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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that results from such an aberrant immune response is termed an "autoimmune disease". Prominent examples include celiac disease, post-infectious IBS, diabetes mellitus type 1, Henloch Scholein Pupura sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Addison's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, polymyositis and multiple sclerosis. Autoimmune diseases are often treated with steroids. In the 19th century it was believed that the immune system was unable to react against the body's own tissues. Paul Ehrlich, at the turn of the 20th century, proposed the concept of horror autotoxicus. Ehrlich adjusted his theory to recognize the possibility of autoimmune tissue attacks, but believed certain innate protection mechanisms would prevent the autoimmune response from becoming pathological.

In 1904 this theory was challenged by the discovery of a substance in the serum of patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria that reacted with red blood cells. During the following decades, a number of conditions could be linked to autoimmune responses. However, the authoritative status of Ehrlich's postulate hampered the understanding of these findings. Immunology became a biochemical rather than a clinical discipline. By the 1950s the modern understanding of autoantibodies and autoimmune diseases started to spread. More it has become accepted that autoimmune responses are an integral part of vertebrate immune systems. Autoimmunity should not be confused with alloimmunity. While a high level of autoimmunity is unhealthy, a low level of autoimmunity may be beneficial. Taking the experience of a beneficial factor in autoimmunity further, one might hypothesize with intent to prove that autoimmunity is always a self-defense mechanism of the mammal system to survive; the system does not randomly lose the ability to distinguish between self and non-self, the attack on cells may be the consequence of cycling metabolic processes necessary to keep the blood chemistry in homeostasis.

Second, autoimmunity may have a role in allowing a rapid immune response in the early stages of an infection when the availability of foreign antigens limits the response. In their study, Stefanova et al. injected an anti-MHC class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule to temporarily prevent CD4+ T cell-MHC interaction. Naive CD4+ T cells recovered from these mice 36 hours post-anti-MHC administration showed decreased responsiveness to the antigen pigeon cytochrome c peptide, as determined by ZAP70 phosphorylation and interleukin 2 production, thus Stefanova et al. demonstrated that self-MHC recognition maintains the responsiveness of CD4+ T cells when foreign antigens are absent. Pioneering work by Noel Rose and Ernst Witebsky in New York, Roitt and Doniach at University College London provided clear evidence that, at least in terms of antibody-producing B cells, diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and thyrotoxicosis are associated with loss of immunological tolerance, the ability of an individual to ignore "self", while reacting to "non-self".

This breakage leads to the immune system's mounting an effective and specific immune response against self determinants. The exact genesis of immunological tolerance is still elusive, but several theories have been proposed since the mid-twentieth century to explain its origin. Three hypotheses have gained widespread attention among immunologists: Clonal deletion theory, proposed by Burnet, according to which self-reactive lymphoid cells are destroyed during the development of the immune system in an individual. For their work Frank M. Burnet and Peter B. Medawar were awarded the 1960 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance". Clonal anergy theory, proposed by Nossal, in which self-reactive T- or B-cells become inactivated in the normal individual and cannot amplify the immune response. Idiotype network theory, proposed by Jerne, wherein a network of antibodies capable of neutralizing self-reactive antibodies exists within the body. In addition, two other theories are under intense investigation: Clonal ignorance theory, according to which autoreactive T cells that are not represented in the thymus will mature and migrate to the periphery, where they will not encounter the appropriate antigen because it is inaccessible tissues.

