Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue. Most world commemorative coins were issued from the 1960s onward, although there are numerous examples of commemorative coins of earlier date; such coins have a distinct design with reference to the occasion. Many coins of this category serve as collectors items only, although some countries are issuing commemorative coins for regular circulation. Vast numbers of thematic coins are continuously being issued, highlighting ancient monuments or sites, historical personalities, endangered species etc. While such thematic coins may or may not commemorate any particular event or jubilee, the distinction between commemorative coins and thematic coins is blurred or ignored. Coins can be seen as being of one of three types: Regular issue coinage are the normal coins intended to be used in commerce every day and are issued with the same design for several years, e.g. euro coins. Circulating commemoratives are intended to be used for commerce, but the design will only be issued for a limited time, is intended to draw some attention to a specific event or person.
Examples include the €2 commemorative coins, or U. S. 50 State Quarters. Non-circulating legal tender are coins which are legal tender, thus can in theory be used to purchase goods or services, but are not intended to be used in such a manner. Rather, they are intended to be used only as souvenirs, are produced in gold or silver with a proof finish; the coins issued by any state have always reflected the current political or economic situation. Many ancient and pre-modern coins commemorate events in contemporary times. For instance, Roman coins have references to military campaigns and the defeat of foreign powers; these reverse types symbolically represent the subordination of conquered territories to Roman authority. Such coins are examples of ancient political propaganda; the Roman Empire may be represented by a proud warrior'raising' an undersized figure, representing the defeated enemy. Throughout history, coins have been issued on special occasions, without citing that occasion explicitly.
In some cases, emergency money have been issued under unfavourable conditions, such as a city under siege. Such emergency coins were issued in Vienna in 1529, while the city was besieged by the troops of the Ottoman Empire. Due to the conditions at the time, such coins are minted on square flans, rather than round ones. European square coins of this era are known by their German name'klippe'. Coins might be issued with the specific purpose of financing a military campaign, or for the payment of tribute or war indemnity by a feudal lord to his sovereign. During recent centuries, specially prepared coins have been issued to proclaim the coronation of a new monarch; such coins are known as'largesse' coins. This type of coins were issued in India during the Mughal era, in Europe in the age of absolutism. In Europe, such coins were scattered from the royal chariot, to achieve attention and applause from the public. In Sweden, coins of this type were issued as late as 1873. During the era of the formation of the European nation states, the issuance of special coins explicitly commemorating various events became common.
These coins were devised to establish a public notion of nationhood, to honor the ruling monarch and his dynasty. During the economically exhaustive Napoleonic wars, a one sixth rigsdaler was issued in Denmark from voluntary contributions from the public, intended to finance the creation of a new fleet. Another notable coin is the Prussian thaler of 1871, commemorating the victory of the Franco-Prussian war, opening the gates for the Prussian king to be crowned as Emperor of the unified German nation. After the unification of Germany, some German states continued issuing separate coins on special occasions, such as the jubilee of a ruling monarch; the issuance of these royal jubilee coins became common throughout Europe in the late 19th and early 20th century. In some cases, these became collector items at the time of their minting. Before World War II, commemorative coins were always made of precious metals; the base metal coins were not considered appropriate for, or worthy of, honoring the nation or the ruling dynasty.
However, during the 20th century, the use of precious metals for circulating currency became scarce. World War I and the world economic crisis of the 1930s brought about temporary or permanent abolition of the convertibility of bank notes to silver and gold coins; the issuance of precious metal coins became restricted, definitively abandoned about 1970. While the commemoratives of these decades continued to be issued predominantly in precious metals, their use as circulating currency became scarce or ceased entirely. Thus, the commemoratives developed into a separate class of coins with no recognisable link to the coins and notes used in everyday transactions; this class of coins were collectors items, or in some cases objects for economic investment. With the ascendance of coin collecting as a hobby for larger numbers of people in the decades after World War II, commemorative coins came to be seen as treasured items, their beauty and impressive appearance appealing to many. From this point in time, we can distinguish quite between two classes of commemorative coins.
