Autodromo Nazionale Monza
The Autodromo Nazionale Monza is a historic race track located near the city of Monza, north of Milan, in Italy. Built in 1922, it is the world's third purpose-built motor racing circuit after those of Brooklands and Indianapolis; the circuit's biggest event is the Formula One Italian Grand Prix. With the exception of 1980, the race has been hosted there since the series's inception. Built in the Royal Villa of Monza park in a woodland setting, the site has three tracks – the 5.793-kilometre Grand Prix track, the 2.405-kilometre Junior track, a 4.250-kilometre high speed oval track with steep bankings, unused for many decades and is now decaying. The major features of the main Grand Prix track include the Curva Grande, the Curva di Lesmo, the Variante Ascari and the Curva Parabolica; the high speed curve, Curva Grande, is located after the Variante del Rettifilo, located at the end of the front straight or Rettifilo Tribune, is taken flat out by Formula One cars. Drivers are on full throttle for most of the lap due to its long straights and fast corners, is the scenario in which the open-wheeled Formula One cars show the raw speed of which they are capable: 372 kilometres per hour during the mid-2000s V10 engine formula, although in 2012 with the 2.4L V8 engines, top speeds in Formula One reached over 340 kilometres per hour.
The circuit is flat, but has a gradual gradient from the second Lesmos to the Variante Ascari. Due to the low aerodynamic profile needed, with its resulting low downforce, the grip is low. Since both maximum power and minimal drag are keys for speed on the straights, only competitors with enough power or aerodynamic efficiency at their disposal are able to challenge for the top places. In addition to Formula One, the circuit hosted the 1000 km Monza, endurance sports car race held as part of the World Sportscar Championship and the Le Mans Series. Monza featured the unique Race of Two Worlds events, which attempted to run Formula One and USAC National Championship cars against each other; the racetrack previously held rounds of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing, World Touring Car Championship, TCR International Series, Superbike World Championship, Formula Renault 3.5 Series and Auto GP. Monza hosts rounds of the Blancpain GT Series Endurance Cup, International GT Open and Euroformula Open Championship, as well as various local championships such as the TCR Italian Series, Italian GT Championship, Porsche Carrera Cup Italia and Italian F4 Championship.
The Monza circuit has been the site of many fatal accidents in the early years of the Formula One world championship, has claimed the lives of 52 drivers and 35 spectators. Track modifications have continuously occurred, to improve spectator safety and reduce curve speeds, but it is still criticised by the current drivers for its lack of run-off areas, most notoriously at the chicane that cuts the Variante della Roggia; the first track was built from May to July 1922 by 3,500 workers, financed by the Milan Automobile Club – which created the Società Incremento Automobilismo e Sport to run the track. The initial form was a 3.4 square kilometres site with 10 kilometres of macadamised road – comprising a 4.5 kilometres loop track, a 5.5 kilometres road track. The track was opened on 3 September 1922, with the maiden race the second Italian Grand Prix held on 10 September 1922. In 1928, the most serious Italian racing accident to date ended in the death of driver Emilio Materassi and 27 spectators at that year's Grand Prix.
The accident led to further Grand Prix races confinement to the high-speed loop until 1932. The 1933 race was marked by the deaths of three drivers and the Grand Prix layout was changed, with two chicanes added and the longer straights removed. There was major rebuilding in 1938–39, constructing new stands and entrances, resurfacing the track, moving portions of the track and adding two new bends; the resulting layout gave a Grand Prix lap of 6.300 kilometres, in use until 1954. The outbreak of World War II meant racing at the track was suspended until 1948 and parts of the circuit degraded due to the lack of maintenance. Monza was renovated over a period of two months at the beginning of 1948 and a Grand Prix was held on 17 October 1948. In 1954, work began to revamp the circuit, resulting in a 5.750 kilometres course, a new 4.250 kilometres high-speed oval with banked sopraelevata curves. The two circuits could be combined to re-create the former 10 kilometres long circuit, with cars running parallel on the main straight.
