A toilet brush is a tool for cleaning a toilet bowl. The modern plastic version was invented in 1932 by William C. Schopp of Huntington Park, California, US and patented in 1933 by the Addis Brush Company; the toilet brush is used with toilet cleaner or bleach. The toilet brush can be used to clean the upper area of the toilet, around the bowl. However, it cannot be used to clean far into the toilet's U-bend and should not be used to clean the toilet seat. In many cultures it is considered impolite to clean away biological debris without the use of chemical toilet cleaning products, as this can leave residue on the bristles. By contrast, others consider it impolite not to clean away biological debris using the toilet brush. A typical toilet brush consists of a hard bristled end with a rounded shape and a long handle. Today toilet brushes are made of plastic, but were made of wood with pig bristles or from the hair of horses, oxen and badgers; the brush is stored in a holder, but in some cases hidden in a tube.
An electric toilet brush is a little different from a normal toilet brush. The bristles are fastened on the rotor of a motor; the power supply is attached without any metal contact via electromagnetic induction. In recent years, there has been a general shift in design with a new emphasis on ergonomically designed brushes. Further design enhancements have included innovative holders that snap shut around the bristled end, thereby preventing the release of smells and other unpleasantries. Further development of the traditional toilet brush focus on the risk of germ incubation within the brush holder. A toilet brush has been patented which introduces a reservoir of anti-bacterial fluid, allowing the brush to be dipped and sanitized after each use; the first successful artificial Christmas tree was made from brush bristles by Addis using the same machinery used to manufacture its toilet brushes. The trees were made from the same animal-hair bristles used in the brushes, except they were dyed green.
In recent years many new products aiming to reinvent the traditional toilet brush have emerged to the market. The LooBlade is a toilet brush with an 8-blade silicone head and hydrophobic properties that sheds water and dries quickly, it is claimed to be able to kill 99.9 % of germs after cleaning. It was invented by Garry Stewart; the Loogun is an alternative to the toilet brush. It's a pressure washer that sprays a powerful jet of clean water that washes away stubborn marks both above and below the water line; the device never touches the toilet, so the device stays hygienic and safe for children. The Handi Sani is a self-cleaning toilet brush, it works by attaching the Handi Sani brush holder to the side of the tank with one small hose running into the tank to take advantage of clean water, another hose running into the toilet bowl for proper draining. The brush is placed inside the Handi Sani so that when the toilet is flushed, the attachment fills up with clean water while draining the dirty water into the toilet bowl.
Automatic self-clean toilet seat Bidet Self-cleaning toilet bowl Shit stick Toilet Washlet Xylospongium
A pit latrine known as pit toilet or long drop, is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground. Urine and feces enter the pit through a drop hole in the floor, which might be connected to a toilet seat or squatting pan for user comfort. Pit latrines can be built to function without water or they can have a water seal; when properly built and maintained, pit latrines can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens between feces and food by flies; these pathogens are major causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections. Infectious diarrhea resulted in about 700,000 deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit latrines are a low cost method of separating feces from people. A pit latrine consists of three major parts: a hole in the ground, a concrete slab or floor with a small hole, a shelter; the shelter is called an outhouse.
The pit is at least three meters deep and one meter across. The hole in the slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies; this may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. The World Health Organization recommends the pits are built a reasonable distance from the house, balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell; the distance from water wells and surface water should be at least 10 meters to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters of the top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. Fecal sludge management involves emptying pits as well as transporting and using the collected fecal sludge. If this is not carried out properly, water pollution and public health risks can occur. A basic pit latrine can be improved in a number of ways. One includes adding a ventilation pipe from the pit to above the structure.
This decreases the smell of the toilet. It can reduce flies when the top of the pipe is covered with mesh. In these types of toilets a lid need not be used to cover the hole in the floor. Other possible improvements include a floor constructed so fluid drains into the hole and a reinforcement of the upper part of the pit with bricks, blocks, or cement rings to improve stability. In developing countries the cost of a simple pit toilet is between US$25 and $60. Recurring expenditure costs are between US$1.5 and $4 per person per year for a traditional pit latrine, up to three times higher for a pour flush pit latrine. As of 2013 pit latrines are used by an estimated 1.77 billion people in developing countries. About 892 million people, practiced open defecation in 2016 because they have no toilets. Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa have the lowest access to toilets; the Indian government has been running a campaign called "Swachh Bharat Abhiyan" since 2014 in order to eliminate open defecation by convincing people in rural areas to purchase and use toilets pit latrines.