Apart from the non-circulating medal-like coins referred to above, increasing numbers of circulating base metal commemorative coins have been issued in rece
Chanel S. A. is a French held company owned by Alain Wertheimer and Gérard Wertheimer, grandsons of Pierre Wertheimer, an early business partner of the couturière Coco Chanel. Chanel S. A. is a high fashion house that specializes in haute couture and ready-to-wear clothes, luxury goods, fashion accessories. In her youth, Gabrielle Chanel gained the nickname Coco from her time as a chanteuse; as a fashion designer, Coco Chanel catered to women's taste for elegance in dress, with blouses and suits and dresses, jewellery of simple design, that replaced the opulent, over-designed, constrictive clothes and accessories of 19th-century fashion. The Chanel product brands have been personified by fashion models and actresses, including Inès de La Fressange, Catherine Deneuve, Carole Bouquet, Vanessa Paradis, Nicole Kidman, Anna Mouglalis, Audrey Tautou, Keira Knightley, Kristen Stewart and Marilyn Monroe; the House of Chanel is known for the "little black dress", the perfume No. 5 de Chanel, the Chanel Suit.
Chanel's use of jersey fabric produced garments that were affordable. Chanel revolutionized fashion — high fashion and everyday fashion — by replacing structured-silhouettes, based upon the corset and the bodice, with garments that were functional and at the same time flattering to the woman's figure. In the 1920s, the simple-line designs of Chanel couture made popular the "flat-chested" fashions that were the opposite of the hourglass-figure achieved by the fashions of the late 19th century — the Belle Époque of France, the British Edwardian era. Chanel used colors traditionally associated with masculinity in Europe, such as grey and navy blue, to denote feminine boldness of character; the clothes of the House of Chanel featured quilted leather trimmings. An example of such haute couture techniques is the woolen Chanel suit — a knee-length skirt and a cardigan-style jacket and decorated with black embroidery and gold-coloured buttons; the complementary accessories were two-tone pump shoes and jewellery a necklace of pearls, a leather handbag.
Establishment and recognition — 1909–1920s The House of Chanel originated in 1909 when Gabrielle Chanel opened a millinery shop at 160 Boulevard Malesherbes, the ground floor of the Parisian flat of the socialite and textile businessman Étienne Balsan, of whom she was the mistress. Because the Balsan flat was a salon for the French hunting and sporting élite, Chanel had the opportunity to meet their demi-mondaine mistresses, who, as such, were women of fashion, upon whom the rich men displayed their wealth — as ornate clothes and hats. Coco Chanel thus could sell to them the hats she made. In the course of those salons Coco Chanel befriended Arthur'Boy' Capel, an English socialite and polo player friend of Étienne Balsan. Despite that social circumstance, Boy Capel perceived the businesswoman innate to Coco Chanel, and, in 1910, financed her first independent millinery shop, Chanel Modes, at 21 rue Cambon, Paris; because that locale housed a dress shop, the business-lease limited Chanel to selling only millinery products, not couture.
Two years in 1913, the Deauville and Biarritz couture shops of Coco Chanel offered for sale prêt-à-porter sports clothes for women, the practical designs of which allowed the wearer to play sport. The First World War affected European fashion through scarcity of materials, the mobilisation of women. By that time, Chanel had opened a large dress shop at 31 rue Cambon, near the Hôtel Ritz, in Paris. Coco Chanel used jersey cloth because of its physical properties as a garment, such as its drape — how it falls upon and falls from the body of the woman — and how well it adapted to a simple garment-design. Sartorially, some of Chanel's designs derived from the military uniforms made prevalent by the War. In 1915 and in 1917, Harper's Bazaar magazine reported that the garments of the House of Chanel were "on the list of every buyer" for the clothing factories of Europe; the Chanel dress shop at 31 rue Cambon presented day-wear dress-and-coat ensembles of simple design, black evening dresses trimmed with lace.
