Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute. The heart rate can vary according to the body's physical needs, including the need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide, it is equal or close to the pulse measured at any peripheral point. Activities that can provoke change include physical exercise, anxiety, stress and ingestion of drugs; the American Heart Association states. Tachycardia is a fast heart rate, defined as above 100 bpm at rest. Bradycardia is a slow heart rate, defined as below 60 bpm at rest. During sleep a slow heartbeat with rates around 40 -- 50 bpm is considered normal; when the heart is not beating in a regular pattern, this is referred to as an arrhythmia. Abnormalities of heart rate sometimes indicate disease. While heart rhythm is regulated by the sinoatrial node under normal conditions, heart rate is regulated by sympathetic and parasympathetic input to the sinoatrial node; the accelerans nerve provides sympathetic input to the heart by releasing norepinephrine onto the cells of the sinoatrial node, the vagus nerve provides parasympathetic input to the heart by releasing acetylcholine onto sinoatrial node cells.
Therefore, stimulation of the accelerans nerve increases heart rate, while stimulation of the vagus nerve decreases it. Due to individuals having a constant blood volume, one of the physiological ways to deliver more oxygen to an organ is to increase heart rate to permit blood to pass by the organ more often. Normal resting heart rates range from 60-100 bpm. Bradycardia is defined as a resting heart rate below 60 bpm. However, heart rates from 50 to 60 bpm are common among healthy people and do not require special attention. Tachycardia is defined as a resting heart rate above 100 bpm, though persistent rest rates between 80–100 bpm if they are present during sleep, may be signs of hyperthyroidism or anemia. Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate. Central nervous system depressants or sedatives decrease the heart rate. There are many ways in which the heart rate slows down. Most involve stimulant-like endorphins and hormones being released in the brain, many of which are those that are'forced'/'enticed' out by the ingestion and processing of drugs.
This section discusses target heart rates for healthy persons and are inappropriately high for most persons with coronary artery disease. The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the sinoatrial node, it is influenced by central factors through sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata; the cardioaccelerator regions stimulate activity via sympathetic stimulation of the cardioaccelerator nerves, the cardioinhibitory centers decrease heart activity via parasympathetic stimulation as one component of the vagus nerve. During rest, both centers provide slight stimulation to the heart; this is a similar concept to tone in skeletal muscles. Vagal stimulation predominates as, left unregulated, the SA node would initiate a sinus rhythm of 100 bpm. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic stimuli flow through the paired cardiac plexus near the base of the heart; the cardioaccelerator center sends additional fibers, forming the cardiac nerves via sympathetic ganglia to both the SA and AV nodes, plus additional fibers to the atria and ventricles.
The ventricles are more richly innervated by sympathetic fibers than parasympathetic fibers. Sympathetic stimulation causes the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine at the neuromuscular junction of the cardiac nerves; this shortens the repolarization period, thus speeding the rate of depolarization and contraction, which results in an increased heartrate. It opens chemical or ligand-gated sodium and calcium ion channels, allowing an influx of positively charged ions. Norepinephrine binds to the beta–1 receptor. High blood pressure medications are used to so reduce the heart rate. Parasympathetic stimulation originates from the cardioinhibitory region with impulses traveling via the vagus nerve; the vagus nerve sends branches to both the SA and AV nodes, to portions of both the atria and ventricles. Parasympathetic stimulation releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. ACh slows HR by opening chemical- or ligand-gated potassium ion channels to slow the rate of spontaneous depolarization, which extends repolarization and increases the time before the next spontaneous depolarization occurs.
Without any nervous stimulation, the SA node would establish a sinus rhythm of 100 bpm. Since resting rates are less than this, it becomes evident that parasympathetic stimulation slows HR; this is similar to an individual driving a car with one foot on the brake pedal. To speed up, one need remove one’s foot from the brake and let the engine increase speed. In the case of the heart, decreasing parasympathetic stimulation decreases the release of ACh, which allows HR to increase up to 100 bpm. Any increases beyond this rate would require sympathetic stimulation; the cardiovascular centres receive input from a series of visceral receptors with impulses traveling through visceral sensory fibers within the vagus and sympath
The Relaxation Response
The Relaxation Response is a book written in 1975 by Herbert Benson, a Harvard physician, Miriam Z. Klipper; the response is a simple, secular version of Transcendental Meditation, presented for people in the Western world. Benson writes in his book, "We claim no innovation but a scientific validation of age-old wisdom". People from the Transcendental Meditation movement, who felt they could reduce blood pressure using TM, visited Harvard Medical School in 1968, asking to be studied; the school, which at the time was studying the relationship of monkeys' behavior and blood pressure, told them "No, thank you." But when they persisted, Benson told them. He met with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi first to find out if he could agree in advance to any outcome, which Mahesh did. Benson mentions in his book that independent studies were underway by then-PhD candidate R. Keith Wallace working with Archie Wilson at the University of California, Los Angeles, but that no published studies of TM existed; the Benson-Henry Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital teaches how to elicit the response in nine steps.
