Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Romain Dumas is a French professional auto racing driver and current Porsche factory driver. He has claimed overall wins at the 2010 and 2016 24 Hours of Le Mans, the 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2011 24 Hours of Nürburgring, the 2003 and 2010 24 Hours of Spa, the 2008 12 Hours of Sebring. In 2016 he won the FIA World Endurance Championship with teammates Marc Neel Jani, he won the 2014, 2016, 2017 and 2018 Pikes Peak International Hill Climb. Born in Alès, Dumas started karting in 1992, in 1996 he competed in the French Formula Renault Championship. In 1998, he joined the French Formula 3 Championship, he tested a Formula 3000 car for Oreca in 1999 and a Renault F1 in 2002. In 2004 he tested a Conquest Racing Champ Car. In 2001 and 2002 he competed in Euro Formula 3000. Since 2001 he has participated in every 24 Hours of Le Mans race and since 2004 he has competed in American Le Mans Series, he was a Porsche factory driver for Penske Racing, driven in the FIA GT Championship. In 2007 he won first overall in the 24 Hours Nürburgring, 1st American Le Mans Series, 3rd Le Mans 24 Hours (LMP1 Class — Pescarolo Sport, 5th 1000 km Valencia LMS, 4 races VLN championship with Manthey Racing, 18th Daytona 24H He started 2008 with the P2 class and overall win at the 2008 12 Hours of Sebring in the Penske Porsche RS Spyder.
As of 2009 Roger Penske lost sponsorship for the sports car program, Dumas and Penske regular Timo Bernhard race on loan to the Audi Sport Team Joest for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, finishing 17 overall and 13 in class in the 2009 24 Hours of Le Mans Dumas, together with Timo Bernhard and Mike Rockenfeller won the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans in an Audi R15 TDI plus. He won the 2010 24 Hours of Spa in a Porsche 911 GT3 RSR. Dumas won with partner Klaus Graf in the CytoSport Porsche RS Spyder at the ALMS event at Mosport. Romain Dumas will develop and drive the Porsche 919 Hybrid in the FIA World Endurance Championship in 2014. In 2014, Romain Dumas won the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb in a Norma M20 "RD Limited" prototype developed for the event. In 2015, Dumas raced a Porsche 997 GT3 Cup Car in the RGT class of the WRC Monte Carlo Rally, placing second behind class winner François Delecour, he claimed a class win at the Rallye Deutschland. Dumas continued as Porsche LMP1 driver in the 2016 FIA WEC.
He won 24 Hours of Le Mans. He claimed a second win at the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb with a Norma prototype. In 2017, he won the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb for a third time, again with a Norma prototype. In 2018, Romain won the Pikes Peak International Hill Climb again, driving the Volkswagen I. D. R and setting a new overall record of 7:57.148. He was interviewed in his house in Geneva about training methods, which include using an old Arai helmet modified for neck weight training. Official website Fan Club Facebook
Arden International is a multiple formula racing team created and run by Garry Horner, It runs teams in the FIA Formula 2 Championship, GP3 Series, Eurocup Formula Renault 2.0 and F4 British Championship It has been competing since 1997 and has raced in the Formula 3000 International Championship, the Italian Formula 3000 series, the A1 GP series for Great Britain. Due to the Arden's strong business connections and sponsorship, the team signs Red Bull Junior Team drivers as a way to pave forward future F1 drivers. Many drivers have been Red Bull Juniors, including Michael Ammermüller, Neel Jani, Filipe Albuquerque, Sébastien Buemi, António Félix da Costa, Daniil Kvyat, Carlos Sainz, Jr. Dan Ticktum, Jack Doohan and Dennis Hauger; the team was created as a vehicle to enable Christian Horner to race in F3000 in 1997. According to Horner he set the team up with borrowed money, including a loan from his father, persuaded P1 Motorsport founder Roly Vincini to take on the role of his race engineer.
