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Autoionization is a process by which an atom or a molecule in an excited state spontaneously emits one of the outer-shell electrons, thus going from a state with charge Z to a state with charge Z + 1, for example from an electrically neutral state to a singly ionized state. Autoionizing states are short-lived, thus can be described as Fano resonances rather than normal bound states, they can be observed as variations in the ionization cross sections of atoms and molecules, by photoionization, electron ionization and other methods. As examples, several Fano resonances in the extreme ultraviolet photoionization spectrum of neon are attributed to autoionizing states; some are due to one-electron excitations, such as a series of three strong shaped peaks at energies of 45.546, 47.121 and 47.692 eV which are interpreted as 1s2 2s1 2p6 np states for n = 3, 4 and 5. These states of neutral neon lie beyond the first ionization energy because it takes more energy to excite a 2s electron than to remove a 2p electron.

When autoionization occurs, the np → 2s de-excitation provides the energy needed to remove one 2p electron and form the Ne+ ground state. Other resonances are attributed to two-electron excitations; the same neon photoionization spectrum considered above contains a fourth strong resonance in the same region at 44.979 eV but with a different shape, interpreted as the 1s2 2s2 2p4 3s 3p state. For autoionization, the 3s → 2p transition provides the energy to remove the 3p electron. Electron ionization allows the observation of some states which cannot be excited by photons due to selection rules. In neon for example again, the excitation of triplet states is forbidden by the spin selection rule ΔS = 0, but the 1s2 2s2 2p4 3s 3p has been observed by electron ionization at 42.04 eV. If a core electron is missing, a positive ion can autoionize further and lose a second electron in the Auger effect. In neon, X-ray excitation can remove a 1s electron, producing an excited Ne+ ion with configuration 1s1 2s2 2p6.

In the subsequent Auger process a 2s → 1s transition and simultaneous emission of a second electron from 2p leads to the Ne2+ 1s2 2s1 2p5 ionic state. Molecules, in addition, can have vibrationally autoionizing Rydberg states, in which the small amount of energy necessary to ionize a Rydberg state is provided by vibrational excitation

Antoine Cavalleri

Antoine Cavalleri was a Jesuit professor of mathematics at Cahors during much of the French Enlightenment in the 18th century, until late in the reign of Louis XV of France. During the early years of the 18th century Isaac Newton's work on gravity was still incompletely accepted in France and Descartes' vortex theory had not yet been conclusively superseded. One result was the difficulty of formulating and establishing a coherent and compelling explanatory theory of tidal action; the French Académie Royale des Sciences both supported practical research into tidal effects, offered a prize for the best essay to establish the topic on a sound mathematical and theoretical footing. Three essays were selected for all of them by supporters of Newtonian theory, they were Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Colin Maclaurin. However, it was rumoured by Pierre Louis Maupertuis that the reason that Cavalleri was added to the list of winners was that one influential judge among those selecting the winning essays was René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur, who favoured Decartes' vortex theory, who insisted that at least one winner should be a supporter of that view, though by that time it was losing ground and leading workers in the field were rejecting it.

As a sop for Réaumur, his colleagues consented to include an arbitrary choice of essay supporting the vorticist view. Cavalleri not only was prominent in his own right, but had won two prizes from the Académie de Bordeaux for his essays: "Opacité et diaphanéité des corps" in 1738 and "Chaleur et froideur des eaux minérales" in 1739, so he was a convenient choice. Though competent, Cavalleri is little remembered, he was doubly unfortunate. Secondly, Cavalleri's essay on tides, though penetrating in that he recognised debatable points in both Cartesian and Newtonian theory, amounted to the last substantial support for the Cartesian theory of vortices, it is true that Fontenelle has been referred to as the last defender of the vortices, but unlike Cavalleri he wrote as an interpreter and populariser, rather than as an analyst or formulator of material theory. On the one hand Cavalleri's objection to Descartes' theory was that it dismissed the obvious tidal influence of the sun. On the other he rejected Newton's theory of remote gravitational attraction.

