click links in text for more info

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis called lupoid hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system attacks liver cells causing the liver to be inflamed. Common initial symptoms include fatigue or muscle aches or signs of acute liver inflammation including fever and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Individuals with autoimmune hepatitis have no initial symptoms and the disease is detected by abnormal liver function tests. Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis; this abnormal immune response results in inflammation of the liver, which can lead to further symptoms and complications such as fatigue and cirrhosis. The disease may occur in any ethnic group and at any age, but is most diagnosed in patients between age 40 and 50. Autoimmune hepatitis may present asymptomatic, with signs of chronic liver disease, or acute or fulminant hepatic failure.

People present with one or more nonspecific symptoms, sometimes of long lasting duration, as fatigue, general ill health, weight loss, mild right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, jaundice or arthralgia affecting the small joints. Rash or unexplained fever may appear. In women, amenorrhoea is a frequent feature. Physical examination may be normal, but it may reveal signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease. Many people have only laboratory abnormalities as their initial presentation, as unexplained increase in transaminases and are diagnosed during an evaluation for other reasons. Others have developed cirrhosis at diagnosis. Of note, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are normal. Autoimmune hepatitis appears associated with other autoimmune conditions celiac disease and autoimmune thyroiditis. 60% of patients have chronic hepatitis that may mimic viral hepatitis, but without serologic evidence of a viral infection. The disease is associated with anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies. There is no conclusive evidence as to any specific cause.

The diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is best achieved with a combination of clinical and histological findings after excluding other etiological factors. The requirement for histological examination necessitates a liver biopsy performed with a needle by the percutaneous route, to provide liver tissue. A number of specific antibodies found in the blood are of use, as is finding an increased immunoglobulin G level; the presence of anti-mitochondrial antibody is more suggestive of primary biliary cholangitis. Histological features supportive of a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis include: A mixed inflammatory infiltrate centered on the portal tract The inflammatory infiltrate may breach the interface between the portal tract and liver parenchyma: so-called interface hepatitis The most numerous cell in the infiltrate is the CD4-positive T cell. Plasma cells may be present within the infiltrate; these are predominantly IgG-secreting. Eosinophils may be present within the infiltrate. Emperipolesis, where there is penetration of one cell through another, within the inflammatory infiltrate Varying degrees of necrosis of periportal hepatocytes.

In more severe cases, necrosis may become confluent with necrotic bridges forming between central veins. Hepatocyte apoptosis manifest as apoptotic bodies. Rosettes of regenerating hepatocytes. Any degree of fibrosis from none to advanced cirrhosis Biliary inflammation without destruction of biliary epithelial cells in a minority of cases. Expert opinion has been summarized by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group, which has published criteria which utilize clinical and histological data that can be used to help determine if a patient has autoimmune hepatitis. A calculator based on those criteria is available online. Overlapping presentation with primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis has been observed. Four subtypes of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised, but the clinical utility of distinguishing subtypes is limited. Type 1 AIH. Positive ANA and SMA, elevated immunoglobulin G. Positive LKM-1, LKM-2 or LKM-3. Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen AIH with no autoantibodies detected Treatment may involve the prescription of immunosuppressive glucocorticoids such as prednisone, with or without azathioprine such as Imuran, remission can be achieved in up to 60–80% of cases, although many will experience a relapse.

Budesonide has been shown to be more effective in inducing remission than prednisone, result in fewer adverse effects. Those with autoimmune hepatitis who do not respond to glucocorticoids and azathioprine may be given other immunosuppressives like mycophenolate, tacrolimus, etc. Liver transplantation may be required if patients do not respond to drug therapy or when patients present with fulminant liver failure. Autoimmune hepatitis is not a benign disease. Despite a good initial response to immunosuppression, recent studies suggest that the li

Manuel Oreste Rodriguez Lopez Literary Contest

The "Manuel Oreste Literary contest" is a literary contest hosted by Paradela City Council. The award ceremony is held in the Manuel Rodriguez Lopez Socio-Cultural Centre, Paradela on a yearly basis; the contest is open to writers and poets writing in either the Galician or Spanish languages, with prizes given out to the winners of each category. It is hosted in the name of the Galician poet and chronicler Manuel Rodriguez Lopez, has been held every year without interruptions since 1995, with the award ceremony for the 18th Edition scheduled for December 2013. Writers and Poets from anywhere in the world writing in Galician or Spanish are eligible to submit their work to the contest; the work must be maximum 20 pages long, poetry must be maximum 100 verses long. The work must be original and unedited, must not have won any other contest; the work must be typed, with double-spacing. The jury evaluates all the work sent the year of the Award Ceremony, is composed of Galician and Spanish speakers.