After the First World War, the House of Chanel, following the fashion trends of the 1920s, produced beaded dresses, made popular by the Flapper woman. By 1920, Chanel had designed and presented a woman's suit of clothes — composed either of two garments or of three garments — which allowed a woman to have a modern, feminine appearance, whilst being comfortable and practical to maintain. In 1921, to complement the suit of clothes, Coco Chanel commissioned the perfumer Ernest Beaux to create a perfume for the House of Chanel, his perfumes included the perfume No.5, named after the number of the sample Chanel liked best. A bottle of No. 5 de Chanel was a gift to clients of Chanel. The popularity of the perfume prompted the House of Chanel to offer it for retail sale in 1922. In 1923, to
Grand Prix motor racing
Grand Prix motor racing, a form of motorsport competition, has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as early as 1894. It evolved from simple road races from one town to the next, to endurance tests for car and driver. Innovation and the drive of competition soon saw speeds exceeding 100 miles per hour, but because early races took place on open roads, accidents occurred resulting in deaths both of drivers and of spectators. Grand Prix motor racing evolved into formula racing, one can regard Formula One as its direct descendant; each event of the Formula One World Championships is still called a Grand Prix. Motor racing was started in France, as a direct result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a shop window for their cars; the first motoring contest took place on July 22, 1894 and was organised by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal. The Paris–Rouen rally was 126 km, from Porte Maillot in Paris, through the Bois de Boulogne, to Rouen.
Count Jules-Albert de Dion was first into Rouen after 6 hours 48 minutes at an average speed of 19 km/h. He finished 3 minutes 30 seconds ahead of Albert Lemaître, followed by Auguste Doriot, René Panhard, Émile Levassor; the official winners were Peugeot and Panhard as cars were judged on their speed and safety characteristics, De Dion's steam car needed a stoker which the judges deemed to be outside of their objectives. In 1900, James Gordon Bennett, Jr. the owner of the New York Herald and the International Herald Tribune, established the Gordon Bennett Cup. He hoped the creation of an international event would drive automobile manufacturers to improve their cars; each country was allowed to enter up to three cars, which had to be built in the country that they represented and entered by that country's automotive governing body. International racing colours were established in this event; the 1903 event occurred in the aftermath of the fatalities at the Paris-Madrid road race, so the race, at Athy in Ireland, though on public roads, was run over a closed circuit: the first closed-circuit motor race.
In the United States, William Kissam Vanderbilt II launched the Vanderbilt Cup at Long Island, New York in 1904. Some anglophone sources wrongly list a race called the Pau Grand Prix in 1901; this may stem from a mistranslation of the contemporary French sources such as the magazine La France Auto of March 1901. The name of the 1901 event was the Circuit du Sud-Ouest and it was run in three classes around the streets of Pau; the Grand Prix du Palais d'Hiver was the name of the prizes awarded for the lesser classes. The Grand Prix de Pau was the name of the prize awarded for the'Heavy' class, thus Maurice Farman was awarded the'Grand Prix de Pau' for his overall victory in the Circuit du Sud-Ouest driving a Panhard 24 hp. In L'Histoire de l'Automobile/Paris 1907 Pierre Souvestre described the 1901 event as: "... dans le Circuit du Sud-Ouest, à l'occasion du meeting de Pau... " The only race at the time to carry the name Grand Prix was organised by the Automobile Club de France, of which the first took place in 1906.
The circuit used, based in Le Mans, was triangular in shape, each lap covering 105 kilometres. Six laps were to run each day, each lap took an hour using the primitive cars of the day; the driving force behind the decision to race on a circuit - as opposed to racing on ordinary roads from town to town - was the Paris to Madrid road race of 1903. During this race a number of people, both drivers and pedestrians - including Marcel Renault - were killed and the race was stopped by the French authorities at Bordeaux. Further road based events were banned. From the 32 entries representing 12 different automobile manufacturers, at the 1906 event, the Hungarian-born Ferenc Szisz won the 1,260 km race in a Renault; this race was regarded as the first Grande Épreuve, which meant "great trial" and the term was used from on to denote up to the eight most important events of the year. Races in this period were nationalistic affairs, with a few countries setting up races of their own, but no formal championship tying them together.
