Toyota Land Cruiser
The Toyota Land Cruiser is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. It is Toyota's longest running series of models; as of 2018, the sales of the Land Cruiser totalled more than 6.5 million units worldwide. Production of the first generation of the Land Cruiser began in 1951 as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle; the Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, station wagon and cab chassis bodystyles. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity in Australia where it is the best-selling body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle. Toyota extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback – considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain. In Japan, the Land Cruiser is exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships called Toyota Store; as of 2018, the Land Cruiser is available in most markets. Exceptions include Canada, Hong Kong, North Korea, South Korea, Syria and large parts of Europe.
In Europe, the only countries that sell the Land Cruiser are: Gibraltar, Moldova and Ukraine. When the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines in 1941, they found an American Jeep and promptly sent it to Japan; the Japanese military authorities ordered Toyota to produce a similar vehicle but to alter the appearance. The resulting Model AK prototype led to the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha. In 1941, the Japanese government instructed Toyota to produce a light truck for Japan's military. In 1942, Toyota developed the AK10 prototype by reverse-engineering a Bantam GP; the half-ton truck features an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator, a folding windshield. The AK10 is powered by the 2,259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan coupled to a three-speed manual transmission and a two-speed transfer gearbox. Unlike the U. S. Jeep, the AK10 had limited photographs of it in the battlefield are rare.
In June 1954, responding to claims of trademark violation by the Willys Company that produced the original Jeep Director of Technology Hanji Umehara renamed this 4-wheeled vehicle as the Land Cruiser. The postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ is different from the AK10 and inherits no mechanical parts from it. 1950 – The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep; the United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specifications and tasked Toyota to manufacture them. 1951 – The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1, developed in 1948; the Jeep BJ was larger than the original U. S. Jeep and more powerful courtesy of its Type B 3.4-litre six-cylinder OHV Four-stroke petrol engine which generated a power output of 63 kW at 3,600 rpm and 215 N⋅m torque at 1,600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep.
However unlike the Jeep, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case. 1951 – In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that height. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency. Impressed by this feat, the NPA placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car. 1953 – Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at the Toyota Honsya Plant. The body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK known as ARACO; the "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following: BJ-T, BJ-R, BJ-J. 1954 — The name "Land Cruiser" was coined by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor — Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors; that is why I decided to call it'Land Cruiser'," he recalls. The name had been used on the Studebaker Land Cruiser, produced from 1934 to 1954.
1954 – The 93 kW, 3.9 L Type F petrol engine was added to the Land Cruiser range for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as: BJ-T, BJ-R, BJ-J, FJ-J. 1955 – The Second generation of the Land Cruiser called the 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have a more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons, it had more stylish bodywork and a better ride courtesy of longer four-plate leaf springs, adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 99 kW 3.9 L six-cylinder Type F petrol engine, but adopted the previous generation's three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm forward; the 20 Series still had no low range transfer case, but had synchronism on the third and fourth gears. 1957 – A 4-door Station Wagon was added called the FJ35V, based on a 2,650 mm wheelbase. The Land Cruiser first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as the FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies; the Land Cruiser was the first Japanese vehicle to be exported to the country.
A small number of Land Cruisers were used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contra
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue; as of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle; as of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization and by revenue. Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017.
Its Prius family is the world's top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Lexus and Daihatsu, it holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, as well as joint-ventures with two in China, one in India, one in the Czech Republic, along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of one of the largest conglomerates in Japan. Toyota is listed on New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange. Toyota is headquartered in Aichi; the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the head office has the "Toyopet" Toyota logo and the words "Toyota Motor".
The Toyota Technical Center, a 14-story building, the Honsha plant, Toyota's second plant engaging in mass production and named the Koromo plant, are adjacent to one another in a location near the headquarters. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the main headquarters building as "modest". In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the headquarters due to the lack of amenities in the city, its Tokyo office is located in Tokyo. Its Nagoya office is located in Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, builds robots. Presidents of Toyota Motor Company: Rizaburo Toyoda Kiichiro Toyoda Taizo Ishida Fukio Nakagawa Eiji Toyoda In 1981, Toyota Motor Co. Ltd. announced plans to merge with its sales entity Toyota Motor Sales Co. Ltd. Since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger that occurred in 1982.