The members of the jury for the 18th Edition are listed below: José Manuel Mato Díaz. Jesús Ramos Ledo Santiago Rodríguez López Xesús Mato Mato Xulio Xiz Ramil Xavier Rodríguez Barrio Two prizes of €600 are given, one for each category. Accessits and Honourable mentions can be given at the jury's discretion, but lack in economic value. There were 968 works submitted for the 17th and 18th Editions respectively; the prized members of all the editions are listed below: Manuel Rodriguez Lopez Manuel Rodriguez Lopez Socio-Cultural Centre Paradela Poetry Prose Galician Spanish

Toninho Guerreiro

Antônio Ferreira known as Toninho Guerreiro, was a Brazilian international soccer player. He was died in São Paulo, he played for Santos FC with Pelé as a forward in the 1960s scoring 238 goals in 373 games scoring more goals than Pelé in 66 and 68. He is Santos FC 4th highest top scorer of all time, he won Copa Libertadores and World Club Cup in 1963. He played for São Paulo FC in the 1970s where he won the Paulista Championship twice being their top scorer. Many say he was on João Saldanha's list. In the end, Dadá Maravilha took his place and the rumour is that he made it because of Brazil President's wish, he played. SantosIntercontinental Cup: 1963 Copa Libertadores: 1963 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A: 1964, 1965, 1968 Torneio Rio-São Paulo: 1963, 1964, 1966 Campeonato Paulista: 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969São PauloCampeonato Paulista: 1970, 1971 Toninho Guerreiro at Sambafoot Bigsoccer

Stokes phenomenon

In complex analysis the Stokes phenomenon, discovered by G. G. Stokes, is that the asymptotic behavior of functions can differ in different regions of the complex plane; these regions are bounded by Stokes anti-Stokes lines. Somewhat confusingly and physicists use the terms "Stokes line" and "anti-Stokes line" in opposite ways; the lines studied by Stokes are what some mathematicians call anti-Stokes lines and what physicists call Stokes lines.. This article uses the physicist's convention, more accurate and seems to be becoming more common among mathematicians. Olver recommends the term "principal curve" for anti-Stokes lines. Informally the anti-Stokes lines are where some term in the asymptotic expansion changes from increasing to decreasing, the Stokes lines are lines along which some term approaches infinity or zero fastest. Anti-Stokes lines bound regions; the Stokes lines and anti-Stokes lines are not unique and do not have a precise definition in general, because the region where a function has a given asymptotic behavior is a somewhat vague concept.

However the lines do have well determined directions at essential singularities of the function, there is sometimes a natural choice of these lines as follows. The asymptotic expansion of a function is given by a linear combination of functions of the form fe±g for functions f and g; the Stokes lines can be taken as the zeros of the imaginary part of g, the anti-Stokes lines as the zeros of the real part of g. If the lines are defined like this they are orthogonal where they meet, unless g has a multiple zero; as a trivial example, the function sinh has two regions Re > 0 and Re < 0 where it is asymptotic to ez/2 and −e−z/2. So the anti-Stokes line can be taken to be the imaginary axis, the Stokes line can be taken to be the real axis. One could well take the Stokes line to be any line of given imaginary part; the Airy function Ai is one of two solutions to a simple differential equation y ″ − x y = 0, which it is useful to approximate for many values of x – including complex values. For large x of given argument the solution can be approximated by a linear combination of the functions e ± 2 3 x 3 / 2 x 1 / 4.