Auto-reactive B cells, that escape deletion, cannot find the antigen or the specific helper T cell. Suppressor population or Regulatory T cell theory, wherein regulatory T-lymphocytes function to prevent, downregulate, or limit autoaggressive immune responses in the immune system. Tolerance can be differentiated into "central" and "peripheral" tolerance, on whether or not the above-stated checking mechanisms operate in the central lymphoid organs or the peripheral lymphoid organs, it must be emphasised that these theories are not mutually exclusive, evidence has been mounting suggesting that all of these mechanisms may contribute to vertebrate immunological tolerance. A puzzling feature of the documented loss of tolerance seen in spontaneous human autoimmunity is that it is entirely restricted

2014–15 NCAA football bowl games

The 2014–15 NCAA football bowl games were a series of college football bowl games. They completed the 2014 NCAA Division I FBS football season, included 39 team-competitive games and four all-star games; the games began on December 20, 2014 and, aside from the all-star games, ended with the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship, played on January 12, 2015. A new record total of 39 team-competitive bowl games were played, including the national championship game and the inaugural Camellia Bowl, Boca Raton Bowl and Bahamas Bowl. While bowl games had been the purview of only the best teams for nearly a century, this was the ninth consecutive year that teams with non-winning seasons participated in bowl games. To fill the 76 available team-competitive bowl slots, a total of 13 teams with non-winning seasons participated in bowl games—12 with a.500 season and, for the third time in four years, a team with a sub-.500 season. The schedule for the 2014–15 bowl games is below. All times are EST.

The rankings used are the CFP rankings. The 2014–15 postseason was the first to feature a College Football Playoff to determine a national champion of Division I FBS college football. Four teams were selected by a 13-member committee to participate in a single-elimination tournament, whose semifinals were held at the Rose Bowl and the Sugar Bowl as part of a yearly rotation of six bowls, their winners advanced to the 2015 College Football Playoff National Championship at AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas. Starting with the 2014–15 postseason, six College Football Playoff bowl games will host two semifinal playoff games on a rotating basis—the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Peach Bowl, Fiesta Bowl; the games will be played on two days, on or around January 1. The winners of the two semifinal games will advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship; these six bowl games are known as the New Year's Six. All games will broadcast on the radio by ESPN Radio. For the 2014–15 postseason, four new bowl games were added — the Camellia Bowl, Miami Beach Bowl, Boca Raton Bowl, Bahamas Bowl — bringing the total number of bowl games to 39.

Additionally, the Little Caesars Pizza Bowl was replaced by the Quick Lane Bowl. On December 7, 2014, the 13-member College Football Playoff selection committee announced their final team rankings for the year. Three bowls featured two conference champions playing against each other—the Boca Raton Bowl, Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl. Rankings are per the above CFP standings. Denotes a conference that named co-champions Georgia Southern was not bowl-eligible, due to their transition from FCS to FBS American: Cincinnati, East Carolina, Memphis, Temple, UCF ACC: Boston College, Duke, Florida State, Georgia Tech, Miami, NC State, North Carolina, Virginia Tech Big 12: Baylor, Kansas State, Oklahoma State, TCU, West Virginia Big Ten: Illinois, Maryland, Michigan State, Nebraska, Ohio State, Penn State, Wisconsin Conference USA: Louisiana Tech, Middle Tennessee State, Rice, UAB, UTEP, Western Kentucky Independents: BYU, Notre Dame MAC: Bowling Green, Central Michigan, Northern Illinois, Toledo, Western Michigan Mountain West: Air Force, Boise State, Colorado State, Fresno State, San Diego State, Utah State Pac-12: Arizona, Arizona State, Stanford, UCLA, USC, Washington SEC: Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, LSU, Mississippi State, Ole Miss, South Carolina, Texas A&M Sun Belt: Arkansas State, Louisiana–Lafayette, South Alabama, Texas StateNumber of bowl berths available: 76 Number of bowl-eligible teams: 81 As there were more bowl-eligible teams than bowl berths, five bowl-eligible teams did not receive a bowl berth: Middle Tennessee Ohio Temple Texas State UAB American: Connecticut, SMU, Tulsa, USF ACC: Syracuse, Wake Forest Big Ten: Indiana, Northwestern, Purdue Big 12: Iowa State, Texas Tech Conference USA: FIU, Florida Atlantic, North Texas, Old Dominion†, Southern Miss, UTSA Independents: Army MAC: Akron, Ball State, Eastern Michigan, Kent State, Miami Mountain West: Hawai'i, New Mexico, San Jose State, UNLV, Wyoming Pac 12: California, Oregon State, Washington State SEC: Kentucky, Vanderbilt Sun Belt: Appalachian State†, Georgia Southern†, Georgia State, Idaho‡, Louisiana–Monroe, New Mexico State, TroyNumber of bowl-ineligible teams: 47 † – Appalachian State, Georgia Southern, Old Dominion were conditionally eligible based on win–loss record.