The track infrastructure was updated and improved to better accommodate the teams and spectators. The Automobile Club of Italy held 500-mile Race of Two Worlds exhibition competitions, intended to pit United States Auto Club IndyCars against European Formula One and sports cars; the races were held on the oval at the end of June in 1957 and 1958, with three 63 lap 267.67 kilometres heat races each year, races which colloquially became known as the Monzanapolis series. Concerns were raised among the European drivers that flat-out racing on the banking would be too dangerous, so only Ecurie Ecosse and Maserati represented European racing at the
Circuito de Jerez
Circuito de Jerez-Ángel Nieto, is a 4.428 km racing circuit located close to the city of Jerez de la Frontera, 90 km south of Seville and deep within the sherry-producing south of Spain. The project was led by the Spanish engineer Manuel Medina Lara, based on a preliminary idea from Alessandro Rocci; the circuit opened on 8 December 1985. During 1986 the circuit hosted the first international motorcycle event in Spain in March and the Formula One Spanish Grand Prix in April; the circuit's remote location hindered significant spectator turnout, although up to 125,000 can be accommodated. Because of this, F1 moved to Barcelona following the 1991 race. In 1992, the track eliminated four corners to create the long right hander Curva Sito Pons. Due to the hosting of the European Grand Prix in 1994, a new chicane was created at the corner where Martin Donnelly had a career-ending accident during qualifying for the 1990 Spanish Grand Prix. Jerez hosted the 1997 European Grand Prix, the championship decider between Michael Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve, who collided during the race.
During the podium celebrations of the 1997 race, Jerez's Mayor Pedro Pacheco disrupted the podium celebrations by presenting a trophy, supposed to be presented by a dignitary from Daimler-Benz. This incident resulted in the track being temporarily banned from hosting a Grand Prix, it has never hosted another Grand Prix, but remains one of the most popular venues for winter testing. During 2005, the track was resurfaced, it was expected that the Champ Car World Series would race there in 2008 until the series was cancelled early in the year after merging with the IndyCar Series. On 2 May 2013, it was announced that the final corner would be renamed after Spanish MotoGP world champion Jorge Lorenzo. In 2017, FIA Formula 2 hosted a stand-alone event on October 8 at the circuit. On 3 May 2018, the circuit was renamed in honor of the former motorcyclist Ángel Nieto, who died in 2017. Circuito de Jerez official website
Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 40,145 inhabitants in 2016. During the last 15 years, it has gone from a garrison town to a developed commercial city, today attracting visitors in the summertime from Germany and The Netherlands; the city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name means'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the nearby town of Vä and moving the city rights of the neighbouring town of Sölvesborg and Åhus to the new town. The purpose of the town was to safeguard the eastern half of the Danish province of Scania against any future raids from Sweden in the north, but as a symbol of the power of Christian himself. One of these raids had sacked the nearby town of Vä in 1612. Vä lost its charter and the people were moved to the new, better fortified city; the king founded the town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge to serve a similar purpose. Construction of the towns was a great prestige project for the king, Kristianstad's church is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful buildings constructed by King Christian IV, or northern Europe's most beautiful Renaissance church.
This meant that the church was built larger than there was use for. The king wanted castle or fortress constructed inside the town but shortage of funds made this impossible, of the intendend castle only an arsenal was constructed which today serves as the main building of the local museum. In Christianstad the town planning of the Renaissance could be laid down for the first time at the foundation of the town; this makes the Kristianstad town centre of today easy to get around in. The city's coat of arms depicts two lions holding the King Christian IV's crowned insignia, the monogram C4; the coat of arms was only modified after the Swedish takeover following the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde in which the eastern third of Denmark was ceded to Sweden. The coat of arms is similar to the coat of arms of the former town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge, a town founded by Christian IV. Since 1971, the coat of arms is used by Kristianstad Municipality. Kristianstad's coat of arms is one of the few coat of arms in the world depicting a foreign king's or queen's coat of arms.