However the linear combination has to change as the argument of x passes certain values because these approximations are multi-valued functions but the Airy function is single valued. For example, if we regard the limit of x as large and real, would like to approximate the Airy function for both positive and negative values, we would find that A i ∼ e − 2 3 x 3 / 2 2 π x 1 / 4 A i ∼ sin ⁡ π x 1 / 4 which are two different expressions. What has happened is that as we have increased the argument of x from 0 to pi we have crossed an anti-Stokes line, which in this case is at arg x = π / 3. At this anti-Stokes line, the coefficient of e − 2 3 x 3 / 2 x 1 / 4 is forced to jump; the coefficient of e + 2 3 x 3 / 2 x 1 / 4 {\displaystyle {\frac {x^

Hungarian grammar

Hungarian grammar is the grammar of Hungarian, a Finno-Ugric language, spoken in Hungary and in parts of its seven neighboring countries. Hungarian, a agglutinative language, uses various affixes suffixes, to change the meaning of words and their grammatical function; these affixes are attached according to vowel harmony. Verbs are conjugated according to definiteness, mood and number. Nouns can be declined with 18 case suffixes. Hungarian is a topic-prominent language and so its word order depends on the topic-comment structure of the sentence. Neutral Hungarian sentences have a subject–verb–object word order, like English. Hungarian is a null-subject language and so the subject does not have to be explicitly stated. Word order is determined not by syntactic roles but rather by pragmatic factors. Emphasis is placed on the word or phrase before the finite verb; the four parts that a sentence contains are topic, focus and the rest. The topic and the rest may contain any number of phrases; the tables below contain some Hungarian variations of the sentence János tegnap elvitt két könyvet Péternek.

Besides the verb, the sentence contains four other elements: János, Péternek, két könyvet and tegnap. The topic contains a phrase or phrases that the speaker considers to be known and are used to introduce the topic of the statement, equivalent to "as far as X is concerned...". The focus attracts the attention to an element of the event, considered to be unknown, or it may be a refutation to a possible opposing belief, it excludes the validity of the statement for all other individuals in question and is equivalent to "it was X and nothing else that...". If a focus is present, the verbal prefix will be put after the verb. If there is no verbal prefix, there may be ambiguity in writing since the phrase before the verb may be either a topic or a focus. For example, in the sentence Éva szereti a virágokat, Éva may be a topic and the sentence may be neutral, or Éva may be a focus and the sentence may emphasize that it is Eve who likes flowers: Hungarian is an agglutinative language. Most grammatical information is given through suffixes: "at the table" = asztalon, "at 5 o'clock" = öt órakor.

There is one grammatical prefix. In Hungarian, the endings are common for endings of pronouns with suffixes and postpositions, possessive endings of nouns and endings of verbs. Front-back vowel harmony is important in Hungarian morphophonology. Certain suffixes distinguish between front unrounded vowels and front rounded vowels. See Hungarian phonology or vowel harmony for a more detailed explanation. Most of morphological word endings in Hungarian for verb conjugations, possessive suffixes and'case-related' postpositions can be thought of as'templates' that are, in turn,'filled in' with vowels. While the template itself consists of consonants, the vowels that'fill in' the template depend on the class of vowels in the word to which the template is attached. For example,'bVn' would be the template for the postposition meaning'in' and it can be'filled in' with either'a', thus forming'ban,' or with'e', thus forming'ben.' On the other hand,'hVz' would be the template for the postposition meaning'to' and this can be'filled in' with'o','e', or'ö'.

The particular vowel or vowels taken by a template must be memorized by a learner of Hungarian, but certain patterns can be noted by observing the particular phonological makeup of the consonants in the template. For example,'vVl' is the template meaning'with,' but the first consonant changes to match the final consonant of the word to which it is attached. Note that the stem-final a and e, as well as o and ö in foreign words, are lengthened before suffixes: alma → almát, mese → mesét, pianó → pianót, Malmö → Malmőt. Short i, u and ü retain their length: ami → amit, kapu → kaput, menü → menüt. Here are the vowels that form parallel pairs or triads in harmonic suffixes: It can be seen the members of these pairs/triads agree in height and length but differ in backness. In the cases of o vs. E and ö and of a and e there appears a difference in roundedness, too. Notes: e is used in two of the groups. There are no suffixes that have a/e/ö, o/e is rare and is used only for certain second-person plural suffixes.