The rules varied from country to country and race to race, centered on maximum weights in an effort to limit power by limiting engine size indirectly. The cars all had mechanics on board as well as the driver, no one was allowed to work on the cars during the race except for these two. A key factor to Renault winning this first Grand Prix was held to be the detachable wheel rims, which allowed tire changes to occur without having to lever the tire and tube off and back on the rim. Given the state of the roads, such repairs were frequent. A further historic confusion arose in the early 1920s when the Automobile Club de France attempted to pull off a retrospective political trick by numbering and renaming the major races held in France before the 1906 French Grand Prix as being Grands Prix de l'Automobile Club de France, despite their running pre-dating the formation of the Club. Hence, the 1895 Paris–Bordeaux–Paris Trail was renamed I Grand Prix de l'Automobile Club de France.
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example
Sarthe is a department of Pays de la Loire situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country. It is named after the River Sarthe. In the late 18th century, before it was Sarthe, the nobility built their Mansions and Chateaus there, as an escape from Paris; the department was created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, pursuant to the law of 22 December 1789, starting from a part of the province of Maine. The latter was divided into Sarthe to the east and Mayenne to the west. In Roman times, this province contained the city of Mans, many of its ruins are still standing; the Roman Thermal Bathhouse attracts many tourists, as does the Theater of Aubigné-Racan, both located on the outskirts of Anjou and Touraine. Marin Mersenne the most important scientific figure in the early 17th century, was born in the vicinity of Sarthe; the department of Sarthe is at the north end of the administrative region of Pays-de-la-Loire. It is south on the southern edge of the Armorican Massif, it is bordered by the departments of Orne, Eure-et-Loir, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire and Mayenne.
300,000 people, comprising more than half of the department's population, live in Le Mans, its conurbation, or the urban communes close by. The rest of the department retains a rural character, with agriculture as the chief part of the economy; the arrival of the railways in 1854 boosted trade for the local economy. A TGV connection was constructed in 1989. In terms of road connections, the A11 autoroute, constructed to Le Mans from the east in 1978, enhances Sarthe's strategic position as the gateway to the French west; the department was the electoral base of former Prime Minister Francois Fillon, who since 2012 sits in the National Assembly of France for a constituency in central Paris. Cantons of the Sarthe department Communes of the Sarthe department Arrondissements of the Sarthe department Circuit de la Sarthe, a motor racing track Circuit de la Sarthe, an annual road cycling race Prefecture General Council Sarthe information
Carlos Ghosn, KBE is a Brazilian-born businessman who has French and Lebanese nationality. Ghosn served as the CEO of Michelin North America, chairman and CEO of Renault, chairman of AvtoVAZ, chairman and CEO of Nissan, chairman of Mitsubishi Motors. Ghosn was chairman and CEO of the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance, a strategic partnership between those automotive manufacturers through a complex cross-shareholding agreement; the venture has held an 10% market share since 2010, as of 2017 was reckoned to be the third largest automobile group worldwide. In 1996, Renault's CEO Louis Schweitzer hired Ghosn as his deputy and charged him with the task of turning the company around from near bankruptcy. Ghosn elaborated a plan to cut costs for the period 1998–2000, reducing the workforce, revising production processes, standardising vehicle parts and pushing the launch of new models; the company undertook organisational changes, introducing a lean production system with delegate responsibilities inspired by Japanese systems, reforming work methods and centralising research and development at its Technocentre to reduce vehicle conception costs while accelerating such conception.
Ghosn became known as "Le Cost Killer". In the early 2000s, for orchestrating one of the auto industry's most aggressive downsizing campaigns and spearheading the turnaround of Nissan from its near bankruptcy in 1999, he earned the nickname "Mr. Fix It". Following the Nissan financial turnaround, in 2002 Fortune awarded him Asia Businessman of the Year. In 2003 Fortune identified him as one of the 10 most powerful people in business outside the U. S. and its Asian edition voted him Man of the Year. Surveys jointly published by the Financial Times and PricewaterhouseCoopers named him the fourth most respected business leader in 2003, the third most respected business leader in 2004 and in 2005, he achieved celebrity status in Japan and in the business world, his life has been chronicled in Japanese comics. Ghosn stepped down as CEO of Nissan on 1 April 2017, while remaining chairman of the company, he was arrested at Haneda Airport on 19 November 2018, on allegations of under-reporting his earnings and misuse of company assets.