He bought a second-hand trailer for the team from Helmut Marko, who as head of the Red Bull Junior Team was one of Horner's main rivals as a manager in F3000, who he worked with at Red Bull. He stayed in F3000 for 1998 and was joined at Arden by Kurt Mollekens, who showed good pace and led the championship at one stage. In the winter of 1998 family friend David Richards had been approached by Russian oil company Lukoil to enable them to enter motorsports sponsorship; as entries to F3000 were restricted, Richards agreed a deal with Horner that Prodrive would take a 50% stake in Arden, in return for Horner becoming team manager. As a result, the team signed Viktor Maslov as a driver under the Lukoil deal from 1999; the team started off poorly, didn't have the pace to qualify for many races. At the end of 1999, Richards sold a stake in Prodrive to Apax Partners, who didn't want to continue in F3000. Horner hence exercised the option to buy back the Prodrive stake; as the years went on, the team began to reap the results and was the best team of Formula 3000 in its last 3 years, showing new talents to motorsport world like Darren Manning, Tomáš Enge, Björn Wirdheim and Vitantonio Liuzzi.
The team won the Teams' Championship in 2002, 2003 and 2004. During those years, Wirdheim won the drivers championship in 2003, Liuzzi won it in 2004. During the teams 8 years in the series, it has scored 359 points, won 16 races and achieved 20 pole positions; the team joined the Italian Formula 3000 series for 1999 and 2000. Their first season was poor with only one point to their name, but the 2000 season went better, with Warren Hughes taking two wins, one pole position and three fastest laps for the team, Darren Manning taking one win, one pole and one fastest lap too; the team finished with Hughes second in the championship, the team winning it outright 51 points. Arden operated A1 Team Great Britain in the first season of the A1GP series for 2005–2006; the team fared well in their first season, collecting 8 podium finishes and a single pole position, leaving the team 3rd in the championship with 97 points overall. In 2005, the F3000 series was rebranded as the GP2 Series, Arden stayed on for the new series and achieved second place in the teams' championship with Heikki Kovalainen and Nicolas Lapierre, second place in the Drivers' Championship with Kovalainen, who had 5 wins, 4 pole positions and a fastest lap to his name.
In 2006, Arden competed in GP2 with the rookie Michael Ammermüller. This year, Arden suffered a significant drop in performance, had only 57 points to show and a single win from Ammermüller, compared to the previous season's 126. Overall the team came fourth in the championship. For 2007, Arden signed Bruno Senna, nephew of triple F1 champion Ayrton Senna, A1 Team South Africa driver Adrian Zaugg. Zaugg was replaced for the final round of the season by Filipe Albuquerque; this season was worse for the team compared to the previous year, only managing 42 points which resulted in a seventh-placed finish in the teams' championship, with Senna finishing ninth overall in the drivers' championship. For 2008 and the newly founded Asia Series, the team was renamed Trust Team Arden, after its Dutch title sponsor Trust; the duo of Red Bull Junior Team driver Sébastien Buemi and Yelmer Buurman was its race line-up for both championships. For the Asia Series, Adam Khan raced for the first two rounds before being replaced by Buurman.
The overall result in the Asia Series was the team finishing second in the championship, with 50 points and one win, Buemi finishing second in the drivers' championship. Mid-season in the main series, Buurman was replaced by ART Grand Prix outcast Luca Filippi; the season went better than the previous one with the team picking up 50 points, enough to take sixth place, Buemi picked up two race victories to finish sixth overall in the drivers' championship. Arden again took part in the Asia Series for the 2008 -- 09 season, signing Mika Mäki. For the second round of the championship, held at the Dubai Autodrome, Mäki was replaced by Renger van der Zande, subsequently replaced for the rest of the season by Edoardo Mortara. Razia scored the team's only win of the campaign, which allowed Arden to finish sixth in the teams' championship. For the 2009 main Series, the team signed F3 frontrunners Mortara; this was another poor season for the team, as it finished well down the order in eighth place overall with only Mortara managing a single win.