It is estimated that 85 million pit latrines have been built due to that campaign as of 2018. Another example from India is the "No Toilet, No Bride" campaign which promotes toilet uptake by encouraging women to refuse to marry men who do not own a toilet. Pit latrines are sometimes referred to as "dry toilets" but this is not recommended because a "dry toilet" is an overarching term used for several types of toilets and speaking only refers to the user interface. Depending on the region, the term "pit latrine" may be used to denote a toilet that has a squatting pan with a water seal or siphon or a hole in the ground without a water seal – the common type in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Whilst a dry toilet can be with or without urine diversion, a pit latrine is always without urine diversion; the key characteristic of a pit latrine is the use of a pit, which infiltrates liquids into the ground and acts as a device for storage and limited treatment. A pit latrine may or may not count towards the Millennium Development Goals target of increasing access to sanitation for the world's population, depending on the type of pit latrine: A pit latrine without a slab is regarded as unimproved sanitation and does not count towards the target.
A pit latrine with a slab, a ventilated improved pit latrine and a pour flush pit latrine connected to a pit or septic tank are counted as being "improved sanitation" facilities as they are more to hygienically separate human excreta from human contact. The user positions themself over the small drop hole during use; the size of the feces drop hole in the floor or slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. A lid on the drop hole keeps light out of the pit and helps to stop flies and odors entering the toilet's superstructure; the lid can be made from plastic or wood and is used to cover the hole in the floor when the pit latrine is not in use. In practice, such a lid is not used for squatting type pit latrines but only for sitting type pit latrines with a toilet seat. On top of the drop hole there can either be nothing or there can be a squ
A bidet shower, is a hand-held triggered nozzle, placed near the toilet and delivers a spray of water used for anal cleansing and cleaning of the genitals after using the toilet for defecation and urination. The device is similar to that on a kitchen sink sprayer; the health faucet is a source of water for people who prefer using water rather than other methods of cleansing after defecation or urination. The shower is an alternative for the traditional sources of water for this action, such as the bidet, copper pot or bucket and mug, being more hygienic and compact. There is no contact between the spray of the used water drainage; the user grasps the faucet in the right hand and uses the thumb or forefinger to aim a spray of water at the anus or genitals to assist cleansing after using the toilet. The bidet shower is common in all predominantly Islamic countries and in most parts of Asia where water is considered essential for anal cleansing; this includes Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Cambodia.
In those countries it is installed in Western-style toilet installations. In Thailand, it is common in squat toilet installations; the bidet shower is similar in intent, if not method of use, to the Japanese washlet-style toilet seats, or so-called "electronic bidets". Bidet showers are used by Muslims in Muslim countries and all parts of the Arab world as well as in Asia in order to cleanse themselves with water after using the toilet. Here, water is used instead of, or together with, toilet paper for cleaning after defecation. In Europe, the bidet shower is used for example in Estonia. Bidets are more common bathroom fixtures in many southern European countries
A chemical toilet collects human excreta in a holding tank and uses chemicals to minimize odors. These toilets are but not always, self-contained and movable. A chemical toilet is structured around a small tank, which needs to be emptied frequently, it is not connected to a hole in the ground, nor to a septic tank, nor is it plumbed into a municipal system leading to a sewage treatment plant. When the tank is emptied, the contents are pumped into a sanitary sewer or directly to a treatment plant; the portable toilets used on construction sites and at large gatherings such as music festivals are well-known types of chemical toilet. As they are used for short periods and because of their high prices, they are rented rather than bought including servicing and cleaning. Aircraft lavatories and passenger train toilets were in the past designed as chemical toilets but are nowadays more to be vacuum toilets. A simpler type of chemical toilet may be used on small boats. Many chemical toilets use a blue dye in the bowl water.
In the past, disinfection was carried out by mixing formaldehyde, bleach, or similar chemicals with the toilet water when flushed. Modern formulations work biologically. Chemical toilets are a type of portable toilet and are known by various tradenames, such as Port-a-John and Porta-Potty, Portaloo, or honey bucket; the last two are the names of companies and "Portaloo" is a British and European Community registered trade mark. Chemical toilets are used as a temporary solution, for example on construction sites or large gatherings, because of their durability and convenience. Most chemical toilets have open-front U-shaped toilet seats with a cover, they are constructed out of lightweight molded plastic. Chemical toilets are large enough for a single occupant about 110 cm square by 210 cm high. While the units are free-standing structures, their stability is augmented by the weight of the waste tank, which contains an empty liquid disinfectant dispenser and deodorizer; some include both a urinal.