On 22 November 2018, Nissan's board made a unanimous decision to dismiss Ghosn as Nissan's chairman. It was followed by Mitsubishi Motors' board on 26 November 2018. Renault and the French government continued to support him, presuming him innocent until proven guilty. However, Ghosn resigned as chairman and CEO of Renault on 24 January 2019. While out on bail, Ghosn was re-arrested in Tokyo on 4 April 2019 over new charges of misappropriations of Nissan funds. On 8 April 2019 Nissan shareholders voted to oust the company's former boss from its board. Ghosn's grandfather was Bichara Ghosn, a Maronite Christian who emigrated from French Mandate Lebanon to Brazil at the age of 13 settling in remote Guaporé, Rondônia, near the border between Brazil and Bolivia. Bichara Ghosn was an entrepreneur and headed several companies, in businesses including the rubber trade, the sale and purchase of agricultural products, aviation, his son Jorge Ghosn married a Nigerian-born woman whose family came from Lebanon, they settled in Porto Velho, the state capital of Rondônia.
Carlos Ghosn was born on March 1954, in Porto Velho. When he was about two years old he became sick after drinking unsanitary water, his mother moved with him to Rio de Janeiro, he did not recover there, in 1960, when Ghosn was six years old, he and his mother and sister moved to Beirut, where his grandmother lived. Ghosn completed his secondary school studies in Lebanon, at the Jesuit school Collège Notre-Dame de Jamhour, he completed his classes préparatoires in Paris, at the Collège Stanislas and the Lycée Saint-Louis. He graduated as an engineer from the École Polytechnique in 1974 and the École des Mines de Paris in 1978. After graduation in 1978, Ghosn spent 18 years at Michelin, Europe's largest tire maker training and working in several plants in France and Germany. In 1981, he became plant manager in France. In 1984 he was named head of development for the company's industrial tire division. In 1985, when Ghosn was 30 years old, he was appointed chief operating officer of Michelin's South American operations.
He returned to Rio de Janeiro, reporting directly to François Michelin, who tasked Ghosn with turning around the operation, unprofitable and struggling under Brazil's hyperinflation. Ghosn formed cross-functional management teams to determine best practices among the French and other nationalities working in the South American division; the multicultural experience in Brazil formed the basis of his cross-cultural management style and emphasis on diversity as a core business asset. "You learn from diversity... but you're comforted by commonality", Ghosn has said. The division returned to profitability in two years. After turning around Michelin's South American operations, Ghosn was appointed president and COO of Michelin North America in 1989, moved to Greenville, South Carolina, with his family, he was promoted to CEO of Michelin North America in 1990. He presided over the restructuring of the company after its acquisition of the Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company. In 1996, Ghosn became executive vice president in charge of purchasing, advanced research and development, powertrain operations, manufacturing at Renault.
Ghosn's radical restructuring of Renault contributed to profitability of the company over 1997. His reputation of successful perf
Guy de Rothschild
Baron Guy Édouard Alphonse Paul de Rothschild was a French banker and member of the Rothschild family. He owned the bank Rothschild Frères from 1967 to 1979, when it was nationalized by the French government, maintained possessions in other French and foreign companies including Imerys, he was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1985. Baron Guy de Rothschild was born in Paris, the son of Baron Édouard de Rothschild and his wife, the former Germaine Alice Halphen, he has three siblings. Guy's elder brother, Édouard Alphonse Émile Lionel, died at the age of four of appendicitis. Half of his great-grandparents were Rothschilds, he was a great-great grandson of the German patriarch of the Rothschild family Mayer Amschel Rothschild, who founded the family's banking in the 18th century in Frankfurt, Germany. He grew up at his parents' townhouse on the corner of the rue de Rivoli and the Place de la Concorde in Paris and their country estate at Château de Ferrières, 25 miles east of Paris.
