Enrico Nardi was an Italian racing car driver and designer. He worked at Lancia between 1929 and 1937 as a truck engineer, racing car driver, advisor to Vincenzo Lancia, he was moderately successful as a driver by 1932, with Augusto Monaco, he created the Nardi-Monaco Chichibio. Nardi himself competed in Mille Miglia, sharing a Fiat 508 Balilla with J. McCain in 1935 and with M. Trivero in 1936, as well as a Lancia Augusta Berlina with Vittorio Mazzonis in 1937, a Lancia Aprilia speciale in 1938 with Pier Ugo Gobbato, the son of Alfa Romeo CEO Ugo Gobbato. Working at Scuderia Ferrari from 1937 until 1946, Nardi became known for setting up the Fiat 508, doing the development work following Massimino's design. After World War II, he and Renato Danese established a workshop in Via Vincenzo Lancia, building racing cars and small-series special designs. 750 Nardi Nardi-Danese 1500 sport. Fitted for the Roman driver Marco Crespi, 8-cylinder as in the Auto Avio Costruzioni 815. Alfa Romeo 6C 2500 variationsNardi himself raced the monoposto, in Coppa d'Oro delle Dolomiti hillclimb, winning in 1947 and 1948).
It was entered by three drivers in the 1952 Targa Florio, but failed to finish. His own workshop was established in Via Lancia, tuning equipment. Amongst the prototypes were: an F2 prototype developed with Gianni Lancia. Two Raggio Azzurro prototypes, designed by Michelotti and built by Vignale on 4th-series Lancia Aurelia's; the 4CV, a 750 cc Panhard-powered racer intended for Le Mans, as well as the 750 LM Crosley. A 750 Spider was presented at body by Pietro Frua; the Bisiluro Damolnar was built by Nardi, using a Gianni engine. It ran at Le Mans and is in the Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci" in Milano. Silver Ray, a Plymouth Golden Commando V8 350 bhp-engined Michelotti-bodied coupe for William Simpson of Coral Gables FL. single-seater on VW Beetle components, Formula Vee prototype, for Hubert Brundage. Officine Nardi ceased to work with car prototypes in the mid-50s and specialized in speed-enhancing parts such as manifolds, camshafts, it has become most known for the Nardi steering wheel using walnut but using African mahogany wood.
The Nardi wheel was first fitted to a 1952 Pegaso. Nardi made floor gearshift conversions for the Peugeot 403 and 404 models. Nardi died from blood poisoning from exhaust gas, after which his workshop was run by Barbero and Iseglio
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian luxury car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has been involved in car racing since 1911; the company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat Group. In February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy; the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and the Italian partners of the company hired Giuseppe Merosi to design new cars. On 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Merosi.
A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto. Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among, Alfa Romeo, through the "Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali". In 1925, the railway activities were separated from the Romeo company, in 1928, Nicola Romeo left. In 1933, the state ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolini's government, which had effective control; the company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, turned to mass-producing small vehicles rather than hand-building luxury models.
In 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. During the 1960s and 1970s, Alfa Romeo produced a number of sporty cars, but struggled to make a profit, so Istituto per la Reconstruzione, the state conglomerate that controls Finmeccanica sold the marque to the Fiat Group in 1986. Alfa Romeo has competed in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing, rallies, it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, Alfa Romeo won the inaugural world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925; the race victories gave a sporty image to the marque, Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team, before becoming independent in 1939. It has had the most wins of any marque in the world; the company's name is a combination of the original name, "A. L. F.
A.", the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who took control of the company in 1915. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with some Italian investors. One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909; the firm's initial location was in Naples, but before the construction of the planned factory had started, Darracq decided late in 1906 that Milan would be more suitable and accordingly a tract of land was acquired in the Milan suburb of Portello, where a new factory of 6,700 square metres was erected. Late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling and Stella, with the other Italian co-investors, founded a new company named A. L. F. A. Still in partnership with Darracq; the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 1910 24 HP, designed by Giuseppe Merosi, hired in 1909 for designing new cars more suited to the Italian market. Merosi would go on to design a series of new A.