A reason for the Swedes to continue using the old coat of arms could be its colours – blue and yellow. Pylyp Orlyk was after 1709 chosen as a Hetman in exile by the cossacks and the Swedish king Charles XII. While in Bender Orlyk wrote one of the first state constitutions in Europe; this Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was confirmed by Charles XII and it names him as the protector of Ukraine. After 1714 Orlyk now together with several other cossacks followed the Swedish king Charles XII to Sweden. Orlyk with his family and about 40 other Cossacks arrived in Ystad, Sweden in late November 1715. After some months in Ystad they lived in the city of Kristianstad for some years. Orlyk wrote numerous proclamations and essays about Ukraine including the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk. Kristianstad served as capital of Kristianstad County between 1719 and 1997, it now houses the regional parliament of the Skåne Regional Council. For a long time Kristianstad was a important garrison town, the A3 Wendes Artillery Regiment and the P6 South Scanian Infantry Regiment being the towns most prominent military units.
The town housed for many years the so-called Scanian Fortification Brigade. The Wendes Artillery Regiment served with distinction in the Napoleonic Wars. One of Sweden's higher courts of appeal was located in Kristianstad before being moved to Malmö in 1917. Sweden's lowest point, at 2.41 meters below mean sea level, is located in Kristianstad. Because of this, parts of the city have to be protected from flooding by a system of levees and water pumps. To expand the city, large areas of low-lying wetlands have had to be walled in to the east. To prevent future flooding of the city center, the existing levees are in the process of being reinforced and new levees against both Helge å and Hammarsjön are under construction. An extensive system of ponds and dams is under construction; the threat of flooding became substantial during late winter 2002, when the greater part of the public park Tivoliparken was under water. However, the wetlands around the city are starting to be regarded more as an asset, not least thanks to the creation of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve.
Today the Vattenriket is a Unesco biosphere reserve. Kristianstad straddles the line between an oceanic climate and a humid continental climate typical of southern Sweden; the marine influence is greater during a season that averages above the freezing point. Summers are comparatively long by Swedish standards. Kristianstad has by now crossed a vital threshold, as the city and adjacent municipality, with a population of 80,000, in essence use no oil, natural gas or coal to warm homes and businesses throughout the extensive chilly winters, it is an absolute turnaround from 20 years ago. Absolut Vodka, owned by Pernod Ricard, is produced by the town of Åhus located within the municipality. Kristianstad was the main military seat in Scania for a long time, boosting military camps and trainings. After the reforms and military cutbacks of the 1990s all of these have been closed, although a new military presence is being established in nearby Rinkaby which holds an old military training ground. In and around Kristianstad are numerous enterprises concerned with agricul
Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry
Autodrome de Montlhéry is a motor racing circuit called L’autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry, located south-west of the small town of Montlhéry about thirty kilometres south of Paris. Industrialist Alexandre Lamblin hired René Jamin to design the 2,548.24 metres oval shaped track for up to 1,000 kg vehicles at 220 km/h. It was called Autodrome parisien, had high banking. A road circuit was added in 1925; the first race there, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by The Automobile Club de France Grand Prix. It was a race; the Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927 and each year between 1931 and 1937. In 1939 the track was sold to the government, deprived of maintenance, again sold to Union technique de l’automobile et du cycle in December 1946; the "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems. Fatal accidents at Autodrome de Montlhéry include Benoît Nicolas Musy, the one in which Peter Lindner, Franco Patria and three flag marshals died in 1964.