Château de Ferrières is a massive house built to a design by Joseph Paxton in the 1850s, based on Paxton's earlier design of Mentmore Towers for Baron Mayer de Rothschild of the English branch of the Rothschild family. He was educated at the Lycée Condorcet and Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, by private tutors, he undertook military service with the cavalry at Saumur, played golf for France. He won the Grand Prix de Sud-Ouest in 1948. Guy de Rothschild married twice: In 1937, he married a distant cousin, Baroness Alix Hermine Jeanette Schey de Koromla. Alix was the former wife of Kurt Krahmer and the younger daughter of Baron Philipp Schey von Koromla, the first Hungarian Jew to be made an Austrian noble, they had David René de Rothschild. Rothschild raised his wife's daughters from her prior marriage to Krahmer and Bettina, they divorced in 1956. In 1957, he married Baroness Marie-Hélène van Zuylen van Nyevelt. Marie-Hélène's first marriage to Count François de Nicolay—with whom she had one son, Philippe de Nicolay—had been dissolved in 1956.
Like his first wife, she was a distant cousin, though in a Roman Catholic. They had Baron Édouard de Rothschild. After his second marriage, Guy de Rothschild renovated the Château de Ferrières, using it to put on lavish balls in the early 1970s, before donating it to the University of Paris in 1975; the same year, he bought the Hôtel Lambert on the Île Saint-Louis in Paris, the top floors of which became his Paris residence. In 1940, as a result of the German occupation of France in World War II, Guy de Rothschild's parents and sister Bethsabée fled France and made their way to safety in New York City. Guy de Rothschild had enlisted in the French Army and was a company commander in the 3rd Light Mechanised Division during the Battle of France in early 1940. After fighting the Nazis at Carvin, he was part of the French Army, forced to retreat to Dunkirk, he was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his actions on the beaches at Dunkirk, from where he was evacuated to England. He returned to France, landing at Brest, taking charge of the family's office at La Bourboule, near Clermont-Ferrand.
Under the Vichy government, his father and uncles were stripped of their French nationality, removed from the register of the Légion d'honneur, the family was forced to sell its possessions. Rothschild managed to persuade the buyers to grant options under which he would be able to buy the family's interests back, he left France again, via Portugal, to join his parents in New York City. He joined the Free French Forces and boarded the cargo ship, Pacific Grove, to travel back to Europe, his ship was torpedoed and sunk in March 1943, he was rescued after spending 12 hours in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. In England, he joined the staff of General Koenig at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force near Portsmouth. Guy de Rothschild studied law at university joined de Rothschild Frères in 1931 when it was being run by his father and a cousin, Robert de Rothschild, who died in 1946; as part of his learning to manage the family's businesses, in 1933 he joined the executive board of their Northern Railway Company.
At the end of World War II, Guy de Rothschild returned to the bank's offices at rue Laffitte in Paris in 1944. On his father's death in 1949, Guy de Rothschild took formal control of the business. Years Rothschild was on the cover of the 20 December 1963 issue of TIME magazine in a story that said he took "over the family's French bank during the disorder of war and defeat, changed its character from stewardship of the family fortune to expansive modern banking." Following in the footsteps of his father and great-grandfather, Guy de Rothschild served as a director of the Banque de France. On his father's death, he inherited part of Château Lafite-Rothschild but did not run it. Georges Pompidou, who would become President and Prime Minister of France, was recruited by Guy de Rothschild from a job as a teacher, worked for him from 1953 to 1962, during which time he became the general manager of the Rothschild bank; the bank diversified, from investment management under De Rothschild Frères to the deposit-taking Banque de Rothschild, with branches throughout France.
Guy was its president from 1968 to 1978. In 1968 Guy de Rothschild became a partner at N M Rothschild & Sons, while cousin Sir Evelyn de Rothschild was appointed a director of Banque Rothschild, Paris. In France, Rothschil