The latter idea might seem naive, but in 21st century theoretical physics there are echoes of dissatisfaction with the concept of action at a distance. He tried to construct a theoretical basis for an inverse square law of gravitational attraction arising from Cartesian vortices. Newton however, had raised theoretical objections to Descartes' vortex theory, Cavalleri not only failed to refute the objections, but misinterpreted a modified vortex theory by Philippe Villemot which attempted to reconcile vortices with Newtonian attraction. Cavalleri's essay, although having received the prize from the Académie, more or less lapsed into obscurity thereafter; this was because of its being biased towards Cartesian rather than Newtonian gravitational theory. In the commentary the other three winning essays were included. Opacité et diaphanéité des corps, winning essay for Académie de Bordeaux, 1738 Chaleur et froideur des eaux minérales, winning essay for Académie de Bordeaux, 1739 Pièces qui ont remporté le prix de l'Académie royale des sciences, en MDCCXL. sur le flux et reflux de la mer winning essay for Académie Royale des Sciences, 1740

Northwest University (China)

Northwest University, located in Xi'an city, Shaanxi Province, is one of the nation's leading comprehensive universities. Founded in 1902, it is one of the oldest institutions of learning in Northwest China. Presently, the university has 33 departments, 63 Bachelor's and Associate's programs, its student population amounts to 18,000, including about 2000 Ph. D. and master students, about 100 international students. The university stresses international academic and personnel exchanges. Since the start of the Chinese economic reform in 1978, it has established cooperation and exchange relations with nearly 30 institutions of higher education of scientific research in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Australia, Hong Kong and The Philippines. Northwest University has its origin in Shaanxi College founded in 1902, assumed its present name in 1912, it was renamed National Northwest University in 1923, called National Xi'an Provisional University after the merger with National Beiping University, Beiping Normal University, Beiyang College of Engineering and other institutions, which moved inland to Shaanxi when the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression broke out in 1937.

The Provisional University was subsequently named National Northwest Associated University in 1938, National Northwest University in 1939. In the early period after the founding of the People's Republic of China, Northwest University was one of the 14 comprehensive universities under the direct administration of the central government's Ministry of Education. In 1958, the University came under the administration of the Shaanxi Provincial Government. In 1978, it was designated as one of the key universities in China; the University is one of China’s leading comprehensive, multi-disciplinary universities of liberal arts, engineering, management and medicine, with equal emphasis on both teaching and research. It is one of the institutions of higher learning listed in the State's Project 211, one of the universities supported by the State in its western China development campaign; the University, located in the famous ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an, has 3 campuses with a total area of 370 acres, 22 schools and departments offering 67 undergraduate programs.

It is one of the first institutions empowered to set up doctoral and master’s programs, to approve the promotion to professorship, to select Ph. D. supervisors. To date the University has established 37 doctoral programs, 92 Master's programs and 9 postdoctoral programs; the University boasts 6 national bases for talent training, one national education base for cultural education of college students, 3 national key disciplines, 39 provincial key disciplines, one national engineering and technology center, 11 ministerial or provincial key labs and engineering and technology research centers. The University contracts for over 100 research projects of national importance each year, including the 863 Program, the Program 973, the National Basic Research Program, the Summit-Scaling Project, the projects of the National Natural Science Foundation and the National Social Sciences Foundation. Since the Chinese economic reform in 1978, the faculty has won over 800 awards for research achievements and published over 20,000 academic papers and 1,200 books.

In 2017, Times Higher Education ranked the university within the 801-1000 band globally. The University has a faculty and staff of over 2,300, of which 1,100 are full-time faculty, nearly 600 are professors and associate professors; the faculty is distinguished by 2 academicians and 7 part-time academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 4 honored professors under the auspices of the "Cheung Kong Scholars Program". The University's student population amounts to about 18,000 including 2,000 doctoral and graduate students, 150 international students. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the University has educated more than 100,000 graduates of different disciplines for the nation; the University was once praised as "the Mother of Chinese Petroleum Engineering Talents" and "the Cradle of Economists". Northwest University website

Double Whammy (novel)