Most include lockable doors, ventilation near the top, a vent pipe for the holding tank. When wind is blowing over the vent pipe it creates a low pressure area sucking the odor out. Leaving the toilet lid open will reverse the flow of the venting of the tank. Typical specifications: Total Weight: 90 kg - 110 kg Total Width: 1,166 mm Total Depth: 1,215 mm Total Height: 2,316 mm Door Height: 1,975 mm Door Width: 639 mm Portable chemical toilets use a smell-reducing chemical in the holding tank; this chemical is blue so that when it interacts with enough urine and feces, it turns green. This green colour is an indication. A formaldehyde based chemical is used to neutralize odors. Since the chemical solution can splash back onto the buttocks of the user when their excrement drops in, because formaldehyde is irritating to the eyes, skin and throat, it is being replaced by other proprietary blends such as glutaraldehyde and quaternary ammonium compounds, with non-staining dyes and nature-identical perfume oils.
Additionally, enzyme hybrids are sometimes used. A much older form of portable toilet chemical is lye. Lye was used during the old "wooden outhouse days". After a person is done using the portable toilet they would sprinkle a bit of lye into the holding tank. Lye can be dangerously corrosive to skin, is used today, they are seen at outdoor work sites construction sites, ranches, camp sites and large banks of dozens of portable toilets allow for ready sanitation at large gatherings such as outdoor music festivals. Several portable toilets arranged in these large banks are referred to as a'sitting' of portable toilets. In the United States, the chemical toilet industry is a $2 billion a year business with the standard model renting for $225 per day and luxury restroom trailer units with flushing toilets going for a few thousand each day. Newer models include toilet paper and antibacterial hand sanitizer dispensers, it has become common for portable toilets to be paired with an internal hand washing station.
These sink stations provide a foot pump to dispense non-potable water to wash one's hands with provided soap dispensers or hand sanitizer stations after using the toilet, along with paper toweling. Another common pairing are portable toilets on trailers known as a "toilet trailer"; these trailers are found in 1–2 toilet configurations with a hand wash ability using either a hand washing station or a plastic barrel full of water. These trailers are seen on agricultural fields or at road construction sites; these restrooms are ideal for situations where the workers are mobile. However, this configuration has proven problematic; when being towed, the high winds blow in from the vents, creating a hurricane effect inside and ejecting any toilet paper rolls from the portable toilet if not secured.'Luxury' portable toilets exist. They are mounted on large "office-like" trailers or made from converted shipping containers, they contain every amenity that a public toilet would have such as running water, flushing toilet, urinals, mirrors and air conditioning and hot water in some cases.
However, these lux
A latrine is a toilet or an simpler facility, used as a toilet within a sanitation system. For example, it can be a communal trench in the earth in a camp to be used as emergency sanitation, a hole in the ground, or more advanced designs, including pour-flush systems; the term "latrine" is still used in emergency sanitation situations. Nowadays, the word "toilet" is more used than "latrine", except for simple systems like "pit latrine" or "trench latrine"; the use of latrines was a major advancement in sanitation over more basic practices such as open defecation, helped control the spread of many waterborne diseases The word "latrine" is derived from the Latin lavatrina, meaning bath. It is nowadays still used in the term "pit latrine", it has the connotation of something being less hygienic than a standard toilet. It is used to describe communal facilities, such as the shallow-trench latrines used in emergency sanitation situations, e.g. after an earthquake, flood or other natural disaster. Many forms of latrine technology have been used, from simple to more complex.
The more sophisticated the system, the more that the term "toilet" is used instead of "latrine". A pit latrine is a inexpensive toilet, minimally defined as a hole in the ground. More sophisticated pit latrines may include a floor plate, or ventilation to reduce odor and fly and mosquito breeding. Many military units, if intended for extended use, place basic shelters and seating over the pits. A pit is sited well away from any water sources to minimize possible contamination. After prolonged use, a pit is buried. Other types of pit latrines may include the Reed Odourless Earth Closet, the arborloo or treebog, or the twin pit pour-flush pit latrine, popularized by Sulabh International; the shelter that covers such a pit latrine is known in some varieties of English as an outhouse. In a location without longer term sanitation infrastructure, such as for emergency sanitation, a trench latrine is a workable solution, it consists of a pit or a trench in the ground, 4 feet to 5 feet deep and 4 feet to 20 feet long.
