Ernest Henry Wilson
Wilson was born in Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire but the family soon moved to Shirley, where they set up a floristry business. He left school early for employment at the nursery of Messrs. In 1897 he began work at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and he accepted a position as Chinese plant collector with the firm of James Veitch & Sons, who were eager above all to retrieve the dove tree, Davidia involucrata. Stick to the one thing you are after, advised Harry Veitch, who had more than a dozen plant hunters on payroll, probably every worthwhile plant in China has now been introduced to Europe. He continued across the U. S. by train, and sailed from San Francisco, Sargent had suggested he head straight to Simao to talk to Augustine Henry, who had seen a unique dove tree twelve years previously. Though the tree had been cut down when Wilson reached it, he rediscovered the specimens noticed by Père David 600 km away in Yichang. On his first return Wilson married Helen Ganderton, of Edgbaston, but within six months Veitch sent him out again, in 1903 Wilson discovered the Regal lily in western Sichuan along the Min River.
He revisited the site in 1908 and collected more bulbs, in 1910 he again returned to the Min valley, but this time his leg was crushed during an avalanche of boulders as he was carried along the trail in his sedan chair. After setting his leg with the tripod of his camera, he was carried back to civilization on a forced march. Thereafter he walked with what he called his lily limp and it was this third shipment of bulbs that successfully introduced the Regal Lily into cultivation in the United States. Many of the species he collected were named by Maxwell T. Masters. In his reminiscence If I were to Make a Garden, Wilson claimed to have introduced 25 species of rose to the West. One of them, Rosa willmottiae was named after Ellen Willmott a famous, important sponsor, early in the 20th century Henry Morris Upcher, owner of Sheringham Park, England obtained Rhododendron seeds of various types from Wilson. Plants from this source which can found at the garden include Rhododendron ambiguum, R. calophytum and R.
decorum, one of his footprints in Japan is Wilsons introduction of the gigantic Yaku sugi stump called Wilson stump in Yakushima to Western readers in 1914. His hypothesis made in 1916, that the Japanese cherry Prunus × yedoensis was a hybrid, was supported by experiments in Japanese national laboratories in 1965. He returned to Asia in 1917-1918, exploring in Korea and Formosa, upon return to the Arnold Arboretum in 1919 he was appointed Associate Director. Three years he set off for an expedition through Australia, New Zealand, India and South America. In 1927 he became Keeper of the Arnold Arboretum and his wife died in Worcester, Massachusetts, on 15 October 1930 in an automobile accident
Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species. Raspberries and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus, most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses, spines and gland-tipped hairs are common in the genus. The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets. Most species are hermaphrodites, Rubus chamaemorus being an exception, the blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word ruber, the scientific study of brambles is known as batology. Examples of the hundreds of species of Rubus include, The British National Collection of Rubus is held by Barry Clark at Houghton and his collection stands at over 200 species and, although not within the scope of the National Collection, he grows many cultivars. The term hybrid berry is used collectively for those fruits in the genus Rubus which have been developed mainly in the USA.
As Rubus species readily interbreed and are apomicts, the parentage of these plants is highly complex, but is generally agreed to include cultivars of blackberries. Polyploidy from the diploid to the tetradecaploid is exhibited, some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. The classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus in turn divided into 12 sections, representative examples are presented, but many more species are not mentioned here. Fossil seeds from the early Miocene of Rubus sp. have been found in the Czech part of the Zittau Basin, list of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus Rubus at the Western Kentucky University
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle spelled Augustin Pyrame de Candolle was a Swiss botanist. René Louiche Desfontaines launched de Candolles botanical career by recommending him at an herbarium, within a couple of years de Candolle had established a new genus, and he went on to document hundreds of plant families and create a new natural plant classification system. Although de Candolles main focus was botany, he contributed to related fields such as phytogeography, paleontology, medical botany. Candolle originated the idea of Natures war, which influenced Charles Darwin, de Candolle recognized that multiple species may develop similar characteristics that did not appear in a common evolutionary ancestor, this was termed analogy. During his work with plants, de Candolle noticed that plant leaf movements follow a cycle in constant light. Though many scientists doubted de Candolles findings, experiments over a century demonstrated that ″the internal biological clock″ indeed exists, Candolles descendants continued his work on plant classification.
