SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Autopsy

An autopsy is a surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.. Autopsies are performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist. In most cases, a medical examiner or coroner can determine cause of death and only a small portion of deaths require an autopsy. Autopsies are performed for either medical purposes. Autopsies can be performed when any of the following information is desired: Determine if death was natural or unnatural Injury source and extent on the corpse Manner of death must be determined Time since death Establish identity of deceased Retain relevant organs If infant, determine live birth and viabilityFor example, a forensic autopsy is carried out when the cause of death may be a criminal matter, while a clinical or academic autopsy is performed to find the medical cause of death and is used in cases of unknown or uncertain death, or for research purposes.

Autopsies can be further classified into cases where external examination suffices, those where the body is dissected and internal examination is conducted. Permission from next of kin may be required for internal autopsy in some cases. Once an internal autopsy is complete the body is reconstituted by sewing it back together; the term "autopsy" derives from the Ancient Greek αὐτοψία autopsia, "to see for oneself", derived from αὐτός and ὄψις. The word “autopsy” has been used since around the 17th century, it refers to the examination of inside the dead human body to discover diseases and cause of death; the principal aims of an autopsy is to determine the cause of death, mode of death, manner of death the state of health of the person before he or she died, whether any medical diagnosis and treatment before death was appropriate. In most Western countries the number of autopsies performed in hospitals has been decreasing every year since 1955. Critics, including pathologist and former JAMA editor George D. Lundberg, have charged that the reduction in autopsies is negatively affecting the care delivered in hospitals, because when mistakes result in death, they are not investigated and lessons therefore remain unlearned.

When a person has given permission in advance of their death, autopsies may be carried out for the purposes of teaching or medical research. An autopsy is performed in cases of sudden death, where a doctor is not able to write a death certificate, or when death is believed to result from an unnatural cause; these examinations are performed under a legal authority and do not require the consent of relatives of the deceased. The most extreme example is the examination of murder victims when medical examiners are looking for signs of death or the murder method, such as bullet wounds and exit points, signs of strangulation, or traces of poison; some religions including Judaism and Islam discourage the performing of autopsies on their adherents. Organizations such as ZAKA in Israel and Misaskim in the United States guide families how to ensure that an unnecessary autopsy is not made. Autopsies are used in clinical medicine to identify medical error, or a unnoticed condition that may endanger the living, such as infectious diseases or exposure to hazardous materials.

A study that focused on myocardial infarction as a cause of death found significant errors of omission and commission, i.e. a sizable number of cases ascribed to myocardial infarctions were not MIs and a significant number of non-MIs were MIs. A systematic review of studies of the autopsy calculated that in about 25% of autopsies a major diagnostic error will be revealed. However, this rate has decreased over time and the study projects that in a contemporary US institution, 8.4% to 24.4% of autopsies will detect major diagnostic errors. A large meta-analysis suggested that one-third of death certificates are incorrect and that half of the autopsies performed produced findings that were not suspected before the person died, it is thought that over one fifth of unexpected findings can only be diagnosed histologically, i.e. by biopsy or autopsy, that one quarter of unexpected findings, or 5% of all findings, are major and can only be diagnosed from tissue. One study found that "Autopsies revealed 171 missed diagnoses, including 21 cancers, 12 strokes, 11 myocardial infarctions, 10 pulmonary emboli, 9 endocarditis, among others".

Focusing on intubated patients, one study found "abdominal pathologic conditions — abscesses, bowel perforations, or infarction — were as frequent as pulmonary emboli as a cause of class I errors. While patients with abdominal pathologic conditions complained of abdominal pain, results of examination of the abdomen were considered unremarkable in most patients, the symptom was not pursued". There are four main types of autopsies: Medico-Legal Autopsy or Forensic or coroner's autopsies seek to find the cause and manner of death and to identify the decedent, they are performed, as prescribed by applicable law, in cases of violent, suspicious or sudden deaths, deaths without medical assistance or during surgical procedures. Clinical or Pathological autopsies are performed to diagnose a particular disease or for research purposes, they aim to determine, clarify, or confirm medical diagnoses that remained unknown or unclear prior to the patient's death. Anatomical or academic autopsies ar

Egidio Bullesi

Egidio Bullesi - Egidije Bulešić in Croatian and in religious Ludovico - was an Italian Roman Catholic and professed member from the Secular Franciscan Order. Bullesi lived as a refugee during World War I, he became a naval officer after following that became a draftsman in Pula. He was noted among his colleagues for his enthusiasm in addition to his pious nature, he entered Catholic Action and the Secular Franciscans in 1920 while working for the Vincentian communities in his region. The beatification process for Bullesi launched in the 1970s in Trieste and he became titled as a Servant of God; the confirmation of his life of heroic virtue in 1997 allowed for Pope John Paul II to name him as Venerable. Egidio Bullesi was born in Pula on 24 August 1905 as the third of nine children to the poor Francesco Bullesi and Maria Diritti, his father worked in Pula as a naval technical designer. Two of his siblings were Giovanni; the outbreak of World War I in 1914 caused his hometown to be declared a war zone thus resulting in most of the population in the area being deemed refugees due to their internment in Rovinj and in Graz in 1915.