L. F. A. Cars, with more powerful engines. A. L. F. A. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In 1914, an advanced Grand Prix car was designed and built, the GP1914, with a four-cylinder engine, double overhead camshafts, four valves per cylinder, twin ignition. However, the onset of the First World War halted automobile production at A. L. F. A. for three years. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, who converted the factory to produce military hardware for the Italian and Allied war efforts. Munitions, aircraft engines and other components and generators based on the company's existing car engines were produced in a vastly enlarged factory during the war. After the war, Romeo invested his war profits in acquiring locomotive and railway carriage plants in Saronno and Naples, which were added to his A. L. F. A. Ownership. Car production had not been considered at first, but resumed in 1919 since parts for the completion of 105 cars had remained at the A.
L. F. A. Factory since 1915. In 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20–30 HP the first car to be so badged, their first success came in 1920 whe
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar.
Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River, their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel; the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni; these are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences. It has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1946 to 1992, Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor; the current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party of Italy. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC; the city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned; as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city.
"We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated, its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena
The Mille Miglia was an open-road, motorsport endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957. Like the older Targa Florio and the Carrera Panamericana, the MM made grand tourers like Alfa Romeo, BMW, Maserati, Mercedes Benz and Porsche famous; the race brought out an estimated five million spectators. From 1953 until 1957, the Mille Miglia was a round of the World Sports Car Championship. Since 1977, the "Mille Miglia" has been reborn as a regularity race for vintage cars. Participation is limited to cars, produced no than 1957, which had attended to the original race; the route is similar to that of the original race, maintaining the point of departure/arrival in Viale Venezia in Brescia. Unlike modern day rallying, where cars are released at one-minute intervals with larger professional-class cars going before slower cars, in the Mille Miglia the smaller, lower displacement cars started first; this made organisation simpler as marshals did not have to be on duty for as long a period and it minimised the period that roads had to be closed.
From 1949, cars were assigned numbers according to their start time. For example, the 1955 Moss/Jenkinson car, #722, left Brescia at 07:22, while the first cars had started at 21:00 the previous day. In the early days of the race winners needed 16 hours or more, so most competitors had to start before midnight and arrived after dusk - if at all; the race was established by the young Counts Aymo Maggi and Franco Mazzotti, sports manager Renzo Castagneto and motoring journalist Giovanni Canestrini in response to the Italian Grand Prix being moved from their home town of Brescia to Monza. Together with a group of wealthy associates, they chose a race from Brescia to Rome and back, a figure-eight shaped course of 1500 km — or a thousand Roman miles. Races followed twelve other routes of varying total lengths; the first race started on 26 March 1927 with seventy-seven starters — all Italian — of which fifty-one had reached the finishing post at Brescia by the end of the race. The first Mille Miglia covered corresponding to just over 1,005 modern miles.
Entry was restricted to unmodified production cars, the entrance fee was set at a nominal 1 lira. The winner, Giuseppe Morandi, completed the course in just under 21 hours 5 minutes, averaging nearly 78 km/h in his 2-litre OM. Tazio Nuvolari won the 1930 Mille Miglia in an Alfa Romeo 6C. Having started after his teammate and rival Achille Varzi, Nuvolari was leading the race, but was still behind Varzi on the road. In the dim half-light of early dawn, Nuvolari tailed Varzi with his headlights off, thereby not being visible in the latter's rear-view mirrors, he overtook Varzi on the straight roads approaching the finish at Brescia, by pulling alongside and flicking his headlights on. The event was dominated by local Italian drivers and marques, but three races were won by foreign cars; the first one was in 1931, when German driver Rudolf Caracciola and riding mechanic Wilhelm Sebastian won with their big supercharged Mercedes-Benz SSKL, averaging for the first time more than 100 km/h in a Mille Miglia.
Caracciola had received little support from the factory due to the economic crisis at that time. He did not have enough mechanics to man all necessary service points. After performing a pit stop, they had to hurry across Italy, cutting the triangle-shaped course short in order to arrive in time before the race car; the race was stopped by Italian leader Benito Mussolini after an accident in 1938 killed a number of spectators. When it resumed in April 1940 shortly before Italy entered World War II, it was dubbed the Grand Prix of Brescia, held on a 100 km short course in the plains of northern Italy, lapped nine times; this event saw the debut of the first Enzo Ferrari-owned marque AAC. Despite being populated by Italian makers, it was the aerodynamically improved BMW 328 driven by Germans Huschke von Hanstein/Walter Bäumer that won the high-speed race with an all-time high average of 166 km/h; the Italians continued to dominate their race after the war, now again on a single big lap through Italy.