Alphonse de Candolle and Casimir Pyrame de Candolle contributed to the Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, Augustin Pyramus de Candolle was born on 4 February 1778 in Geneva, Switzerland, to Augustin de Candolle, a former official, and his wife, Louise Eléonore Brière. His family descended from one of the ancient families of Provence in France, at age seven de Candolle contracted of a severe case of hydrocephalus, which significantly affected his childhood. Candolles initiation to botany happened in 1794 thanks to Pierre Etienne Vaucher in Geneva and he spent four years at the Geneva Academy, studying science and law according to his fathers wishes. In 1798, he moved to Paris after Geneva had been annexed to the French Republic and his botanical career began with the help of René Louiche Desfontaines, who recommended de Candolle for work in the herbarium of Charles Louis LHéritier de Brutelle during the summer of 1798. The position elevated de Candolles reputation and led to valuable instruction from Desfontaines himself, the premise of de Candolles method is that taxa do not fall along a linear scale, they are discrete, not continuous.
In 1804, de Candolle published his Essai sur les propriétés médicales des plantes and was granted a doctor of medicine degree by the faculty of Paris. In 1807 he was appointed professor of botany in the faculty of the University of Montpellier. While in Montpellier, de Candolle published his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, which introduced a new classification system and the word taxonomy. Candolle moved back to Geneva in 1816 and in the year was invited by the government of the Canton of Geneva to fill the newly created chair of natural history. De Candolle spent the rest of his life in an attempt to elaborate and complete his natural system of botanical classification, de Candolle published initial work in his Regni vegetabillis systema naturale, but after two volumes he realized he could not complete the project on such a large scale. Consequently, he began his less extensive Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis in 1824, however, he was able to finish only seven volumes, or two-thirds of the whole.
Even so, he was able to characterize over one hundred families of plants, although de Candolles main focus was botany, throughout his career he dabbled in fields related to botany, such as phytogeography, paleontology, medical botany, and economic botany
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol, appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are extremely tough, fossilised specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, and of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Magnolia shares the characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella. As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls, the flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle. The fruit dehisces along their dorsal sutures, the pollen is monocolpate, and the embryo development is of the Polygonium type.
The name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera of Charles Plumier, english botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most probably the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia. He was at least responsible for the part of Johann Jacob Dilleniuss Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesbys Natural History of Carolina, Florida. These were the first works after Plumiers Genera that used the name Magnolia, Carl Linnaeus, who was familiar with Plumiers Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumiers work. In 1753, he took up Plumiers Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum, there he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. He placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae, he merged grisea with glauca, by the end of the 18th century and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan.
The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at roughly the same time Magnolia kobus was first collected. With the number of increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, which is of importance, especially in the southeastern United States, and M. virginiana. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, classified in Yulania, is the American deciduous M. acuminata, which has recently attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time, because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events, its distribution has become scattered. Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, to create divisions in the family, solely based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task
In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships.
At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy, plant taxonomy is concerned with grouping and classifying plants, botanical nomenclature provides names for the results of this process. The starting point for botanical nomenclature is Linnaeus Species Plantarum of 1753. Botanical nomenclature is governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants, fossil plants are covered by the code of nomenclature. Botanical nomenclature has a history, going back beyond the period when Latin was the scientific language throughout Europe, to Theophrastus, Dioscorides. Many of these works have come down to us in Latin translations, the principal Latin writer on botany was Pliny the Elder. From Mediaeval times, Latin became the scientific language in Europe. Most written plant knowledge was the property of monks, particularly Benedictine, and it would require the invention of the printing press to make such information more widely available.
Leonhart Fuchs, a German physician and botanist is often considered the originator of Latin names for the increasing number of plants known to science. For instance he coined the name Digitalis in his De Historia Stirpium Commentarii Insignes, a key event was Linnaeus’ adoption of binomial names for plant species in his Species Plantarum. In the nineteenth century it became clear that there was a need for rules to govern scientific nomenclature. These were published in more sophisticated editions. For plants, key dates are 1867 and 1906, the most recent is the Melbourne Code, adopted in 2011. Another development was the insight into the delimitation of the concept of plant, gradually more and more groups of organisms are being recognised as being independent of plants. Nevertheless, the names of most of these organisms are governed by the. Some protists that do not fit easily into either plant or animal categories are treated under either or both of the ICN and the ICZN, a separate Code was adopted to govern the nomenclature of Bacteria, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.