The Bullesi's moved to Szeghedin and Wagna during this period. He was forced to remain with his mother and siblings in relative quiet during this dangerous period while his father was separated from them continuing his work in Pula, he did his schooling from place to place during this period but made the effort to attend evening classes for further education due to disruptions in his studies. He managed to settle in Rovigo for some time. Bullesi became an apprentice at the docks after he turned thirteen in Pula at the war's end in 1919 after the Bullesi's were able to return to Pula, he joined Catholic Action on 2 July 1920 in addition to joining the Secular Franciscan Order that 4 October - the feast of Saint Francis of Assisi. Upon entering the order he took the religious name Ludovico; the preaching of the Franciscan priest Tito Castagna inspired him so much so that he entered the order soon after. In 1921 he attended the National Congress in Rome for the fiftieth commemoration of the Catholic Youth.

Bullesi served in the Italian naval forces after he was drafted into it in February 1925 and after he was discharged on 15 March 1927 became a draftsman in the docks at Monfalcone. During his conscription he worked alongside Guido Foghin, indifferent to faith and was no longer practicing his faith, but his time with Bullesi changed his views on faith so much so that he became a Franciscan priest upon Bullesi's death and served in the Chinese and Guatemalan mission as Father Egidio-Maria. He taught catechism at his local parish and was known to collaborate from time to time with the Vincentian communities in the area, he suffered from bronchitis that evolved into tuberculosis prompting him to be admitted into hospital in Pula on 29 August 1928. In hospital he ministered to those in need despite his condition weakening over time, he died from tuberculosis in the morning on 25 April 1929. His remains were relocated in 1974 to the island of Barbana near Grado; the beatification process opened on 23 August 1973 - he became titled as a Servant of God - once the Congregation for the Causes of Saints issued the "nihil obstat" decree therefore enabling for the cause to open in the Trieste diocese.

The cognitional process for the investigation opened in Trieste on 6 May 1974 and concluded on 6 December 1977 at which stage the evidence collected was sent to the C. C. S. in Rome who validated the process on 10 October 1990 as having adhered to their rules for conducting sainthood causes. The postulation compiled and sent the Positio dossier to the C. C. S. in Rome for further investigation at which point theologians assented to the cause on 12 November 1996 as did the C. C. S. on 6 May 1997. Pope John Paul II named Bullesi as Venerable on 7 July 1997 after confirming that he had practiced heroic virtue during his life; the current postulator for this is the Franciscan priest Giovangiuseppe Califano. Hagiography Circle Saints SQPN

Pikes Peak granite

The Pikes Peak granite is a 1.08 billion year old widespread geologic formation found in the central part of the Front Range of Colorado. It is a coarse-grained pink to light red syenogranite with minor gray monzogranite, it has a distinctive brick-red appearance where it outcrops; the granite gets its name from the 14,115-foot Pikes Peak, made up entirely of this rock. The Pikes Peak granite was emplaced in three major intrusive events in the southern Front Range, now exposed in Colorado's Lost Creek Wilderness, Buffalo Peaks Wilderness, Pikes Peak, it is the geochemically potassic series of plutons compromising most of the Pikes Peak batholith, a batholith formed of two major types of plutons, the potassic Pikes Peak granite and plutons, plus late stage sodic syenite and granite plutons. Both the batholith and the Pikes Peak granite are A-type, meaning granites that originate in anorogenic, or non mountain building, tectonic settings, with an alkaline geochemistry and arising from more anhydrous magmas.

Over the next billion years, the now cooled granite was exposed through erosion of overlying rocks. About 60 million years ago, parts of the Western U. S. were subjected to a series of uplifts, known as the Laramide orogeny, that formed the modern Rocky Mountains and raised Pikes Peak to its current height. Pikes Peak, like other portions of Colorado Rockies is still being uplifted today as a part of larger tectonic processes affecting the Western United States. Today, the Pikes Peak Batholith and Granite is exposed over a large part of the central Front Range of Colorado, it is found as far north as the southern slopes of Mount Evans west of Denver, west to South Park, as far south as Cañon City. The batholith is about 80 miles long in the north-south direction and about 25 miles wide east to west. More of it remains hidden underground. Geologists have found the granite at the bottom of deep wells on the plains and magnetic sensors have detected it as much as 80 miles to the east; the granite ranges in color from light pink to red.

The pink color is due to large amounts of microcline feldspar and various iron minerals that permeate the rock. The long cooling time and the chemical composition of the original magma allowed large crystals to precipitate out of the magma; as a result, in many places the granite is coarse grained, made up entirely of large crystals of feldspar about a centimeter across. This makes the granite weathered and crumbly; every hill and slope in the Pikes Peak region is covered with thick blankets of loose gravel made up of marble-sized grains of feldspar. In some places, the cooling process lasted long enough to form pegmatites that contain large, pure crystals of various minerals; the chemistry of the cooling magma produced a complex and unique mineralogy that attracts collectors from around the world and the Pikes Peak region is famous for its spectacular mineral specimens. Smoky quartz crystals and topaz are found in many places in the Pikes Peak granite; the most famous mineral from the area is amazonite, a bluish form of microcline feldspar, rare in other parts of the world.

Many museum collections have stunning specimens of deep blue amazonite crystals studded with jet-black smoky quartz crystals. 1. Granite Tectonics Of Pikes Peak Composite Batholith Colorado Pegmatite Symposium - 1986 R. M. Hutchinson - Colorado School of Mines 2. Colorado Gem Trails and Mineral Guide Richard M. Pearl 3rd rev. ed. 1993 3. A Brief Summary of the Mineral Deposits of the Pikes Peak Batholith, Colorado. Rocks & Minerals Article September 1, 2001