Shoichiro succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the combined organization that became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Chairmen of Toyota Motor Corporation: Eiji Toyoda Shoichiro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Takeshi Uchiyamada Presidents of Toyota Motor Corporation: Shoichiro Toyoda Tatsuro Toyoda Hiroshi Okuda Fujio Cho Katsuaki Watanabe Akio Toyoda On June 14, 2013, Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of external board members. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, as the latter became an honorary chairman while Toyoda remains in the post of President. Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Nagoya and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO: 7203. In addition, Toyota is foreign-listed on the New York Stock Exchange under NYSE: TM and on the London Stock Exchange under LSE: TYT. Toyota has been publicly traded in Japan since 1949 and internationally since 1999; as reported on its consolidated financial statements, Toyota has 606 consolidated subsidiaries and 199 affiliates.
Toyota Motor North America Toyota Canada Inc. Toyota Tsusho – Trading company for the Toyota Group Daihatsu Motor Company Hino Motors Lexus 100% Scion 100% DENSO Toyota Industries Aisin Seiki Co. Subaru Corporation Isuzu Motors PT Toyota-Astra Motor Noble Automotive PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia Toyota, which earlier was the world's third largest automotive manufacturer behind American General Motors and Ford, produced for the first time in history more vehicles than Ford in 2005, in 2006 more than General Motors and has been the world's largest automotive manufacturer since except in 2011 when, triggered by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it fell to the #3 position behind General Motors and German Volkswagen Group. In 1924, Sakichi Toyoda invented the Toyoda Model G Auto
BYD Auto Co. Ltd. is a Chinese automobile manufacturer based in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, a wholly owned subsidiary of BYD Company. It was founded in January 2003, following BYD Company's acquisition of Tsinchuan Automobile Company in 2002, its principal activity is the design, development and distribution of automobiles, electric bicycles, rechargeable batteries and trucks sold under the BYD brand. BYD has achieved top rankings of J. D Power's Quality Study, it has a 50:50 joint venture with Daimler AG, Shenzhen BYD Daimler New Technology Co. Ltd. which develops and manufactures luxury electric cars sold under the Denza brand. BYD Auto sold a total of 506,189 passenger cars in China in 2013, making it the tenth-largest selling brand and the largest selling Chinese brand. In 2015, BYD Auto was the best selling global electric vehicle brand. For a second year running, BYD was the world's top selling plug-in electric car manufacturer with over 100,000 units delivered in 2016. In October 2016, BYD Auto became the all-time second largest global plug-in car manufacturer.
BYD Co Ltd created the wholly owned subsidiary BYD Auto a year after its 2002 acquisition of the Norinco-owned Qinchuan Machinery Works, which may have been made to acquire the passenger car production license held by the purchased company. Qinchuan, who used the Xian and Fuxing trade names, had rented out their license to Beijing Zhonghua Automobile Industry Company for building their plastic-bodied QCJ7090 car. Qinchuan's best-known product is the QCJ7181 Flyer, sold as the "BYD Flyer." While the Chinese state is credited with development of an indigenous auto industry, BYD Auto may have been created in the absence of a State policy explicitly supporting independently owned automobile manufacturers. In 2008, BYD Auto began selling its first mass-produced, plug-in hybrid vehicle, the BYD F3DM. China subsidizes oil. In late December 2008, Warren Buffett spent $230 million on the acquisition of a 10% stake in BYD Auto's parent, BYD Company. In 2009, the company sold 448,400 cars in China, two-thirds of sales were its BYD F3 model.
In the same year, BYD began the export of its cars to Africa, South America, the Middle East. Some of its first all-electric vehicles were offered via fleet sales to government buyers in China; the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid, launched in the Chinese market in December 2013, ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2014. The car ranked seventh among the world's top 10 best selling plug-in cars in 2014. In 2015, the Qin remained as the top selling passenger new energy vehicle in China; the BYD Qin was the world's second best selling plug-in hybrid car in 2015 and ranked fifth in 2015 among the world's top selling plug-in electric cars. Three BYD Auto models topped the Chinese ranking of best-selling new energy passenger cars in 2016; the BYD Tang plug-in hybrid SUV was the top selling plug-in car with 31,405 units delivered, followed by the BYD Qin, the BYD e6. As of December 2016, the BYD Qin, with 68,655 units sold since its inception, remained the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the country.