The last certification for racing was gained in 2001. The first race, the 1925 French Grand Prix, was held on 26 July 1925 and organised by the Automobile Club de France. Robert Benoist in a Delage won. In July 1926 Violette Cordery lead a team that averaged 113.8 km/h for 8,047 km driving an Invicta, became the first woman to be awarded the Dewar Trophy by the Royal Automobile Club. The Grand Prix revisited the track in 1927. In 1929, Hellé Nice drove an Oméga-Six to victory in the all-female Grand Prix of the third Journée Feminine at the Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry and set a new world land speed record for women; the Grand Prix revisited the track each year between 1931 and 1937. The "Coupe du Salon", "Grand Prix de l'Age d'Or" and the "1000 km" were arranged irregularly since as the track has had several high-speed problems; the Grand Prix de France was organized in Linas-Montlhéry in 1925, 1931, 1935 and 1937 with the best worldwide racers. A competitor Grand Prix de France was organized from 1924 to 1937 with the best French and British racers.
The Bol d'or, the well-known French motorcycle endurance race of 24 hours, was held in Linas-Montlhéry before the Second War from 1937 to 1939, after the Second War in 1949, in 1950, from 1952 to 1960, in 1969 and in 1970. British motorcycles were victorious from 1931 to 1959,. A legendary French racer, Gustave Lefèvre is always the record holder with 7 victories despite riding alone during 24 hours: his average speed was 107 kilometres per hour in 1953; the year after, two riders were allowed. In 1969, a Japanese bike, Honda Four, wins for the first time. In 1970, a British one, Triumph Trident, wins for the last time. Another race open the year in France, the Côte Lapize, climbing around the hill of Saint-Eutrope: the new engines confidentially prepared during the winter months were shown. In early 1950s, Pierre Monneret riding the famous Gilera Four, 500 cc, sent by the official Italian team, was one of them; some races were open to production motorcycles like the Coupes Eugène Mauve. In 1933 the circuit hosted the UCI Road World Championships for cycling.
In 2010 the Speed Ring played host to Ken Block's Gymkhana Three video, an advertisement for his company, DC Shoes. William Boddy, Montlhéry, the story of the Paris autodrome ISBN 1-84584-052-6 Montlhery.com Website about Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry on Stades Mythiques Paris Autodrome News Association pour le soutien de l'autodrome de Linas-Montlhéry Historic Purpose Built Grand Prix Circuits on Google Maps
Circuit de la Sarthe
The Circuit des 24 Heures du Mans known as Circuit de la Sarthe located in Le Mans, France, is a semi-permanent motorsport race course chiefly known as the venue for the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race. Comprising private, race-specific sections of track in addition to public roads which remain accessible most of the year, its present configuration is 13.626 kilometres long, making it one of the longest circuits in the world. Capacity of the race stadium, where the short Bugatti Circuit is situated, is 100,000; the Musée des 24 Heures du Mans is a motorsport museum located at the main entrance of the venue. Up to 85% of the lap time is spent on full throttle, putting immense stress on engine and drivetrain components. Additionally, the times spent reaching maximum speed mean tremendous wear on the brakes and suspension as cars must slow from over 320 km/h to around 100 km/h for the sharp corner at the village of Mulsanne; the road racing track, a triangle from Le Mans down south to Mulsanne, northwest to Arnage, back north to Le Mans, has undergone many modifications over the years, with CIRCUIT N° 16 being in use since 2018.
With the modifications put in place over the years, the Sarthe circuit is still known for being fast, with prototype cars achieving average lap speeds in excess of 240 km/h. In the 1920s, the cars drove from the present pits on Rue de Laigné straight into the city, after a sharp right-hand corner near the river Sarthe Pontlieue bridge, before exiting the city again on the rather straight section now named Avenue Georges Durand after the race's founder. 17.261 kilometres long and unpaved, a bypass within the city shortened the track in 1929, but only in 1932 the city was bypassed when the section from the pits via the Dunlop Bridge and the Esses to Tertre Rouge was added. This classic configuration was 8.369 miles long and remained unaltered after the 1955 tragedy. Its frighteningly narrow pit straight was narrowed off to make room for the pits and was part of the road itself, without the road becoming wider just for the pits; the pit straight was about 12 feet wide and the race track and pits were not separated for another 15 years.