Benson's website and his book describe four steps. Two of those steps are essential: a passive attitude; the goal is to activate the parasympathetic nervous system. Benson developed the idea of the response, which counters the fight-or-flight response described during the 1920s by Walter Bradford Cannon at the Harvard Medical School. According to Benson more than 60 percent of all visits to healthcare providers are related to stress, it causes the “fight or flight” hormones and norepinephrine, to secrete into the bloodstream. This exacerbates a number of conditions, they include hypertension, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome and chronic low back pain, as well as heart disease and cancer. A physician with ABC News adds, he said. In a 1986 US national survey, reported in The New York Times, this best-seller was the number one self-help book that clinical psychologists recommended to their patients. Benson, Herbert, 1975; the Relaxation Response. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-380-81595-8. Benson's website – for the Relaxation Response
Abbé Faria, or Abbé José Custódio de Faria, was a Luso-Goan Catholic monk, one of the pioneers of the scientific study of hypnotism, following on from the work of Franz Mesmer. Unlike Mesmer, who claimed that hypnosis was mediated by "animal magnetism", Faria understood that it worked purely by the power of suggestion. In the early 19th century, Abbé Faria introduced oriental hypnosis to Paris, he was one of the first to depart from the theory of the "magnetic fluid", to place in relief the importance of suggestion, to demonstrate the existence of "autosuggestion". From his earliest magnetizing séances, in 1814, he boldly developed his doctrine. Nothing comes from the magnetizer. Magnetism is only a form of sleep. Although of the moral order, the magnetic action is aided by physical, or rather by physiological, means–fixedness of look and cerebral fatigue. Faria changed the terminology of mesmerism; the focus was on the "concentration" of the subject. In Faria's terminology the operator became "the concentrator" and somnambulism was viewed as a lucid sleep.
The method of hypnosis used by Faria is command, following expectancy. The theory of Abbé Faria is now known as Fariism. Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault, the founder of the Nancy School, Émile Coué, father of applied conditioning, developed the theory of suggestion and autosuggestion and began using them as therapeutic tools. Johannes Schultz developed these theories as Autogenic training. José Custódio de Faria was born in Candolim, Bardez in the erstwhile territory of Portuguese Goa, on 31 May 1756, he was the son of Caetano Vitorino de Faria of Colvale, Rosa Maria de Sousa of Candolim. He had an adopted sister, Catarina, an orphan. Caetano was in turn a descendant of Anantha Shenoy, a Goud Saraswat Brahmin, village clerk and Patil of the same village who converted to Christianity in the 16th century, he was a Goan Catholic of the Bamonn caste, was of partial African descent. Since his parents had irreconcilable differences, they decided to separate and obtained the Church's dispensation. Caetano Vitorino joined the seminary to complete his studies for the priesthood, Rosa Maria became a nun, joining the St. Monica convent in Old Goa, where she rose to the position of prioress.
The father had great ambition for his son. Hence, Faria reached Lisbon on 23 December 1771 with his father at the age of 25. After a year they managed to convince the King of Portugal, Joseph I, to send them to Rome for Faria Sr. to earn a doctorate in theology, the son to pursue his studies for the priesthood. The son too earned his doctorate, dedicating his doctoral thesis to the Portuguese Queen, Mary I of Portugal, another study, on the Holy Spirit to the Pope, his Holiness was sufficiently impressed to invite José Custódio to preach a sermon in the Sistine Chapel, which he himself attended. On his return to Lisbon, the Queen was informed by the Nuncio of the Pope's honour to Faria Jr. So, she too invited the young priest to preach to her as well, in her chapel, but Faria, climbing the pulpit, seeing the august assembly felt tongue tied. At that moment his father, who sat below the pulpit, whispered to him in Konkani: Hi sogli baji. Jolted, the son preached fluently. Faria Jr. from on wondered how a mere phrase from his father could alter his state of mind so radically as to wipe off his stage fright in a second.
The question would have far reaching consequences in his life. He was implicated in the Conspiracy of the Pintos during 1787, left for France in 1788, he stayed in Paris residing at Rue de Ponceau. In Paris, he became a leader of one of the revolutionary battalions in 1795, taking command of one of the sections of the infamous 10 of the Vendémiaire, which attacked the infamous French Convention, taking an active part in its fall; as a result, he established links with individuals like the Marquise of Coustine. He was a friend of Armand-Marie-Jacques de Chastenet, Marques of Puységur, to whom he dedicated his book Causas do Sono Lúcido. In 1797 he was arrested in Marseille for unknown reasons, sent by a law court to the infamous Chateau d'If in a barred police carriage, he was shut up in solitary confinement in the Chateau. While imprisoned he trained himself using techniques of self-suggestion. After a long imprisonment in the Chateau, Faria was returned to Paris. In 1811, he was appointed Professor of Philosophy at the University of France at Nîmes, was elected member of the Société Medicale de Marseille at Marseille.
