A crate is a large shipping container made of wood used to transport or store large, heavy items. Steel and aluminium crates are used. Specialized crates were designed for specific products, were made to be reusable, such as the "bottle crates" for milk and soft drinks. Crates can be made of wood, metal or other materials; the term crate implies a large and strong container. Most plastic crates are smaller and are more called a case or container. Metal is used because of its weight; when metal is used, a crate is constructed as an open crate and may be termed a cage. Although a crate may be made of any material, for these reasons, the term'crate' used alone implies one constructed of wood. A wooden crate has a self-supporting structure, without sheathing. For a wooden container to be a crate, all six of its sides must be put in place to result in the rated strength of the container. Crates are distinct from wooden boxes; the strength of a wooden box is rated based on the weight it can carry before the top is installed, whereas the strength of a crate is rated with the top in place.
In general conversation, the term crate is sometimes used to denote a wooden box. The first documented reference to a shipping crate in the United States is in a 1930 handbook, Technical Bulletin No. 171 written by C. A. Plaskett for the U. S. Department of Agriculture, his writing implies. Plaskett was known for his extensive testing and defining of various components of transport packaging; the USDA Forest Service revised and expanded it in 1964 as the "Wood Crate Design Manual", Handbook 252. Although the definition of a wooden crate, as compared to a wooden box, is clear, construction of the two results in a container, not a crate or a box. Both wooden crates and wooden boxes are constructed to contain unique items, the design of either a crate or box may use principles from both. In this case, the container will be defined by how the edges and corners of the container are constructed. If the sheathing can be removed, a framed structure will remain standing, the container would be termed a crate.
If removal of the sheathing results in no way of fastening the lumber around the edges of the container, the container would be termed a wooden box. There are many variations of wooden crate designs. By far the most common are'closed','open' and'framed'. A Closed Crate is one, or nearly enclosed with material such as plywood or lumber boards; when lumber is used, gaps are left between the boards to allow for expansion. An Open Crate is one; the sheathing is gapped by at various distances. There is no strict definition of an open crate as compared to a closed crate; when the gap between boards is greater than the distance required for expansion, the crate would be considered an open crate. The gap between boards would not be greater than the width of the sheathing boards; when the gap is larger, the boards are considered'cleats' rather than sheathing thus rendering the crate unsheathed. An unsheathed crate is a frame crate. A Frame Crate is one that only contains a skeletal structure and no material is added for surface or pilferage protection.
An open crate will be constructed of 12 pieces of lumber, each along an outer edge of the content and more lumber placed diagonally to avoid distortion from torque. When any type of crate reaches a certain size, more boards may be added; these boards are called Cleats. A cleat is used to provide support to a panel when that panel has reached a size, may require added support based on the method of transportation. Cleats may be placed anywhere between the edges of a given panel. On crates, cleat placement is determined by the width of the plywood used on plywood sheathed crates. On other crates, cleats are evenly spaced as required to strengthen the panel. Sometimes two cleats are added across the top panel of a crate placed as needed to give the top of the crate added strength where lifting chains or straps may press on the crate while lifting. Cleats may have more specific names based on added benefit they provide; some published standards only use those more descriptive terms and may never refer to these various lumber components as cleats.
For example, lumber placed under the top of a wood container to add support for a large top are called "joists". Lumber is built into the midsection of the top of a wood container to strengthen the top are called "cleats"; when the cleats are enlarged and constructed to support a large top, they may generically be termed "cleats" or more be termed "joists". "Skids" or thick bottom runners, are sometimes specified to allow forklift trucks access for lifting. Transportation methods and storage conditions must always be considered; every step of the transportation chain will result in different stresses from vibration. Differences in pressure and humidity may not only adversely affect the content of the crate, but will have an effect on the holding strength of the fasteners in the crate. In some countries, any wooden crate being designed to ship overseas must be treated to ISPM 15 standards or known as the “bug stamp” to prevent the spread of disease and insects. Although the above definition always stands true, there are many altered or'sub-definitions' used by and in various organizations and documents.