The pit area was modified at a cost of 300 million francs, the signalling area was moved to the exit of the slow Mulsanne corner, the track was resurfaced. Car speeds increased in the 1960s, pushing the limits of the "classic circuit" and sparking criticism of the track as being unsafe, after several trials related fatalities occurred. Since 1965, a smaller but permanent Bugatti Circuit was added which shares the pit lane facilities and the first corner with the full "Le Mans" circuit. For the 1968 race, the Ford chicane was added before the pits to slow down the cars; the circuit was fitted with Armco for the 1969 race. The "Maison Blanche" kink was harrowing, claiming many cars over the years and several lives, including the legendary John Woolfe in 1969 behind the wheel of a 917 Porsche; the circuit was modified ten more times—in 1971. Armco was added to the pit straight to separate the track from the pits, in 1972, the last part of the race track was revamped with the addition of the quick Porsche curves bypassing "Maison Blanche" and part of the first straight and all of the second straight between the pits and Maison Blanche.
In 1979, due to the construction of a new public road, the profile of "Tertre Rouge" had to be changed. This redesign saw the removal of the second Dunlop Bridge. In 1986, construction of a new roundabout at the Mulsanne corner demanded the addition a new portion of track in order to avoid the roundabout; this created a right hand kink prior to Mulsanne corner. In 1987, a chicane was added to the fast Dunlop curve where cars would go under the Dunlop bridge at 180 mph, now they would be slowed to 110 mph. In 1990, two chicanes were added onto the Mulsanne Straight, in 1994, the Dunlop chicane was tightened. In 2002, the run to the Esses was reconfigured in the wake of renovations to the Bugatti Circuit; the Le Mans circuit was changed between the Dunlop Bridge and Esses, with the straight now becoming a set of fast sweeping turns. This layout allowed for a better transition from the Le Mans circuit to the Bugatti circuit; this layout change would require the track's infamous carnival to be relocated near the Porsche curves, in 2006, the ACO redeveloped the area around the Dunlop Curve and Dunlop Chicane, moving the Dunlop Curve in tighter to create more run-off area, while turning the Dunlop Chicane into a larger set of turns.
As part of the development, a new extended pit lane exit was created for the Bugatti Circuit. This second pit exit re-enters the track just beyond the Dunlop Chicane and before the Dunlop Bridge. Following the fatal crash of Danish driver Allan Simonsen at the 2013 race at the exit of Tertre Rouge into D338, Tertre Rouge was re-profiled again; the radius will be moved in 200m for safety reasons with new tyre barriers at the exit. Le Mans was most famous for its 6 km long straight, called Ligne Droite des Hunaudières, a part of the route départementale D338; as the Hunaudières leads to the village of Mulsanne, it is called the Mulsanne Straight in English
Red Bull Ring
The Red Bull Ring is a motorsport race track in Spielberg, Austria. The race circuit was founded as Österreichring and hosted the Austrian Grand Prix for 18 consecutive years, from 1970 to 1987, it was shortened and renamed the A1-Ring, it hosted the Austrian Grand Prix again from 1997 to 2003. When Formula One outgrew the circuit, a plan was drawn up to extend the layout. Parts of the circuit, including the pits and main grandstand, were demolished, but construction work was stopped and the circuit remained unusable for several years before it was purchased by Red Bull's Dietrich Mateschitz and rebuilt. Renamed the Red Bull Ring the track was reopened on 15 May 2011 and subsequently hosted a round of the 2011 DTM season and a round of the 2011 F2 championship. Formula One returned to the circuit in the 2014 season. Built in 1969 to replace the bland and bumpy Zeltweg Airfield circuit, the Österreichring track was situated in the Styrian mountains and it was a spectacular and unique circuit; the track was fast, every corner was a fast sweeper and was taken in no lower than 3rd gear in a 5-speed gearbox and 4th in a 6-speed gearbox and the track had noticeable changes in elevation during the course of a lap, 65 metres from lowest to highest point.