A slit-trench latrine consists of a shallow trench, narrow enough to stand with one leg on either side. This type is used either by squatting, with the users' legs straddling the pit, or by various arrangements for sitting or leaning against a support structure; such support may be a log, branch or similar arrangement placed at right angles to the long axis of the pit. This type of latrine is not found in developing countries but can be used for emergency sanitation; the shallow-trench latrine is wider than the latter. It is shallow, with a depth of about 150 mm; this type of latrine is used in the initial phases of emergencies and is a simple improvement on open defecation fields. A rule of thumb in emergency sanitation provision is to allow 0.25 m2 of land per person per day. This means nearly two hectares per week. Men’s and women’s areas should always be separated. An aqua privy is a small septic tank located directly below a dry toilet squatting pan or bowl which has a drop pipe extending below the liquid level in the tank to form a simple water seal to minimise odors.
Campers refer to a cathole -- a shallow scrape. Emergency sanitation Reredorter, medieval monastic latrine
A flush toilet is a toilet that disposes of human excreta by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta. Flush toilets can be designed for squatting, in the case of squat toilets; the opposite of a flush toilet is a dry toilet. Flush toilets are a type of plumbing fixture and incorporate an "S", "U", "J", or "P" shaped bend called a trap that causes water to collect in the toilet bowl and act as a seal against noxious gases. Most flush toilets are connected to a sewerage system that conveys waste to a sewage treatment plant; when a toilet is flushed, the wastewater flows into a septic tank, or is conveyed to a treatment plant. Associated devices are urinals, which handle only urine, bidets, which can be used for cleansing of the anus and genitals after using the toilet. A typical flush toilet is a fixed, vitreous ceramic bowl, connected to a drain. After use, the bowl is cleaned by the rapid flow of water into the bowl.
This flush may flow from a dedicated tank, a high-pressure water pipe controlled by a flush valve, or by manually pouring water into the bowl. Tanks and valves are operated by the user, by pressing a button, pulling a lever or pulling a chain; the water is directed around the bowl by a molded flushing rim around the top of the bowl or by one or more jets, so that the entire internal surface of the bowl is rinsed with water. A typical toilet has a tank fixed above the bowl which contains a fixed volume of water, two devices; the first device allows part of the contents of the tank to be discharged into the toilet bowl, causing the contents of the bowl to be swept or sucked out of the toilet and into the drain, when the user operates the flush. The second device automatically allows water to enter the tank until the water level is appropriate for a flush; the water may be discharged through a siphon. A float commands the refilling device. Toilets without cisterns are flushed through a simple flush valve or "Flushometer" connected directly to the water supply.
These are designed to discharge a limited volume of water when the lever or button is pressed released. A toilet may be pour-flushed; this type of flush toilet has no cistern or permanent water supply, but is flushed by pouring in a few litres of water from a container. The flushing can use as little as 2–3 litres; this type of toilet is common in many Asian countries. The toilet can be connected to one or two pits, in which case it is called a "pour flush pit latrine" or a "twin pit pour flush pit latrine", it can be connected to a septic tank. The flushing system provides a large flow of water into the bowl, they take the form of either fixed tanks of water or flush valves. Flush tanks or cisterns incorporate a mechanism to release water from the tank and an automatic valve to allow the cistern to be refilled automatically; this system is suitable for locations plumbed with 1⁄2 inch or 3⁄8 inch water pipes which cannot supply water enough to flush the toilet. The tank collects between 6 and 17 litres of water over a period of time.
In modern installations the storage tank is mounted directly above and behind the bowl. Older installations, known as "high suite combinations", used a high-level cistern, fitted above head height, activated by a pull chain connected to a flush lever on the cistern; when more modern close-coupled cistern and bowl combinations were first introduced, these were first referred to as "low suite combinations". Modern versions have a neater-looking low-level cistern with a lever that the user can reach directly, or a close-coupled cistern, lower down and fixed directly to the bowl. In recent decades the close coupled tank/bowl combination has become the most popular residential system, as it has been found by ceramic engineers that improved waterway design is a more effective way to enhance the bowl's flushing action than high tank mounting. Tank fill; the valves are of two main designs: the concentric-float design. The side-float design has existed for over a hundred years; the concentric design has only existed since 1957, but is becoming more popular than the side-float design.