Botanical nomenclature is closely linked to plant taxonomy, and botanical nomenclature serves plant taxonomy, Botanical nomenclature is merely the body of rules prescribing which name applies to that taxon and if a new name may be coined. Plant taxonomy is a science, a science that determines what constitutes a particular taxon
It is native to Europe and Asia. The common name eltrot may be applied, but is not specific to this species, umbelliferous plants are so named because of the umbrella-like arrangement of flowers they produce. The North American species Heracleum maximum is sometimes included as a subspecies of H. sphondylium, Heracleum sphondylium reaches on average 50–120 centimetres of height, with a maximum of 2 metres. From large reddish rhizomatous roots rises a striated, hollow stem with bristly hairs, the leaves can reach 50 centimetres of length. They are pinnate and serrated, divided into 3–5 lobed segments and this plant has pinkish or white flowers with 5 petals. They are arranged in umbels of up to 20 cm of diameter with 15 to 30 rays. The peripheral flowers have a radial symmetry, flowering typically occurs between June and October. The terminal umbels are flat-topped and the outermost petals are enlarged, the flowers are pollinated by insects, such as beetles and especially flies. The small fruits are flattened and winged, elliptical to rounded and glabrous, the seed dispersal is by wind.
The characteristic pig-like smell of the flowers gives it its name, H. sphondylium is smaller than the skin-irritating Heracleum mantegazzianum. There is some evidence that the sap from common hogweed can produce burns. Care needs to be used when cutting or trimming it, the small picture-winged fly Euleia heraclei is, as its name suggests, found on hogweed. These plants have a Eurasian distribution, growing all over Europe, in eastern European countries and especially Romania, H. sphondylium is used as an aphrodisiac and to treat gynecological and fertility problems and impotence. It is recommended for epilepsy. However, there are no studies to prove its efficacy at treating any of these problems. The plant is common in places, along roads, in hedges and woods. This species presents a large variability of the characteristics and the occurrence of intermediate forms. In Europe there are eight named subspecies, & G. Martens H. sphondylium subsp
Principle of Priority
Priority is a fundamental principle of modern botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature. Essentially, it is the principle of recognising the first valid application of a name to a plant or animal. There are two aspects to this, The first formal name given to a plant or animal taxon shall be the name that is to be used, called the valid name in zoology. Once a name has been used, no subsequent publication of that name for another taxon shall be valid or validly published, there are formal provisions for making exceptions to this principle. If an archaic or obscure prior name is discovered for a taxon, the current name can be declared a nomen conservandum or conserved name. Similarly, if the current name for a taxon is found to have an archaic or obscure prior homonym, the principle of priority has not always been in place. When Carl Linnaeus laid the foundations of modern nomenclature, he offered no recognition of prior names, the botanists who followed him were just as willing to overturn Linnaeuss names.
The first sign of recognition of priority came in 1813, when A. P. de Candolle laid out some principles of good nomenclatural practice and he favoured retaining prior names, but left wide scope for overturning poor prior names. During the 19th century, the principle gradually came to be accepted by almost all botanists, botanists on one side of the debate argued that priority should be universal and without exception. This would have meant a major disruption as countless names in current usage were overturned in favour of archaic prior names. In 1891, Otto Kuntze, one of the most vocal proponents of this position, did just that and he followed with further such publications in 1893,1898 and 1903. His efforts, were so disruptive that they appear to have benefited his opponents, by the 1900s, the need for a mechanism for the conservation of names was widely accepted, and details of such a mechanism were under discussion. The current system of modified priority was essentially put in place at the Cambridge Congress of 1930, the Principle of Priority is one of the guiding principles of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, defined by Article 23.