As of 2015, BYD was in the process of opening its first passenger car factory in Brazil to focus on supplying electric vehicles for taxis and car-sharing schemes. On July 1, 2015, BYD Auto announced its withdrawal from Russian operations due to the war in Ukraine and the ruble dropping for its bad sales. BYD ended 2015 as the world's top selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with 61,772 passenger vehicles sold plug-in hybrids. Accounting for heavy-duty vehicles, BYD total sales rises to 69,222 units. BYD continued as the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer in 2016 with over 100,000 units sold, up 64% from 2015. BYD sold more than 100,000 new energy passenger cars in China in 2016; the BYD Tang was the top selling plug-in car in China in 2016 with 31,405 units delivered. BYD net profits jumped 552.6% in 2015 to a total of 2.829 billion rmb. Sales of new energy vehicles were the main driver for BYD’s huge profit increase, with alternative energy vehicles accounting for half of BYD's profits while the same share in 2014 was just 27%.
Samsung Electronics invested $450 million in BYD in 2016. In September 2016, BYD Auto became the third largest global plug-in car manufacturer with cumulative sales of 161,000 plug-in cars since 2008. In October 2016, became the world's second largest plug-in electric passenger car manufacturer with more than 171,000 units delivered in China. BYD is an abbreviation for "Build Your Dreams", a company slogan. BYD Auto has a wide range of small and medium-sized cars, including small compacts, people carriers, small sedans. Hybrid electric vehicles and all-electric models are among its products. Non-Chinese auto part makers BYD is associated with include BorgWarner. BYD F3DM plug-in hybrid compact saloon BYD F3-R compact hatchback BYD F6 mid-size saloon BYD Flyer City car BYD G3 - compact saloon BYD G3-R - compact hatchback BYD G5 - compact saloon successor to the BYD G3 BYD G6 - Mid-size car saloon BYD G6 Sirui BYD L3 - compact saloon BYD M6 - MPV BYD S6 - SUV BYD S7 - SUV BYD S8/F8 - coupe-convertible BYD e5 450 BYD e6 - electric MPV BYD Qin EV450 BYD Song EV500 BYD Yuan EV360 BYD Qin DM BYD Song DM BYD Song Max DM BYD Tang DM BYD F0 - supermini BYD F3 - compact saloon BYD F5 Surui - comp
The Volkswagen Beetle—officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer, in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, known by many other nicknames in other languages—is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five occupants, manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003. The need for a people's car, its concept and its functional objectives were formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network. Lead engineer Ferdinand Porsche and his team took until 1938 to finalise the design; the influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V570, the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute. The result was the first Volkswagen, one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,529,464 produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform made. Although designed in the 1930s, due to World War II, civilian Beetles only began to be produced in significant numbers by the end of the 1940s.
The car was internally designated the Volkswagen Type 1, marketed as the Volkswagen. Models were designated Volkswagen 1200, 1300, 1500, 1302, or 1303, the former three indicating engine displacement, the latter two derived from the model number; the car became known in its home country as the Käfer and was marketed under that name in Germany, as the Volkswagen in other countries. For example, in France it was known as the Coccinelle; the original 25 hp Beetle was designed for a top speed around 100 km/h, which would be a viable cruising speed on the Reichsautobahn system. As Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years, its output was boosted to 36 40 hp, the configuration that lasted through 1966 and became the "classic" Volkswagen motor; the Beetle gave rise to multiple variants: the 1950 Type 2'Bus', the 1955 Karmann Ghia, as well as the 1961 Type 3'Ponton' and the 1968 Type 4 family cars forming the basis of an rear-engined VW product range. The Beetle thus marked a significant trend, led by Volkswagen, by Fiat and Renault, whereby the rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout increased from 2.6 percent of continental Western Europe's car production in 1946 to 26.6 percent in 1956.