For the 2009 -- 10 Asia Series, Arden signed Rodolfo González. After the first round, González was replaced by
Jaroslav "Jarek" Janiš is a Czech auto racing driver. In 2006 he is racing in the FIA GT Championship, he has taken three pole positions Brno and the Hungaroring turning two of them into victories, teamed with Sascha Bert and former Formula One driver Andrea Montermini. Prior to 2006 he had done six GT Championship races, four of them in a Ferrari 360 Modena for the Menx team in 2003, taking a total of 17.5 points. He was born in Olomouc and has a record in single-seater competition. Jarek finished 7th in the German Formula Ford series in 1999, was 2nd in that series a year later. By the end of 2001 he had a chance to fill in for countryman Tomáš Enge in the final round of the International Formula 3000 series at Monza, he finished 3rd overall in the European series in 2002, raced the international series in 2003. He made his Champ Car debut for Dale Coyne Racing in the penultimate race of 2004, he did some Formula Nippon in Japan in 2005. He is a race driver for A1 Team Czech Republic in the A1 Grand Prix series.
† - Driver did not finish, but completed 90% of the race distance.1 - A non-championship one-off race was held in 2004 at the streets of Shanghai, China. Official website
An open-wheel car is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body, having only one seat. Open-wheel cars contrast with street cars, sports cars, stock cars, touring cars, which have their wheels below the body or inside fenders. Open-wheel cars are built for road racing with a higher degree of technological sophistication than in other forms of motor sport. Open-wheel street cars, such as the Ariel Atom, are scarce as they are impractical for everyday use. American racecar driver and constructor Ray Harroun was an early pioneer of the concept of a lightweight single-seater, open-wheel "monoposto" racecar. After working as a mechanic in the automotive industry, Harroun began competitive professional racing in 1906, winning the AAA National Championship in 1910, he was hired by the Marmon Motor Car Company as chief engineer, charged with building a racecar intended to race at the first Indianapolis 500, which he went on to win. He developed a revolutionary concept which would become the originator and forefather of the single-seater racecar design.
Harroun has been credited by some as pioneering the rear-view mirror which appeared on his 1911 Indianapolis 500 winning car, though he himself claimed he got the idea from seeing a mirror used for a similar purpose on a horse-drawn vehicle in 1904. A typical open-wheeler has a minimal cockpit sufficient only to enclose the driver's body, with the head exposed to the air. In the Whelen Modified Tour and other short track modified series, the driver's head is contained in the car. In modern cars the engine is located directly behind the driver, drives the rear wheels. Depending on the rules of the class, many types of open-wheelers have wings at the front and rear of the vehicle, as well as a low and flat undertray that helps achieve additional aerodynamic downforce pushing the car onto the road; some major races, such as the Singapore Grand Prix, Monaco Grand Prix and the Long Beach Grand Prix, are held on temporary street circuits. However, most open-wheel races are on dedicated road courses, such as Watkins Glen International in the US, Nürburgring in Germany, Spa-Francorchamps in Belgium and Silverstone in Great Britain.
In the United States some top-level open-wheel events are held on ovals, of both short track and superspeedway variety, with an emphasis being placed more on speed and endurance than the maneuverability inherently required by road and street course events. The Whelen Modified Tour is the only opened wheeled race car series endorsed by NASCAR; this series races on most of NASCAR's most famous tracks in the United States. Other asphalt modified series race on short tracks in the United States and Canada, such as Wyoming County International Speedway in New York; the most well-attended oval race in the world is the annual Indianapolis 500 in Speedway, sanctioned by IndyCar. Open-wheeled racing is among the fastest in the world. Formula 1 cars can reach speeds in excess of 360 kilometres per hour. At Autodromo Nazionale Monza, Antônio Pizzonia of BMW Williams F1 team recorded a top speed of 369.9 kilometres per hour in the 2004 Italian Grand Prix. Since the end of the V10 era in 2006 speeds like this have not been reached, with contemporary machinery reaching around 360 kilometres per hour.