The side-float design uses a float on the end of a lever to control the fill valve. The float is shaped like a ball, so the mechanism is called a ball-valve or a ballcock; the float was made from copper sheet, but it is now plastic. The float is located to one side of inlet at the end of a rod or arm; as the float rises, so does the float-arm. The arm connects to the fill valve that blocks the water flow into the toilet tank, shuts off the water when the float reaches a set height; this maintains a constant level in the tank. The newer concentric-float fill valve consists of a tower, encircled by a plastic float assembly. Operation is otherwise the same as a side-float fill valve though the float position is somewhat different. By virtue of its more compact layout
A bucket toilet is a basic form of a dry toilet whereby a bucket is used to collect excreta. Feces and urine are collected together in the same bucket, leading to odor issues; the bucket may be situated in a nearby small structure. Where people do not have access to improved sanitation – in low-income urban areas of developing countries – an unimproved bucket toilet might be better than open defecation, they can play a temporary role in e.g. after earthquakes. However, the unimproved bucket toilet may carry significant health risks compared to an improved sanitation system; the bucket toilet system, with collection organised by the municipality, used to be widespread in wealthy countries. Once the basic bucket toilet has been "improved", it evolves into a number of different systems, which are more referred to as either container-based sanitation systems, composting toilets, or urine-diverting dry toilets. Bucket toilets are used in households and in health care facilities in some low- and middle- income countries where people do not have access to improved sanitation.
In those settings, bucket toilets are more to be used without a liner, or the liner is not removed each time the bucket is emptied. This is because the users cannot afford to discard suitably sized, sturdy liners. Instead, the users may place some dry material in the base of the bucket in order to facilitate easier emptying. Bucket toilets have been common in cold climates where installing running water can be difficult and expensive and subject to freezing-related pipe breakage, for example in Alaska and rural areas of Canada. In natural disasters and other emergencies, the portability of bucket latrines can make them a useful part of an appropriate emergency response where pit latrines cannot be isolated from floodwater or groundwater and where the contents can be safely disposed into sanitary systems, taking measures to avoid contact with the contents. Different organizations give advice on; the Twin Bucket Emergency Toilet system, for example, has been developed in Christchurch, New Zealand following their infrastructure destroying earthquake in 2011.
The system has been endorsed by the Portland Bureau of Emergency Management. It is promoted by the volunteer advocacy group PHLUSH for reasons of safety and matching ecological sanitation principles; the bucket is emptied when it emits excessive foul odor. Some sources say; the quantity of excreta varies depending on the amount of fiber in the local diet. If the bucket has a liner emptying is more hygienic in areas with poor water access for cleaning the collection chamber than without a liner, as the bag could be sealed with a knot and the bucket would remain clean. To minimize offensive odors and prevent the spread of disease, the material in the bucket can be covered with some covering material after each use, such as quick lime, wood ash or fine sawdust; when the bucket is full, it can be covered with a lid and stored away until the collected waste can either be disposed of or treated for safe reuse, e.g. via composting the material. An unimproved, open bucket in which excreta are not covered by carbon matter does not offer much protection to the user from the pathogens in the feces, which can lead to significant health risks.
Flies can access the contents. There is the risk that the bucket can tip over and spill its contents. Unhygienic emptying and disposal practices add further opportunities for pathogens to be spread, for example, if the bucket is not cleaned after each use or if a liner is not used. For these reasons, unimproved bucket toilets were not considered as improved sanitation systems according to WHO and UNICEF for monitoring access to basic sanitation as part of Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals. At the time of these goals, IAPMO had not yet published new standards for acceptable improved bucket toilet procedure. For application in emergencies, it is possible to use two buckets: one for urine, the other one for feces and soiled toilet paper; the Wellington Region Emergency Management Office recommends strong 15–20 litres buckets or pails and the use of dry mulch material that can consist of sawdust, dry leaves, soil, or shredded newspaper. The bottom of the "urine bucket" should be emptied every day.
The content is poured onto a disused green space after diluting the urine with water. The bottom of the "feces bucket" should be covered with dry mulch. After every use, a handful of dry mulch should be used to cover the feces in order to keep it as dry as possible. After the bucket is full, it should be emptied into a hole in the ground or into a separate large storage bin. Since feces contain pathogens, they should be handled with caution. Unimproved bucket toilets can be upgraded to become improved bucket toilets, where some composting starts in the bucket itself but most of it takes place in an external composter. An upgraded system may consist o