Whenever i is used in a suffix, it is an invariant suffix. It occurs once as a front verb suffix and in the irregular forms neki and nekik; the suffixes can be classified into the following phonological types: Initial consonant and no change depending on the stem ending: -ban/-ben, -hoz/-hez/-höz Initial v with complete preservative consonant assimilation, only for -val/-vel and -vá/-vé Initial vowel and no change depending on the stem ending: -ul/-ül, -ás/-és Link vowel o/e/ö on stems ending with a consonant, with link vowel a for certai

Moshé Machover

Moshé Machover is a mathematician and socialist activist, noted for his writings against Zionism. Born to a Jewish family in Tel Aviv part of the British Mandate of Palestine, Machover moved to Britain in 1968 where he became a naturalised citizen, he was a founder of Matzpen, the Israeli Socialist Organisation, in 1962. Machover has written extensively on the conflict in the Middle East. In 1961, while still members of the Israeli Communist Party and Akiva Orr, under the pseudonym'A Israeli', wrote the anti-Zionist analysis of the Arab-Israeli conflict Shalom, Shalom ve'ein Shalom; the intention of the book was to explain, from publicly available sources, why in 1956 "Ben-Gurion preferred to invade Egypt, alongside France and Britain, rather than to make peace with Egypt". In the course of writing the book, "It became clear to us that the roots of the Israeli–Arab conflict lay, not in the conflict between Israel and the Arab states, but rather in the conflict between Zionist colonialism and the Palestinians over the land of Palestine and its independence".

This thesis was an implicit challenge to the line of the Israeli Communist Party, which considered Israel's alliance with the U. S. to be a matter of political choice. When Machover and Orr followed this by criticising the party's adherence to the Soviet line, called for the publication of the party's history, they were expelled. Machover and Orr, together with others expelled at the same time established Matzpen. Together with Jabra Nicola, Moshé Machover developed the position, adopted by Matzpen, that the solution to the Israeli Palestinian problem is in a struggle to defeat Zionism and its allies – imperialism and Arab Reaction – and “rally to itself a wider struggle for the political and social liberation of the Middle East as a whole”; the struggle for Palestinian liberation can succeed only when the Palestinian and Israeli masses enter “a joint struggle with the revolutionary forces in the Arab world". Machover was a lecturer in mathematics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem from 1960 to 1964, again from 1966 to 1968.

In 1968, Machover moved permanently to London where he became Reader in Mathematical Logic at King's College London until 1995. He joined Kings from the Chelsea College of Science and Technology's Department of History and Philosophy of Science, merged into the Philosophy Department in 1993. Since 1995, he has been Professor of Philosophy at the University of London. In London, together with Orr and Shimon Tzabar, Machover established the Israeli Revolutionary Action Committee Abroad. In 1971, Machover and Haim Hanegbi published an article in the New Left Review on "The Class Nature of Israeli Society"; this article, republished, is included together with several more of Machover's early writings on the Middle East in the collection The Other Israel: the radical case against Zionism. In 1975, Machover was one of the founders of Khamsin, the "journal of revolutionary socialists of the Middle East". Many of his articles from Khamsin are included in the collection Forbidden Agendas. In 2012, Haymarket Press published a collection of Machover's essays from 1966 to 2010, under the title Israelis and Palestinians Conflict and Resolution.

Machover is a Labour Party member of Kilburn Constituency Labour Party. In October 2017, he was expelled from the Labour Party on suspicion he was associated with the Communist Party of Great Britain, in contravention of party rules; the expulsion came when an article he wrote for the CPGB's newspaper, the Weekly Worker was being investigated as, according to the party's head of disputes, it "appears to meet the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance definition of antisemitism". The Guardian subsequently published a letter of protest undersigned by 139 Labour Party members, including Sir Geoffrey Bindman dismissing the insinuation of anti-Semitism as'personally offensive and politically dangerous', his expulsion was rescinded on 30 October. Machover's son Daniel Machover is a solicitor in London, specialising in human and civil rights cases. Lectures on Non-Standard Analysis A Course in Mathematical Logic Laws of Chaos: A Probabilistic Approach to Political Economy Set Theory and their Limitations The Measurement of Voting Power: Theory and Practice and Paradoxes.

Peace and there is no Peace, The Other Israel: the radical case against Zionism Israelis and Palestinians: Conflict and Resolution, Haymarket Books, February 2012 Articles in Weekly Worker (newspaper of the Communist Party of Great Britain Moshé Machover Archive at Marxists Internet Archive Articles on the University of Cork Palestine Solidarity Campaign website Israelis and Palestinians: Conflict and Resolution, Barry Amiel and Norman Melburn Trust Annual Lecture, 30. November 2006