In 1813 Abbé Faria, realising that animal magnetism was gaining importance in Paris, returned to Paris and started promoting a new doctrine. He provoked unending controversies with his work Da Causa do Sono Lúcido no Estudo da Natureza do Homem, published in Paris in 1819 and was soon accused of being a charlatan, he retired as chaplain to an obscure religious establishment, died of a stroke in Paris on 30 September 1819. He left behind his grave remains unmarked and unknown, somewhere in Montmartre. There is Goa of Abbé Faria trying to hypnotise a woman, it was sculpted in 1945 by Ramchandra Pandurang Kamat. According to
The Menninger Foundation was founded in 1919 by the Menninger family in Topeka and consists of a clinic, a sanatorium, a school of psychiatry, all of which bear the Menninger name. In 2003, the Menninger Clinic moved to Houston; the foundation was started by Dr. Charles F. Menninger and his sons, Drs. Karl and William Menninger, it represented the first group psychiatry practice. "We had a vision," Dr. C. F. Menninger said, "of a better kind of medicine and a better kind of world." The Menninger Clinic was founded in the 1920s in Kansas. The Menninger Sanitarium was founded in 1925; the Menninger Clinic established the Southard School for children in 1926. The school fostered treatment programs for adolescents that were recognized worldwide. In the 1930s the Menningers expanded training programs for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals; the Menninger Foundation was established in 1941. The Menninger School of Psychiatry was established in 1946, it became the largest training center in the country, driven by the country's demand for psychiatrists to treat military veterans.
Menninger announced its affiliation with Baylor College of Medicine and The Methodist Hospital in December 2002. The concept was that Menninger would perform treatment while Baylor would oversee research and education; the Menninger Clinic moved in June 2003 from Topeka, Kansas to its present location in Houston, Texas. The Menninger Clinic again moved to its new location at 12301 S. Main St. Houston, Texas, 77035 in May 2012; as of May 2012, The Menninger Clinic offers the following inpatient programs and services: Adolescent Treatment Program, a Professionals in Crisis Program, the Compass Program for Young Adults, the Comprehensive Psychiatric Assessment & Stabilization Program, an Assessments Service and the Hope Program for Adults. The Menninger School of Psychiatry and the local Veterans Administration Hospital represented the center of a psychiatric education revolution; the Clinic and the School became the hub for training professionals in the bio-psycho-social approach. This approach integrated the foundations of medical, psychodynamic and family systems to focus on the overall health of patients.
For patients, this way of treatment attended to their physical and social needs. Dr. Otto Fleischmann, head of the psychoanalytic institute 1956 - 1963 was doing psychotherapy behind a one-way vision screen, in full view of all the students. Dr. Karl Menninger's first book, The Human Mind, became a bestseller and familiarized the American public with human behavior. Many Americans read his subsequent books, including The Vital Balance, Man Against Himself and Love Against Hate. Dr. Will Menninger made a major contribution to the field of psychiatry when he developed a system of hospital treatment known as milieu therapy; this approach involved a patient's total environment in treatment. Dr. Menninger served as Chief of the Army Medical Corps' Psychiatric Division during World War II. Under his leadership, the Army reduced losses in personnel due to psychological impairment. In 1945, the Army promoted Dr. Menninger to brigadier general. After the war, Dr. Menninger lead a national revolution to reform state sanitariums.
In 1948, Time magazine featured Dr. Menninger on its cover, lauding him as "psychiatry’s U. S. sales manager." At The Menninger Clinic, staff proceeded to launch new treatment approaches and open specialty programs. The Menninger Foundation gained a reputation for intensive, individualized treatment for patients with complex or long-standing symptoms; the treatment approach was multidimensional, addressing a patient's medical and social needs. Numerous independent organizations recognized the Menninger Foundation as a world leader in psychiatric and behavioral health treatment; the psychiatric department of the Menninger Clinic was ranked third best in the nation by US News & World Report in 2018. The Menninger Clinic remains one of the primary North American settings supporting psychodynamically informed research on clinical diagnosis and treatment. Efforts have been organized around the construct of mentalizing, a concept integrating research activities related to attachment, theory of mind, internal representations, neuroscience.