Like most fast circuits it was a hard circuit on engines but more difficult on tires, because of the speeds being so high. Many considered the Österreichring to be dangerous the Bosch Kurve, a 180-degree downhill right-hand corner with no run-off area which, by 1986 when turbos pushed Formula One engine power to upwards of 1,400 bhp in qualifying, saw Derek Warwick speed trapped at 344 km/h in his BMW powered Brabham BT55 on the run to the Bosch Kurve. There were other testing corners such as Voest-Hugel, a flat-out 180 mph right hander that led to the 150 mph Sebring-Auspuff Kurve, an essential corner to get right because of the long straight afterwards that led to the Bosch Kurve; some of the track was just road with little to no protection at all up to the final Austrian Grand Prix there in 1987, a race that had to be restarted twice because of 2 progressively more serious accidents both caused by the narrow pit straight in a similar manner to the 1985 race when the race was stopped after one lap following a start line shunt that had taken out three cars including championship leader Michele Alboreto's Ferrari and local driver Gerhard Berger's Arrows-BMW.
In practice for the 1987 race McLaren's Stefan Johansson narrowly avoided serious injury or worse when at over 150 mph he collided with a deer that had made its way onto the track while Johansson was cresting a blind brow before the Jochen Rindt Kurve behind the pits. Increasing speeds were a concern at the Österreichring. At the time it was second only in F1 average speed to Keke Rosberg's 160.9 mph pole lap of the Silverstone Circuit set during the 1985 British Grand Prix. Both times were set using a turbocharged Williams-Honda. American driver Mark Donohue died after crashing at the Vost-Hugel Kurve in 1975. In 1976, the Vost-Hugel Kurve was tightened and made into one right hander rather than 2 right-handers with a small section between, in 1977 it was slowed down and became the Hella-Licht chicane, going from the fastest to the slowest corner on the track, it is known that four-times World Champion Alain Prost said that all tracks can be changed but that the Österreichring should remain unchanged, just adding run-off areas would be fine, which did happen up until the original track's final year in 1995.
The track was known for having many crashes at the start of races because the start–finish straight was narrow and it did not provide enough space for cars attempting to pass others cars that stalled or broke at the start. Motorcycle rider Hans-Peter Klampfer died after a collision with another rider at the Bosch Kurve and 29-year-old Hannes Wustinger was killed after a crash at the Tiroch Kurve at a race for the Austrian Touring car championship and this sealed the decision to build a new circuit. Triple World Champion and long time hero of the home crowd Niki Lauda is the only Austrian driver to win his home Grand Prix, he won the 1984 Austrian Grand Prix at the Österreichring driving a McLaren-TAG Porsche. Lauda went on to win his third and final championship in 1984, beating his team mate Alain Prost by the smallest margin in F1 history, only half a point, he announced his permanent retirement from driving at the circuit before the 1985 race. The Österreichring's safety concerns had reached a head in the mid 1990s, in 1995 and 1996 it was rebuilt, at the same site, by Hermann Tilke.
Its length was shortened from 5.942 km to 4.326 km, the fast sweeping corners were replaced by three tight right-handers, in order to create overtaking opportunities. Its three long straights, as well as a twisty infield section, asked for a setup compromise; as much of the construction work was paid for by the mobile phone provider A1, the track was renamed the A1-Ring. It proceeded to host seven Formula One Austrian Grands Prix between 1997 and 2003, as well as several DTM races and Austrian motorcy
The Nürburgring is a 150,000 person capacity motorsports complex located in the town of Nürburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It features a Grand Prix race track built in 1984, a much longer Nordschleife "North loop" track, built in the 1920s around the village and medieval castle of Nürburg in the Eifel mountains; the north loop is 20.8 km long and has more than 300 metres of elevation change from its lowest to highest points. Jackie Stewart nicknamed the old track "The Green Hell"; the track featured four configurations: the 28.265 km -long Gesamtstrecke, which in turn consisted of the 22.810 km Nordschleife, the 7.747 km Südschleife. There was a 2.281 km warm-up loop called Zielschleife or Betonschleife, around the pit area. Between 1982 and 1983 the start/finish area was demolished to create a new GP-Strecke, this is used for all major and international racing events. However, the shortened Nordschleife is still in use for racing and public access. In the early 1920s, ADAC Eifelrennen races were held on public roads in the Eifel mountains.