Double Whammy is a 1987 novel by Carl Hiaasen. The protagonist, a private investigator, is hired to expose a celebrity bass fisherman as a cheat and is drawn into a frame-up for murder; the book introduced the character of "Skink", who becomes a recurring character in Hiaasen's subsequent novels. The "Double Whammy" is a fishing lure the favorite of the celebrity angler. One early August morning in Harney County, the body of Robert Clinch is found floating in a lake shortly after taking his boat out to go bass fishing. Private investigator R. J. Decker is hired by sugar cane tycoon Dennis Gault, another bass fisherman, to prove that celebrity fisherman Richard "Dickie" Lockhart, his main rival on the fishing tournament circuit, is a cheat. Decker is a former newspaper photographer, fired and sent to prison after assaulting a teenager who tried to steal his camera equipment. Investigating Lockhart's hometown, Decker looks up an old newspaper friend, a laconic reporter named Ott Pickney. Finding the local bass fishing guides too expensive, Decker takes Ott's advice and meets a reclusive hermit who lives in the woods, calling himself "Skink".

While teaching Decker about fishing, he mentions seeing Clinch on the lake, but not fishing, on the morning he died. Attending Clinch's funeral, Decker meets Gault's sister Elaine, or "Lanie," who confides to Decker that she and Clinch were lovers, she tells Decker that Gault hired Clinch to catch Lockhart first, only she believes Lockhart had Clinch killed. Ott is skeptical of Lanie's suspicions, since the coroner ruled Clinch's death an accident and a murder over fishing is too outlandish to be believed. However, when Ott interviews Clinch's widow, he discovers clues that Clinch wasn't fishing. Tracking down the junked remains of Clinch's boat, Ott discovers signs of sabotage. At that moment Ott is tracked down and murdered. After finding the body and Skink are both committed to nailing Lockhart, they tail him to his latest fishing tournament on Louisiana's Lake Maurepas, but inadvertently photograph the wrong gang of cheaters. Skink tries to raise Decker's spirits, adding, "Worse comes to worst, I'll just shoot the fucker."

Decker returns to their hotel room and finds Lanie waiting for him. After the two sleep together and he drops her off at her hotel, Decker notices lights on at the lakeside, he discovers. Assuming Skink is the culprit, Decker drives back to Florida. Upon returning home, he finds the Miami police, waiting for him. Skink intercepts Decker and tells him Gault's whole assignment was a set-up, allowing Gault to kill his hated rival and put the blame on Decker; the Outdoor Christian Network, led by televangelist Charlie Weeb, organizes a fishing tournament in Lockhart's memory to promote Weeb's housing development at the edge of the Everglades. Weeb is becoming desperate to boost sales of the condominia, as his network is so financially dependent on the development that its failure will ruin Weeb himself, he becomes more desperate when the bass salted into the condo's lakes die, revealing that the water is toxic. Weeb orders his new spokesman, Eddie Spurling, to cheat by harvesting caged bass from the neighboring stretch of clean water in the Everglades.

While trying to escape Miami and Skink are stopped by Garcia, who has found holes in Gault's frame-up story and is more than ready to believe Decker's version of events. Meanwhile, a worried Gault sends his hired thug, Thomas Curl, to kill Decker before Garcia finds him. While researching Lockhart's history and Skink learn of the housing development, Skink is determined to stop it by sabotaging the fishing tournament. With the help of Skink's friend, State Trooper Jim Tile, Decker tracks down Lanie and forces her to confess to helping her brother frame Decker for Lockhart's murder. Lanie admits that she became involved with Decker at Gault's suggestion, to help punish Lockhart for Clinch's murder. After Lockhart was killed, Gault convinced her to falsely tell police that Decker was on his way to see Lockhart when she last saw him. Although Lanie's recorded statement is enough to clear Decker's name, Curl kidnaps Decker's ex-wife Catherine and demands that Decker trade his life for hers. Decker tells Skink to go ahead with his plan to sabotage the tournament while he deals with Curl himself.

Skink's original plan is to have Garcia and Tile enter the tournament, posing as brothers, win by catching Skink's gargantuan Queenie. With publicity for Weeb's development aimed at white people, Skink predicts that having an African-American and a Cuban win the tournament will be fatal for sales. However, at the last moment, Skink changes his plan and arranges a "confrontation" between Queenie and Gault, he anonymously tips off Gault as to the location where he will plant Queenie, while sabotaging the motor of Garcia and Tile's boat. Decker kills Curl with a booby-trapped camera. Predictably, the tournament is a fiasco: the latest batch of fish are so sickened by the toxic water that they refuse to eat, while Garcia and Tile are the only participants to catch one bass. Spurling refuses to cheat, forcing Weeb to name them the winners and admit that the promised $250,000 grand prize is "not available." Garcia and Tile arrest Weeb for fraud on live television. Skink sees all the bass floating to the surface and realizes he has put Queenie in mortal danger by slipping her into the toxic water.