In the 1960s the Menninger Clinic studied Swami Rama, a noted yogi investigating his ability to exercise voluntary control of bodily processes which are considered non-voluntary as well as Yoga Nidra. It was part of Gardner Murphy's research program into creativity and the paranormal, funded by Ittleson Family Foundation. Roy W. Menninger W. Walter Menninger Harriet Lerner Riley Gardner The New York Foundation Lawrence Jacob Friedman, Menninger: The Family and the Clinic, University Press of Kansas, 1992 Robert S. Wallerstein, Forty-two lives in treatment: a study of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy: the report of the Psychotherapy Research Project of the Menninger Foundation, 1954-1982, New York: Other Press, 2000 Menninger Clinic official website Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic The Topeka Capital Journal's in-depth coverage of Menninger leaving Topeka - index page U. S. News & World Report psychiatric hospital rankings Menninger Foundation Archives from Kansas State Historical Society Access Menninger photographs and documents on Kansas Memory, the Kansas State Historical Society's digital portal ERICA GOODE - Famed Psychiatric Clinic Abandons Prairie Home - New York Times Article 2003
Sleep is a recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, reduced interactions with surroundings. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but more reactive than coma or disorders of consciousness, sleep displaying different and active brain patterns. Sleep occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes: REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body. A well-known feature of sleep is the dream, an experience recounted in narrative form, which resembles waking life while in progress, but which can be distinguished as fantasy. During sleep, most of the body's systems are in an anabolic state, helping to restore the immune, nervous and muscular systems; the internal circadian clock promotes sleep daily at night. The diverse purposes and mechanisms of sleep are the subject of substantial ongoing research.
Sleep is a conserved behavior across animal evolution. Humans may suffer from various sleep disorders, including dyssomnias such as insomnia, hypersomnia and sleep apnea; the advent of artificial light has altered sleep timing in industrialized countries. The most pronounced physiological changes in sleep occur in the brain; the brain uses less energy during sleep than it does when awake during non-REM sleep. In areas with reduced activity, the brain restores its supply of adenosine triphosphate, the molecule used for short-term storage and transport of energy. In quiet waking, the brain is responsible for 20% of the body's energy use, thus this reduction has a noticeable effect on overall energy consumption. Sleep increases the sensory threshold. In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, but can still respond to loud noises and other salient sensory events. During slow-wave sleep, humans secrete bursts of growth hormone. All sleep during the day, is associated with secretion of prolactin.
Key physiological methods for monitoring and measuring changes during sleep include electroencephalography of brain waves, electrooculography of eye movements, electromyography of skeletal muscle activity. Simultaneous collection of these measurements is called polysomnography, can be performed in a specialized sleep laboratory. Sleep researchers use simplified electrocardiography for cardiac activity and actigraphy for motor movements. Sleep is divided into two broad types: non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Non-REM and REM sleep are so different that physiologists identify them as distinct behavioral states. Non-REM sleep after a transitional period is called slow-wave sleep or deep sleep. During this phase, body temperature and heart rate fall, the brain uses less energy. REM sleep known as paradoxical sleep, represents a smaller portion of total sleep time, it is the main occasion for dreams, is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, eye movements, loss of muscle tone, suspension of homeostasis.
The sleep cycle of alternate NREM and REM sleep takes an average of 90 minutes, occurring 4–6 times in a good night's sleep. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, N3, the last of, called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep; the whole period proceeds in the order: N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM. REM sleep occurs as a person returns to stage 1 from a deep sleep. There is a greater amount of deep sleep earlier in the night, while the proportion of REM sleep increases in the two cycles just before natural awakening. Awakening can mean the end of sleep, or a moment to survey the environment and readjust body position before falling back asleep. Sleepers awaken soon after the end of a REM phase or sometimes in the middle of REM. Internal circadian indicators, along with successful reduction of homeostatic sleep need bring about awakening and the end of the sleep cycle. Awakening involves heightened electrical activation in the brain, beginning with the thalamus and spreading throughout the cortex.
During a night's sleep, a small amount of time is spent in a waking state. As measured by electroencephalography, young females are awake for 0–1% of the larger sleeping period. In adults, wakefulness increases in cycles. One study found 3% awake time in the first ninety-minute sleep cycle, 8% in the second, 10% in the third, 12% in the fourth, 13–14% in the fifth. Most of this awake time occurred shortly. Today, many humans wake up with an alarm clock. Many sleep quite differently on workdays versus days off, a pattern which can lead to chronic circadian desynchronization. Many people look at television and other screens before going to bed, a factor which may exacerbate disruption of the circadian cycle. Scientific studies on sleep have shown that sleep stage at awakening is an important factor in amplifying sleep inertia. Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock, sleep-wake homeostasis, to some extent by individual will. Sleep timing depends on hormo