This was soon recognised as dangerous. The construction of a dedicated race track was proposed, following the examples of Italy's Monza and Targa Florio courses, Berlin's AVUS, yet with a different character; the layout of the circuit in the mountains was similar to the Targa Florio event, one of the most important motor races at that time. The original Nürburgring was to be a showcase for racing talent. Construction of the track, designed by the Eichler Architekturbüro from Ravensburg, began in September 1925; the track was completed in spring of 1927, the ADAC Eifelrennen races were continued there. The first races to take place on 18 June 1927 showed sidecars; the first motorcycle race was won by Toni Ulmen on an English 350 cc Velocette. The cars followed a day and Rudolf Caracciola was the winner of the over 5000 cc class in a Mercedes-Benz Compressor. In addition, the track was opened to the public in the evenings and on weekends, as a one-way toll road; the whole track consisted of 174 bends, averaged 8 to 9 metres in width.
The fastest time around the full Gesamtstrecke was by Louis Chiron, at an average speed of 112.31 km/h in his Bugatti. In 1929 the full Nürburgring was used for the last time in major racing events, as future Grands Prix would be held only on the Nordschleife. Motorcycles and minor races used the shorter and safer Südschleife. Memorable pre-war races at the circuit featured the talents of early Ringmeister such as Rudolf Caracciola, Tazio Nuvolari and Bernd Rosemeyer. After World War II, racing resumed in 1947 and in 1951, the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring again became the main venue for the German Grand Prix as part of the Formula One World Championship. A new group of Ringmeister arose to dominate the race – Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Stirling Moss, Jim Clark, John Surtees, Jackie Stewart and Jacky Ickx. On 5 August 1961, during practice for the 1961 German Grand Prix, Phil Hill became the first person to complete a lap of the Nordschleife in under 9 minutes, with a lap of 8 minutes 55.2 seconds in the Ferrari 156 "Sharknose" Formula One car.
Over half a century even the highest performing road cars still have difficulty breaking 8 minutes without a professional race driver or one familiar with the track. Several rounds of the German motorcycle Grand Prix were held on the 7.7 km Südschleife, but the Hockenheimring and the Solitudering were the main sites for Grand Prix motorcycle racing. In 1953, the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring race was introduced, an Endurance race and Sports car racing event that counted towards the World Sportscar Championship for decades; the 24 Hours Nürburgring for touring car racing was added in 1970. By the late 1960s, the Nordschleife and many other tracks were becoming dangerous for the latest generation of F1 cars. In 1967, a chicane was added before the start/finish straight, called Hohenrain, in order to reduce speeds at the pit lane entry; this made the track 25 m longer. This change, was not enough to keep Stewart from nicknaming it "The Green Hell" following his victory in the 1968 German Grand Prix amid a driving rainstorm and thick fog.
In 1970, after the fatal crash of Piers Courage at Zandvoort, the F1 drivers decided at the French Grand Prix to boycott the Nürburgring unless major changes were made, as they did at Spa the year before. The changes were not possible on short notice, the German GP was moved to the Hockenheimring, modified. In accordance with the demands of the F1 drivers, the Nordschleife was reconstructed by taking out some bumps, smoothing out some sudden jumps, installing Armco safety barriers; the track was made straighter, following the race line. The German GP could be hosted at the Nürburgring again, was for another six years from 1971 to 1976. In 1973 the entrance into the dangerous and bumpy Kallenhard corner was made slower by adding another left-hand corner after the fast Metzgesfeld sweeping corner. Safety was improved again on, e.g. by removing the jumps on the long main straight and widening it, taking away the bushes right next to the track at the main straight, which had made that section of the Nürburgring dangerously narrow.
A second series of three more F1 races was held until 1976. Howe