There are exceptions, another name may be given precedence by any provision of the Code or by any ruling of the Commission and it is a fundamental guiding precept that preserves the stability of biological nomenclature. It was first formulated in 1842 by an appointed by the British Association to consider the rules of zoological nomenclature. In 1855, John Edward Gray published the name Antilocapra anteflexa for a new species of pronghorn, however, it is now thought that his specimen belonged to an unusual individual of an existing species, Antilocapra americana, with a name published by George Ord in 1815. The older name, by Ord, takes priority, with Antilocapra anteflexa becoming a junior synonym, in 1856, Johann Jakob Kaup published the name Leptocephalus brevirostris for a new species of eel. However, it was realized in 1893 that the described by Kaup was in fact the juvenile form of the European eel
Magnolia virginiana, most commonly known as sweetbay magnolia, or merely sweetbay, is a member of the magnolia family, Magnoliaceae. Magnolia virginiana is an evergreen or deciduous tree to 30 m tall, native to the lowlands, the original native range is thought to be from the eastern Gulf Coast to Long Island, New York. Whether it is deciduous or evergreen depends on climate, it is evergreen in areas with milder winters in the south of its range, the leaves are alternate, with entire margins, 6-12 cm long, and 3-5 cm wide. The bark is smooth and gray, with the inner bark mildly scented, the flowers are creamy white, 8-14 cm diameter, with 6-15 petal-like tepals. The flowers carry a strong vanilla scent that can sometimes be noticed several hundred yards away. The fruit is an aggregate of follicles, 3-5 cm long, pinkish-red when mature. Magnolia virginiana is often grown as a tree in gardens. It is a tree for parks and large gardens, grown for its large, scented flowers, for its clean, attractive foliage.
In warmer areas Magnolia virginiana is valued for its evergreen foliage, the English botanist and missionary John Banister collected Magnolia virginiana in the southeastern United States in 1678 and sent it to England, where it flowered for Bishop Henry Compton. These species include M. globosa, M. grandiflora, M. insignis, M. macrophylla, M. obovata, M. sieboldii, some of these hybrids have been given cultivar names and registered by the Magnolia Society. Flowers contain the neolignans 3, 5′-diallyl-2′, 4-dihydroxybiphenyl,4, 4′-diallyl-2, 3′-dihydroxybiphenyl ether,5, 5′-diallyl-2, 2′-dihydroxybiphenyl and 3, media related to Sweetbay Magnolia at Wikimedia Commons Magnolia virginiana images at bioimages. vanderbilt. edu Interactive Distribution Map of Magnolia virginiana
In biology, a type is a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon, in older usage, a type was a taxon rather than a specimen. Types are of significance to biologists, especially to taxonomists. Types are usually physical specimens that are kept in a museum or herbarium research collection, but failing that, describing species and appointing type specimens is part of scientific nomenclature and alpha taxonomy. If there is more than one named type that all appear to be the same taxon, the oldest name takes precedence, and is considered to be the correct name of the material in hand. If on the hand the taxon appears never to have been named at all, the scientist or another qualified expert picks a type specimen and publishes a new name. This process is crucial to the science of biological taxonomy, peoples ideas of how living things should be grouped change and shift over time.
How do we know that what we call Canis lupus is the thing, or approximately the same thing. Depending on the nomenclature applied to the organism in question, a type can be a specimen, a culture. Some codes consider a subordinate taxon to be the type, for example, in the research collection of the Natural History Museum in London, there is a bird specimen numbered 1822.214.171.124. This is a specimen of a kind of commonly known as the spotted harrier. This particular specimen is the holotype for that species, the name Circus assimilis refers, by definition and that species was named and described by Jardine and Selby in 1828, and the holotype was placed in the museum collection so that other scientists might refer to it as necessary. Note that at least for type specimens there is no requirement for an individual to be used. The usage of the type is somewhat complicated by slightly different uses in botany. In the PhyloCode, type-based definitions are replaced by phylogenetic definitions, in some older taxonomic works the word type has sometimes been used differently.
… Après avoir étudié ces diverses formes, jen arrivai à les considérer comme appartenant à un seul et même type spécifique, This single character permits distinguish this type from all other species of the section. After studying the diverse forms, I came to them as belonging to the one. In botanical nomenclature, a type, is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached, in botany a type is either a specimen or an illustration