheel design was changed to accommodate this feature. The original flat spoke star wheels became a design, in the style as fitted to the 3.2 Mondial models. The main European market 328 GTS models had a chassis with a factory type reference F106 MS100. Disc brakes, with independent suspension via wishbones, coil springs, there were various world market models, each having slight differences, with right and left hand drive available. As with the preceding 308 models the engine was mounted in unit with the all synchromesh five-speed manual transmission assembly, which was below, a minor problem was the oil hose from the lower part of the engine to the oil cooler. This was too short since a running engine was moving separate from the oil cooler and this hose was almost solid being under pressure and in time the oil cooler would crack. This was solved by connecting the oil hoses for the oil cooler to and from the engine up side down to make the lower hose, now connecting to the top of the oil cooler and movable.
The early part of the series was numbered in the Ferrari odd number road car chassis sequence, the Ferrari 328 uses a 3. 2-litre V8, 4-valve-per-cylinder layout. It has 270 hp and 231 lb·ft of torque and its top speed is 166 mph and reaches 60 mph in 5.5 seconds and 100 mph in 13.0 seconds. The front and rear suspension are independent, double wishbones, with springs, telescopic dampers. The steering is rack and pinion, the transmission is a 5-speed manual
A barchetta was originally an Italian style of open two-seater sports car which was built for racing. Weight and wind resistance were kept to a minimum, and any equipment or decoration were sacrificed in order to maximize performance. Although most barchettas were made from the late 1940s through the 1950s, typically handmade in aluminium on a tubular frame, the classic barchetta body is devoid of bumpers and any weather equipment such as a canvas top or sidescreens, and has no provision for luggage. Some barchettas have no windscreen, others, a shallow racing-type screen or aero screen, Classic barchettas either have no doors, in which case entry and exit entails stepping over the side of the car, or very small doors without exterior handles. The name has been associated with the model ever since, the MM in the car’s designation stands for Mille Miglia, the race it won in 1948 and 1949. In 1949 the 166MM barchetta won the 24 Hours of Le Mans and the Targa Florio and it won the 1949 Spa 24 Hours.
The car’s unadorned, lightweight aluminium body was designed by Carrozzeria Touring’s head of design, motor Trend Classic rated the 166MM barchetta sixth out of the ten greatest Ferraris of all time. The OSCA MT4, a 1452 cc,130 bhp barchetta made by the Maserati brothers, was for eight years the most successful under-1,500 cc sports racing car in the world. Other, even more diminutive OSCA, barchettas were powered by engines of 750 cc and 850 cc. Giovanni Moretti, another designer and manufacturer, ferrari revived the name in 2001 for their 550 Pininfarina Barchetta, which marked Pininfarina’s 70th anniversary. The car was first shown at the 2001 Salon de lAutomobile and 448 examples were built and it is n many ways. the legitimate successor to such legendary open Ferraris as the 166MM. Designed as a roadster for use on roads and not as a full-bred racing car, the 550 Barchetta has a rudimentary convertible top whose mechanism is said to require strength, skill. The top is intended only for use in a sudden downpour.
The top doesnt look as if it would survive the sacrilege of an automatic carwash, the list price of the 550 Barchetta was $245,000. The 1995-97 Renault Spider, although mid-engined, was designed very much in the barchetta style, Renault sponsored a one-make race series for it. Despite its name, the 1995-2005 Fiat Barchetta was not a car in the barchetta style or tradition. Red Barchetta is a song by rock band Rush from their album Moving Pictures
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
A sports car is a small, usually two seater, two door automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the first known use of the term was in 1928, Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious, but high maneuverability and minimum weight are requisite. The basis for the car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars and roadsters. These raced in rallies, such as the Herkomer Cup, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt. These would shortly be joined by the French DFP and the Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. In 1921, Ballot premiered its 2LS, with a remarkable 75 hp DOHC two liter, designed by Ernest Henry, capable of 150 km/h, at most, one hundred were built in four years and this was followed by the SOHC 2LT and 2LTS. The same year, Benz built a supercharged 28/95PS four for the Coppa Florio, duerkopps Zoller-blown two liter in 1924, as well. There was a clear cleavage by 1925, by the end of the 1920s, AC produced a 2-liter six, the 3. Benz introduced the powerful SS and SSK, and Alfa Romeo, hispano-Suizas Alfonso XIII is considered the first sportcar developed between 1911 and 1914.
Two companies would offer really reliable sports cars, Austin with the Seven, the drive train and engine layout significantly influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, and is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, and the Chevrolet Corvette, more specifically, many such sports cars have a FMR layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used, the RMR layout is commonly found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, and powers only the rear wheels. Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout, Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The motors distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic driving aids to counteract these inherent design shortcomings. The front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout which is the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, its conservative handling effect, particularly understeer, and the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it. The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, and Berkeley cars are cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had added a lot of weight