Mercedes made another good effort in 1952 with the underpowered Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing, scoring second with the German crew Karl Kling/Hans Klenk that in the year would win the Carrera Panamericana. Caracciola, in a comeback attempt, was fourth. Few other non-Italians managed podium finishes in the 1950s, among them Juan Manuel Fangio, Peter Collins and Wolfgang von Trips. In 1955, Mercedes made another attempt at winning the MM, this time with careful preparation and a more powerful car, the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR, based on the Formula One car different from their sports cars carrying the 300 SL name. Both young German Hans Herrmann and Briton Stirling Moss relied on the support of navigators while Juan Manuel Fangio preferred to drive alone as usual, as he considered road races dangerous since his co-pilot was killed in South America. Karl Kling drove alone, in the fourth Mercedes, #701. Similar to his teammates and his navigator, motor race journalist Denis Jenkinson, ran a total of six reconnaissance laps beforehand, enabling "Jenks" to make course notes on a scroll of paper 18 ft long that he read
Ferrari 212 Inter
The Ferrari 212 Inter replaced Ferrari's successful 166 and 195 Inter grand tourers in 1951. Unveiled at the Brussels Motor Show that year, the 212 was an evolution of the 166 — a sports car for the road that could win international races; the chassis was similar to the 125 with a suspension featuring double wishbones in front and live axle in back. Coachbuilders included Carrozzeria Touring, Ghia-Aigle, Stabilimenti Farina, now Pinin Farina; the latter was an important move for the company, as Farina was well-known and adding his styling skills would be a tremendous boost for Maranello. However, Pinin Farina was as prideful as Enzo Ferrari, neither would go to the other to request business up to this point. A mutual meeting halfway between Maranello and Turin was the negotiated solution. First Ferrari to be bodied by Pinin Farina was 212 Inter Cabriolet, chassis no. 0177E. The Inter's 2,600 mm wheelbase was 4" longer than the 2,500 mm Export's; the cars shared a larger, bored-out 2.6 L version of Ferrari's Colombo V12 engine.
Output was 150 hp for 165 hp for the triple Weber Export. Improved cylinder heads raised power 5 hp in 1952; the British magazine Autocar got hold of what they described as the first production model Ferrari 212 in 1950, which outperformed any car that they had tested. It recorded a top speed of over 116 mph and acceleration times of 0 to 60 mph of 10.5 seconds and 100 mph in 22.5 seconds. The test appears to have been the Autocar team's first encounter with a five speed gear box. A single 212 Inter, chassis no. 0223EL2, was fitted with the available "225" or 2.7 L Colombo V12, creating a unique model that would be properly referred to as a 225 Inter. This one-off model was given a Giovanni Michelotti penned berlinetta body built by Vignale. Another 212 Inter, chassis number 0253EU received the 2.7 liter three-carburetor V12, was bodied as the last Barchetta by Carrozzeria Touring in their Superleggera construction method. It was acquired by Ford Motor Company for Henry Ford II for study in the research leading to the development of Ford's competitor to the Corvette, the Thunderbird.
The car is in the collection of the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles, CA
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h
Overhead valve engine
An overhead valve engine, or "pushrod engine", is a reciprocating piston engine whose poppet valves are sited in the cylinder head. An OHV engine's valvetrain operates its valves via a camshaft within the cylinder block, cam followers and rocker arms; the OHV engine was an advance over the older flathead engine, whose valves were sited within the cylinder block. Some early "OHV" engines known as "F-heads" used both side-valves and overhead valves. A variation over the OHV design is the overhead camshaft, or "OHC", whose camshaft lies in the cylinder head itself, above the valves. To avoid confusion, OHC engines are not referred to as OHV despite having their valves in the head. In early 1894, Rudolf Diesel's second Diesel engine prototype was built with a cylinder head featuring push rods, rocker arms, poppet valves. Diesel had published this design in 1893. In 1896, U. S. patent 563,140, awarded to William F. Davis, illustrated a gasoline engine with the same head configuration, patenting his solution to the problem of how to cool the head, which problem had made the overhead valve engine difficult before then.