However, under FCS-to-FBS transition rules, they were not eligible because enough teams qualified under normal circumstances. ‡ – Idaho was ineligible for postseason play due to an insufficient Academic Progress Rate. However, the Vandals would not have been eligible without the ban, as they finished with a 1–10 record. Schlabach, Mark. "Elliott headlines All-Bowl team". ESPN. Retrieved January 10, 2019

Grafton High School (North Dakota)

Grafton High School is a public high school built in 1981 and located in Grafton, North Dakota. The school is part of the Grafton Public Schools system; the official school colors are maroon and gold and the athletic teams are known as the Spoilers. The current principal is Randy Rice, Activities Director is Jon Koehmstedt and Superintendent is Darren Albrecht; as of the 2012–13 school year, Grafton High School's student body racial demographics consisted of 2% American Indian/Alaskan Native, 0.3% Black, 0.3% Hawaiian Native/Pacific Islander, 28% Hispanic, 69% White, 0.4% two or more races. Grafton High School offers 15 athletic varsity programs and is a member of the North Dakota High School Activities Association. Grafton High School has played host to the Grafton-Park River hockey co-op since the 1982-83 season, it is now host school in hockey, boys' and girls' basketball, cross country and wrestling. Athletes from Park River, St. Thomas, Drayton and Langdon have had the opportunity to participate in Spoiler activities.

State Class "A" boys’ basketball: 1935, 1964, State Class "B" boys’ basketball: 1934, 1937, 2008 State Class "A" boys' hockey: 1978, 1985, 1991†, 2002†, 2008† State Class "AA" football: 2011 State Class "B" girls’ basketball: 2012 State Class "B" girls' cross country: 2007† As Grafton - Park River Lynn Frazier - politician. S. Senator Grafton High School

Cheryl Pflug

Cheryl Pflug is an American politician of the Republican Party. She was a member of the Washington State Senate from 2004 to 2012. Pflug earned her B. S. in Nursing from the University of Washington and worked as a critical care and operating room nurse while raising 4 children on a family farm adjacent to the Cedar River Watershed. She received a J. D. from Seattle University School of Law in 2012 and was admitted to the Bar in 2014. Pflug served the 5th District in the State Legislature for nearly 14 years before being appointed to the Growth Management Hearings Board by Governor Gregoire in May 2012; the 5th District straddles the Urban Growth Line, causing local governments to continually struggle to balance the need for infrastructure and services with a commitment to preserving community character, open space, fish habitat and pristine recreational areas. Over the course of her legislative career, Pflug used her health care experience to improve health outcomes while reducing unnecessary costs, authoring several first-in-the-nation innovations that were adopted into law and pushing through legislation to give the office of the Attorney General strong tools to prosecute multimillion-dollar corporate Medicaid fraud schemes.

Pflug championed infrastructure, hatchery and parks improvements to support the needs of the growing communities she represented. As a legislator, Pflug earned a reputation as "an independent workhorse" willing to work across party lines, she crafted legislation to create treatment alternatives for nonviolent mentally-ill misdemeanants and cast the decisive vote to create a simple-majority requirement for school levies. In 2008, Pflug was honored with the commission of Washington General for commitment to her community and service to the state of Washington, the "Champion of Freedom Award" in 2012. Questioned for her growing cynicism, Pflug paid a price for defying her party leaders but backed down. In May 2012, Governor Christine Gregoire nominated Pflug to a seat on the Growth Management Planning Board. Following the appointment, Republican Party Chairman Kirby Wilbur suggested the appointment was a "deal" to give the Democrats her Senate seat, an allegation called "hypocritical" by observers.