In 1959 General Motors launched an air-cooled, rear-engined car, the Chevrolet Corvair — which shared the Beetle's flat engine and swing axle architecture. Over time, front-wheel drive, hatchback-bodied cars would come to dominate the European small-car market. In 1974, Volkswagen's own front-wheel drive Golf hatchback succeeded the Beetle. In 1994, Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Beetle, in 1998 introduced the "New Beetle", built on the contemporary Golf platform with styling recalling the original Type 1, it remained in production through 2010, was succeeded in 2011 by the Beetle, more reminiscent of the original Beetle. In the 1999 Car of the Century competition, to determine the world's most influential car in the 20th century, the Type 1 came fourth, after the Ford Model T, the Mini, the Citroën DS; the originating concept behind the first Volkswagen, the company, its name, is the notion of a people’s car – a car affordable and practical enough for common people to own.
Hence the name, "people's car" in German, pronounced ). Although the Volkswagen was the brainchild of Ferdinand Porsche and Adolf Hitler, the idea is much older than Nazism, existed since mass-production of cars was introduced. Contrary to the United States, where the Ford Model T had become the first car to motorize the masses, contributing to household car ownership of about 33% in 1920 and some 46% in 1930, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still limited to luxury models, few Germans could afford anything more than a motorcycle: one German out of 50 owned a car. In April 1934, Hitler gave the order to Porsche to develop a Volkswagen; the epithet Volks- "people's-" had been applied to other Nazi-sponsored consumer goods as well, such as the Volksempfänger. In May 1934, at a meeting at Berlin's Kaiserhof Hotel, Chancellor Hitler insisted on a basic vehicle that could transport two adults and three children at 100 km/h while not using more than 7 litres of fuel per 100 km; the engine had to be powerful enough for sustained cruising on Germany's new Autobahnen.
Everything had to be designed to ensure parts could be and inexpensively exchanged. The engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage; the "People's Car" would be available to citizens of Germany through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte, at 990 Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle. Ferdinand Porsche developed the Type 12, or "Auto für Jedermann" for Zündapp in 1931. Porsche preferred the flat-four engine, selected a swing axle rear suspension, while Zündapp insisted on a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine. In 1932 three prototypes were r
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
Agrale called AGRISA, is a Brazilian manufacturer of military vehicles, commercial vehicles and agricultural tractors. It is based in Caxias. Established in 1962, the brand's current model line-up consists of pick-up truck. Tractors include both self-developed models, ones based on Zetor designs. Agrale no longer produces scooters. Agrale subsidiary Lintec produces generators, diesel water pumps, rotary cutters and materials handling equipment; the company was called AGRISA, built AGRISA-Bungartz tractors under license of the German-based Bungartz company. Alliances included Deutz-Fahr, when they built some tractors and trucks under the Agrale-Deutz name, with Zetor. AGRALE is now a part of the Francisco Stedile Group, which includes the Lavrale, Fazenda Três Rios, Germani Foods and Yanmar-Agritech Tractors companies. Agrale produced about 5000 buses in 2004 The most traditional segment of activity Agrale is the manufacture of small tractors with power from 14.7 hp, intended for use in the vineyards of the wine region of Rio Grande do Sul, near the company headquarters.
Today the tractors are offered with power ratings up to 140 hp and offers up to 9.2 tonne trucks, diesel stationary and bus chassis, a segment in which it is acting with more emphasis. 400 Series - The first tractors were produced by Agrale models 415, 416 and 420. The 420 model 4100 gave rise to the following series, being produced until the present day with several changes cosmetic. 4000 Series - The 4000 series was composed by the models 4100, 4200 and 4300. The 4100 remains in production with models 4118, 4230, 4240, featuring versions 4X2, 4X4 and industrial, the latter with optional engine Natural Gas. Part of the line, tractors load model derived from 4230.4. 5000 Series 6000 Series - It consists of three models with 4x4 traction: BX6110 - equipped with a turbocharged MWM TD229 EC4, 77 kW 4-cylinder engine BX6150 - equipped with, turbocharged MWM TD229 EC6, 103 kW 6-cylinder engine. BX6180 - equipped with a turbocharged MWM TD229 EC6, 126 kW 6-cylinder engine. Series BX - produced from the 1990s and led to the current 5000 and 6000.