It is difficult to give precise figures for the absolute top speeds of Formula 1 cars, as the cars do not have speedometers as such and the data are not released by teams. The'speed traps' on fast circuits such as Monza give a good indication, but are not located at the point on the track where the car is travelling at its fastest. BAR Honda team recorded an average top speed of 400 kilometres per hour in 2006 at Bonneville Salt Flats with unofficial top speed reaching 413 kilometres per hour using modified BAR 007 Formula 1 car. Speeds on ovals can range in constant excess of 210–220 miles per hour, at Indianapolis in excess of 230 miles per hour; some sources claim that in 1996, Paul Tracy recorded a trap speed of 256.948 miles per hour at Michigan International Speedway. In 2000, Gil de Ferran set the one-lap qualifying record of 241.428 miles per hour at California Speedway. On tight non-oval street circuits such as the Grand Prix of Toronto, open-wheel Indy Cars attain speeds of 190 miles per hour.
Driving an open-wheel car is different from driving a car with fenders. All Formula One and Indycar drivers spent some time in various open-wheel categories before joining either top series. Open-wheel vehicles, due to their light weight, aerodynamic capabilities, powerful engines, are considered the fastest racing vehicles available and among the most challenging to master. Wheel-to-wheel contact is dangerous when the forward edge of one tire contacts the rear of another tire: since the treads are moving in opposite directions at the point of contact, both wheels decelerate, torquing the chassis of both cars and causing one or both vehicles to be and powerfully flung upwards An example of this is the 2005 Chicagoland crash of Ryan Briscoe with Alex Barron; the lower w
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Augusto Farfus Jr. is a Brazilian professional racing driver, BMW Motorsport works driver. He lives in Monaco. Born in Curitiba, Farfus first tasted racing in minibike races and won the local championships in 1991. Like many drivers, his motorsport career began with karting. In 1992, at the age of 9 years, he won the Paraná state championship, competed in São Paulo states championship from 1993 to 1998. In 1999 he succeeded in both winning the Italian Winter Cup and finishing runner-up in the North American Championship, he is married to Elirane Johnsson. In 2000 Farfus moved to Italy and competed in the Formula Renault Italian championship and the Eurocup series for the next two years, winning the Eurocup in 2001. For 2002 he joined Draco Racing in Euro Formula 3000. In 2003 he won the Euro Formula 3000 Championship aged just 20 years old. From 2004 to 2006 Farfus was a factory Alfa Romeo driver in the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. In the 2006 season Farfus fought for the title against Andy Priaulx and Jörg Müller until the final race in Macau, but his outdated Alfa Romeo 156 wasn't up to the pace, Farfus ended the season in 3rd place.
Before the 2007 season, he switched to the Schnitzer BMW-run squad, BMW Team Germany, alongside the German, 2006 season runner-up, Jörg Müller. He temporarily led the championship during the season, but ended this season in 4th place as Priaulx won, he has continued with the team through the 2008 season and into 2009. He scored six wins in 2009, missing out on the title to SEAT's Gabriele Tarquini at the final meeting In 2010, BMW's participation in the WTCC was limited to a two-car line-up, as Farfus joined Andy Priaulx at the Racing Bart Mampaey team. Farfus scored no wins, however he won race 2 at Okayama on the road, but he and teammate Priaulx were disqualified by running a non-homologated gearbox that did not conform to the technical regulations. On 5 December 2010, BMW announced it was withdrawing from the WTCC, but would continue to supply customer teams with its 320TC car. On 25 January 2011, it was announced that Farfus would contest the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup with BMW, which would include its former WTCC drivers Andy Priaulx, Jörg Müller and Dirk Muller.
On 3 December 2018, it was announced that Farfus will join Hyundai for the 2019 World Touring Car Cup season, partnering the series's inaugural driver's champion, Gabriele Tarquini, Norbert Michelisz and Nicky Catsburg. † Driver was classified as they completed 75 % of the winner's race distance. † Ineligible for championship points. † Farfus did not complete sufficient laps in order to score full points. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. * Season still in progress. Augusto Farfus official website Augusto Farfus career summary at DriverDB.com Augusto Farfus Jr. em foco