Pflug resigned her Senate seat on June 30, 2012, the day before her Growth Board appointment commenced on July 1, 2012. On July 11, 2012, Dino Rossi was appointed to fill the term of Pflug. In November 2012, Mark Mullet was elected to represent the 5th legislative district in the senate. In July 2012, Pflug was featured in the first Washington television ad supporting same-sex marriage; the ad aired during the opening ceremonies for the Summer Olympic Games


Halomethane compounds are derivatives of methane with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms. Halomethanes are both occurring in marine environments, man-made, most notably as refrigerants, solvents and fumigants. Many, including the chlorofluorocarbons, have attracted wide attention because they become active when exposed to ultraviolet light found at high altitudes and destroy the Earth's protective ozone layer. Like methane itself, halomethanes are tetrahedral molecules; the halogen atoms differ in size and charge from hydrogen and from each other. The various halomethanes deviate from the perfect tetrahedral symmetry of methane; the physical properties of halomethanes depend on the number and identity of the halogen atoms in the compound. In general, halomethanes are volatile but less so than methane because of the polarizability of the halides; the polarizability of the halides and the polarity of the molecules makes them useful as solvents. The halomethanes are far less flammable than methane.

Broadly speaking, reactivity of the compounds is greatest for the iodides and lowest for the fluorides. The halomethanes are produced on a massive scale from abundant precursors, i.e. natural gas or methanol, from halogens or halides. They are prepared by one of three methods. Free radical chlorination of methane:CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HClThis method is useful for the production of CH4−xClx; the main problems with this method are that it cogenerates HCl and it produces mixtures of different products. Using CH4 in large excess generates CH3Cl and using Cl2 in large excess generates CCl4, but mixtures of other products will still be present. Halogenation of methanol; this method is used for the production of the mono-chloride, -bromide, -iodide. CH3OH + HCl → CH3Cl + H2O 4 CH3OH + 3 Br2 + S → 4 CH3Br + H2SO4 + 2 HBr 3 CH3OH + 3 I2 + P → 3 CH3I + HPO2 + 3 HIHalogen exchange; the method is used to produce fluorinated derivatives from the chlorides. CH3Cl + HF → CH3F + HCl CH2Cl2 + HF → CH2FCl + HCl CH2Cl2 + 2 HF → CH2F2 + 2 HCl CH2Cl2 + F2 → CH2F2 + Cl2 HCCl3 + HF → HCFCl2 + HCl HCCl3 + 2 HF → HCF2Cl + 2 HCl HCCl3 + F2 → HCF2Cl + Cl2 HCCl3 + 3 HF → HCF3 + 3 HCl HCCl3 + F2 + HF → HCF3 + Cl2 + HCl CCl4 + HF → CFCl3 + HCl CCl4 + 2 HF → CF2Cl2 + 2 HCl CCl4 + F2 → CF2Cl2 + Cl2 CCl4 + 3 HF → CF3Cl + 3 HCl CCl4 + F2 + HF → CF3Cl + Cl2 + HCl CCl4 + 4 HF → CF4 + 4 HCl CCl4 + F2 + 2 HF → CF4 + Cl2 + 2 HCl CCl4 + 2 F2 → CF4 + 2 Cl2Reaction of methane with hypochlorous acid, producing water.