Henry Ford's Quadricycle of 1896 had valves in the head, with push rods for exhaust valves only, the intake using suction valves. In 1898, Detroit bicycle manufacturer Walter Lorenzo Marr built a motor-trike with a one-cylinder OHV engine with push rods for both exhaust and intake. In 1900, David Buick hired Marr as chief engineer at the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in Detroit, where he worked until 1902. Marr's engine employed pushrod-actuated rocker arms, which in turn pushed valves parallel to the pistons. Marr left Buick to start his own automobile company in 1902, the Marr Auto-Car, made a handful of cars with overhead valve engines, before coming back to Buick in 1904; the OHV engine was patented in 1902 by Buick's second chief engineer Eugene Richard, at the Buick Manufacturing Company, precursor to the Buick Motor Company. The world's first production overhead valve internal combustion engine was put into the first production Buick automobile, the 1904 Model B, which used a 2-cylinder Flat twin engine, with 2 valves in each head.
The engine was designed by David Buick. Eugene Richard of the Buick Manufacturing Company was awarded US Patent #771,095 in 1904 for the valve in head engine, it included rocker arms and push rods, a water jacket for the head which communicated with the one in the cylinder block, lifters pushed by a camshaft with a 2-to-1 gearing ratio to the crankshaft. Arthur Chevrolet was awarded US Patent #1,744,526 for an adapter that could be applied to an existing engine, thus transforming it into an Overhead Valve Engine; the Wright Brothers built their own airplane engines, starting in 1906, they used overhead valves for both exhaust and intake, with push rods and rocker arms for the exhaust valves only, the intake valves being "automatic suction" valves. They built a V-8 engine with this valve configuration in 1910. In 1949, Oldsmobile introduced the Rocket V8, the first V-8 engine with OHV's to be produced on a wide scale. General Motors is the world's largest pushrod engine producer, producing I4, V6 and V8 pushrod engines.
Most other companies use overhead cams. Nowadays, automotive use of side-valves has disappeared, valves are all "overhead". However, most are now driven more directly by the overhead camshaft system. Few pushrod-type engines remain in production outside of the United States market; this is in part a result of some countries passing laws to tax engines based on displacement, because displacement is somewhat related to the emissions and fuel efficiency of an automobile. This has given OHC engines a regulatory advantage in those countries, which resulted in few manufacturers wanting to design both OHV and OHC engines. However, in 2002, Chrysler introduced a new pushrod engine: a 5.7-litre Hemi engine. The new Chrysler Hemi engine presents advanced features such as variable displacement technology and has been a popular option with buyers; the Hemi was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2003 through 2007. Chrysler produced the world's first production variable-valve OHV engine with independent intake and exhaust phasing.
The system is called CamInCam, was first used in the 600 horsepower SRT-10 engine for the 2008 Dodge Viper. Early air-cooled ohv BMW boxer motorcycle engines had long pushrods and a single centrally-mounted camshaft; the pushrods were short, allowing higher rpm and more power. For instance, the BMW R1100S could achieve an output of 98 hp at 8,400 rpm, with no risk of valve bounce. Since 2013, BMW flat-twin motorcycle engines have had OHC valve actuation. OHV engines have some advantages over OHC engines: Smaller overall packaging: because of the camshaft's location inside the engine block, OHV engines are more compact than an overhead cam engine of comparable displacement. For example, Ford's 4.6 L OHC modular V8 is larger than the 5.0 L I-head Windsor V8. GM's 4.6 L OHC Northstar V8 is taller and wider than GM's larger displacement 5.7 to 7.0 L I-head LS V8. The Ford Ka uses the Kent Crossflow/Endura-E OHV engine to fit under its low bonnet line; because of the more compact size of an engine of a given displacement, a pushrod engine of given external dimensions can have greater displacement than an OHC engine of the same external size.
As a result, the pushrod engine can sometimes produce just as much power as the OHC engine, but with greater torque (contrary to popular belief, this is due to the greater displacement of