Decker and Catherine join him on a boat borrowed from Spurling, they speed to where he put her into the water. They come upon Gault's boat, where Lanie is sitting alone and Gault's dead

Vince Vozzo

Vince Vozzo, is a multidisciplinary Australian artist famous for his monumental stone & bronze sculptures. Vozzo works in a variety of media including sculpture and drawing. Vozzo has exhibited within Australia including Sculpture by the Sea, McClelland Sculpture Survey Award, Wynne Prize, & Blake Prize, he is well represented in numerous private and institutional collections in Australia, U. K. Europe, USA and Asia. Vozzo's artistic focus is on narrative. Humanism, collectivism and cold hard realities are his domain, he has something to say about the business of art, bringing the opposites that exist in both his life, his work, into harmony. Art critic, John McDonald describes Vozzo as “a carver in a world of welders and installation artists, a humanist in a contemporary art scene dominated by nihilists". Vince Vozzo is represented in private and Institutional collections in Australia, England, USA, Asia including the Vizard Foundation and the collection of Mildura Regional Gallery. Vince has been a regular finalist in the Wynne Prize and is one of an exclusive number of artists in'the decade club' who have shown with Sculpture by the Sea every year for the last 10 years.

Vozzo has been a recipient of numerous coveted awards and residencies including the 1999 Hill-End Artist in Residence. In 2008 a survey exhibition "Vince Vozzo: Mule Head Testa Dura" was mounted at the Casula Power House. Born to Italian parents in 1954, Vozzo is a second generation Italian-Australian and grew up in the sprawling western suburbs of Sydney. Vozzo's path to artistic prominence began early in childhood; as a child, Vozzo suffered dyslexia and he withdrew from formal learning. He plunged himself into a world of comic strip animation, these images gave him the impetus to draw. In his teens, he was doing work for disadvantaged kids, & gaining considerable recognition and fame for his Bondi sand sculptures. By now, he’d successfully completed a hairdressing apprenticeship, he considered work as a social worker but an artistic streak desperate for expression could not be ignored and he instead enrolled to study Visual Arts at the East Sydney Technical College where he had his epiphany and realized he had found his medium with a block of stone.

“I developed an interest in the use of form early on. I suppose I am continuing a long tradition in sculpture of the human form that began in Ancient Greece and reached a pinnacle during the Italian Renaissance.” Vince Vozzo Vince Vozzo Facebook Vince Vozzo Youtube Eva Breuer Art Dealer Sculpture by the Sea


"Unsainted" is a song by American heavy metal band Slipknot. It was released as the lead single from their sixth studio album We Are Not Your Kind on May 16, 2019, accompanied by its music video; this is the first Slipknot single released since "All Out Life", released on October 31, 2018, as well as their first single without their former percussionist Chris Fehn, fired from the band due to a lawsuit earlier in 2019. Jon Blistein of Rolling Stone called the song an "unsparing headbanger", saying it "opens with an expertly crafted build, as choir vocals—performed by the Angel City Chorale—float above rumbling drums, tidal wave guitars and frontman Corey Taylor's vocals" before becoming the "double bass drum hits and jagged guitars that carry the rest of the song". Revolver called it a "much more accessible, radio-friendly cut" than the band's non-album single "All Out Life", although felt that this "doesn't mean that its lyrics pull any punches", judging it to be "explosive". A music video directed by Shawn "Clown" Crahan was released alongside the song on May 16 and has, as of December 2019 over 61 million views on YouTube.

Blistein characterized the video as full of "creepy, cultish imagery". It ends with Corey Taylor walking out of a church to find he and the other members of the band turned into statues proceeding to light his statue on fire. Luke Morton of Kerrang! called the video "a lot to take in", writing that it is "full of kaleidoscopic visuals, religious iconography, fire"