CH4 + ClOH → CH3Cl + H2OReaction of methanol with hypochlorous acid. CH3OH + ClOH → CH3Cl + H2O2Traces of halomethanes in the atmosphere arise through the introduction of other non-natural, industrial materials. Many marine organisms biosynthesize halomethanes bromine-containing compounds. Small amounts of chloromethanes arise from the interaction of chlorine sources with various carbon compounds; the biosyntheses of these halomethanes are catalyzed by the chloroperoxidase and bromoperoxidase enzymes, respectively. An idealized equation is: CH4 + Cl− + 1/2 O2 → CH3Cl + OH− Halons are defined as hydrocarbons where the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by bromine, along with other halogens, they are referred to by a system of code numbers similar to the system used for freons. The first digit specifies the number of carbon atoms in the molecule, the second is the number of fluorine atoms, the third is the chlorine atoms, the fourth is the number of bromine atoms. If the number includes a fifth digit, the fifth number indicates the number of iodine atoms.

Any bonds not taken up by halogen atoms are allocated to hydrogen atoms. For example, consider Halon 1211: C F Cl Br 1 2 1 1 Halon 1211 has one carbon atom, two fluorine atoms, one chlorine atom and one bromine atom. A single carbon only has four bonds, all of which are taken by the halogen atoms, so there is no hydrogen, thus its formula is CF2BrCl, its IUPAC name is therefore bromochlorodifluoromethane. The refrigerant naming system is used for fluorinated and chlorinated short alkanes used as refrigerants. In the United States, the standard is specified in ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-1992, with additional annual supplements; the specified ANSI/ASHRAE prefixes were FC or R, but today most are prefixed by a more specific classification: CFC—list of chlorofluorocarbons HCFC—list of hydrochlorofluorocarbons HFC—list of hydrofluorocarbons FC—list of fluorocarbons PFC—list of perfluorocarbons The decoding system for CFC-01234a is: 0 = Number of double bonds 1 = Carbon atoms -1 2 = Hydrogen atoms +1 3 = Fluorine atoms 4 = Replaced by Bromine a = Letter added to identify isomers, the "normal" isomer in any number has the smallest mass difference on each carbon, a, b, or c are added as the masses diverge from normal.

Other coding systems are in use as well. Hydrofluorocarbons contain no chlorine, they are composed of carbon and fluorine. They have no known effects on the ozone layer. Ozone Layer Protection However, HFCs and perfluorocarbons are greenhouse gases, which cause global warming. Two groups of haloalkanes, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons, are targets of the Kyoto Protocol. Allan Thornton, President of the Environmental Investigation Agency, a non-governmental, environmental watchdog, says that HFCs are up to 12,500 times as potent as carbon dioxide in global warming; the higher global warming potential has two causes: HFCs remain in the atmosphere for long periods of time, they have

The Pulse (shopping mall)

The Pulse is a six-storey, 167,000-square-foot shopping centre located on Beach Road in Repulse Bay, Hong Kong. It is owned by Emperor International Holdings Limited; the site was home to the Lido Complex. Developed by Lido Development and opened on 1 February 1976, the complex was marketed as a "year-round resort" and housed restaurants and recreational facilities; the complex was expanded in 1983. The 49,690-square-foot complex was put up for sale when Fung Ping Fan ran into financial difficulties, it was sold to Hairich Limited, a subsidiary of Intercontinential Housing Development Limited, in 1987. In 1993, IHD announced it would sell the complex to Gold Shine Investment, a company 55 per cent owned by Emperor International Holdings, 25 per cent by IHE itself, 15 per cent by Supreity and five per cent by Sonny Yeung Hoi-sing. In 1998, Emperor International got Town Planning Board approval to develop a three-storey shopping centre on the site; the company bought the Lido Complex's McDonald's shop in mid-2000 for HK$36.8 million, allowing the redevelopment to move ahead.

The firm stated that year. Emperor International built a 143,000-square-foot, six-storey shopping arcade called "The Pulse" on the site, complete by 2011. However, it did so without the consent of the Lands Department, in breach of the land lease conditions; this led to a protracted legal battle between the government. The shopping centre remained empty, leading to public complaints over the lack of shopping and dining options along the beach. In May 2012, the issue was settled, with Emperor International Group Limited paying a HK$798 million land premium to the Hong Kong government; the shopping centre subsequently opened in November 2014. Official website