The first trucks were models TX-1100 TX-1200 and TX-1600, equipped with MWM 229.3 of three cylinders, or Agrale M-790 twin-cylinder. The trucks were manufactured in alcohol and gasoline versions, using the four-cylinder engine GM Opal. Agrale produces trucks ranging from 6000 to its PBT 20000 kg, most with the CA13000 6x2. Agrale uses fiberglass cabs, ensuring strength, durability and acoustic insulation, many times that of steel cabs. Current models are: Euro III standard Agrale 6000 Agrale 8500 Agrale 8500 CD Agrale 8500 CE Agrale 8500 CE Agrale 9200 CE Agrale 13000 Agrale 13000 6X2 A Line Agrale A8700 Agrale A10000 Line LX Agrale 8700 LX Agrale 10000 LX Agrale 14000 LX Line S Agrale 8700 S Agrale 10000 S Agrale 8700 TR Agrale 14000 S Agrale 14000 S 6x2 Agrale produces the Marruá 4x4 Utility vehicle in both a Jeeplike versions, a pickup truck, as a chassis cab. Current models include: Military Viatura de Transporte Não Especializada 4x4's meeting Euro III standards Agrale Marruá AM2 VTNE ½ Ton Agrale Marruá AM11/AM11 REC/VTNE/VTL REC Agrale Marruá AM21 - VTNE ¾ Ton Agrale Marruá AM23 - VTNE ¾ Ton Agrale Marruá AM23 CC/CDCC - VTNE ¾ Ton Agrale Marruá AM31 - VTNE 1½ Ton Agrale Marruá AM41 - VTNE 2½ Ton Civil 4x4's meeting Euro V standards Agrale Marruá AM200 G2 - Double Cab Pickup Agrale Marruá AM200 G2 - Single Cab Pickup Agrale Marruá AM300 G2 - Chassis cab Former civil models Agrale Marruá AM50 - civil version of the Agrale Marruá AM2 VTNE Agrale Marruá AM100 - Agrale Marruá AM11/AM11 REC/VTNE/VTL REC based Single Cab Pickup Agrale Marruá AM150 - Agrale Marruá AM11/AM11 REC/VTNE/VTL REC based Double Cab Pickup/Chassis cab Agrale now offers a competent security and comfort, developed a wide range of chassis and Rear Engine Advanced, low-floor or semi-low which ensures greater accessibility for people with reduced mobility.
Agrale 1800 MA 5.5 T MA 7.5 MA 7.9 MA 8.5 MA 8.5 T MA 8.5 super MA 8.7 Euro V MA 9.2 MA 9.2 Euro V MA 9.2 Green E-tronic MA 10.0 MA 10.0 Euro V MA 12.0 MA 12.0 Euro V MA 15.0 MA 15.0 Euro V MA 17.0 Euro V MT LE 12.0 MT 12.0 Euro V LE MT 12.0 SB MT 15.0 Buggy MT LE 15.0 MT 15.0 Euro V LE MT 15.0 SB Through its subsidiary Lintec in Caxias do Sul, Agrale manufactures engines and power equipment, with wide range of power. Lintec sells Ruggerini and Lombardini engines alongside its own Agrale brand, water or air cooled, Lintec water cooled. Agrale assembled International trucks, a brand acquired by NC2 Group brand. Agrale assembles heavy and light Internationals, a partnership that began in 1998 trucks and ended in 2013 with 43,000 units produced, mounted the first truck International 4700 brand. Agrale manufactured over 400,000 motorcycles from 1984 and 1987; the models were: Agrale SXT, SST, Dakar and Elefantre. Agrale motorcycles were based on Cagiva models. In 2007 in Argentina, it is declared an automotive terminal by the National Government and at the same time it acquires an industrial plant on the National Route Nº5 in the Buenos Aires Province city of Mercedes, becoming the first productive pole outside of Caxias do Sul.