This is the result of the small size of the industry and the fact that a single, finite definition of an item, different every tim
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, riverbeds, snow and other natural terrain. Types of off-roading range in intensity, from leisure drives with unmodified vehicles to competitions with customized vehicles and professional drivers. Off-roaders have been met with criticism for the environmental damage caused by their vehicles. There have been extensive debates over the role of government in regulating the sport, including a Supreme Court case brought against the Bureau of Land Management. Travelling on off-road terrains require vehicles capable of accommodating off-road driving such as ATVs; these vehicles accommodate off-road conditions with extended ground clearance, off-road tires and drive-train. Some manufacturers offer vehicles meant for off-road use; some examples of recreational off-roading include the following: Dune bashing is a form of off-roading on sand dunes. A Large sport utility vehicle such as the Toyota Land Cruiser is an example of vehicle used.
Vehicles driven on dunes may be equipped with a roll cage in case of an overturn. Before entering the desert in an everyday-use SUV or pickup, it is essential to reduce the tire pressure; this is done to gain more traction by increasing the footprint of the tire and, reducing the ground pressure of the vehicle on the sand as there is a greater surface area. For example, tires with a recommended pressure of 35 psi would be reduced to 12-14 psi. A common modification is to fit beadlock rims, which allow tire pressure to be lowered further, without risking tire and rim separation. Upon entering the desert, it is common to meet with a pack of vehicles and a group leader before proceeding; the group leader leads the pack through the stunts in single file. The main reason for this technique is to prevent vehicles from losing track of direction and getting lost. High speed racing in the open desert includes chases and racing on a rough desert terrain with numerous pots and bumps at the maximum speed.
Drivers use RWD and 4WD trucks with long travel suspension, wide stance on the front and large tires which allows to maintain optimal stability at the high speed. This type of trucks is called Prerunner. Rock Racing is similar to rock crawling in the fact that the vehicles are driven over rocks, the difference is that there are no penalties for hitting cones, backing up or winching as is done in rock crawling. Rock racing involves a degree of high-speed racing not seen in typical rock crawling. Unlike stationary dune bashing that tends to revolve around a single star dune or one obstacle, cross-country off-roading is an activity that lasts several days on routes with desert or other terrains. Routes in Africa have obstacles in uninhabited and uncharted terrain; these circuit routes are over 50 km and around 300 km long This is a type of travel undertaken with a 4x4 that goes over tracks and contains some bits of off-roading. Traditionally these trips are going through uninhabited areas. Popular are the deserts in Tunisia and other North African countries, continent crossing trips through Africa, trips through Mongolia or Northern Scandinavia.
Typical modifications to vehicles for this kind of travel are the addition of extra fuel tanks, roof rack tents, elaborate storage systems in the back for food, water/drinking, spare parts and other cargo. Due to the extra weight the suspension is reinforced with stronger springs, shock absorbers etc... Green laning is a leisure pursuit suitable for any four-wheel-drive vehicle those without modifications or additional equipment; the term green lane refers to the fact that the routes are predominantly along unsurfaced tracks, forest tracks, or older roadways that may have fallen into disuse. In the UK they are roads which are not maintained in any way and will include fords. Mudding is off-roading through an area of wet clay; the goal is to drive through as far as possible without becoming stuck. There are many types of tires; some tires are mud-terrain tires and paddle tires. This activity is popular in the United States, although it is illegal on public land due to the environmental impact. Rock crawling is a category of off-roading.
Vehicles used for rock crawling are modified with different tires, suspension components that allow greater axle articulation, changes in the differential gear ratio in order to obtain characteristics suitable for low speed operation for traversing obstacles. It is common for a rock crawler to have a "spotter", an assistant on foot by the vehicle to provide information to the driver about the areas out of sight to the driver. All progress is made at low speed and the emphasis is on skill, rather than finishing first although trialing can be competitive. There are three traditional forms of off-road trailing. RTV trialing is the most common form of trialing; as the name suggests, it is for vehicles. This excludes vehicles that are modified or specially built. RTV-class vehicles can carry a wide range of suspension modifications, as well as off-road tires, recovery winches, raised air intakes etc. Vehicles on RTV trials are usually
An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile, propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy stored in rechargeable batteries. From 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries and deaths from air pollution, the desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Several national and local governments have established tax credits and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of new electric vehicles depending on battery size, their electric range and purchase price; the current maximum tax credit allowed by the US Government is US$7,500 per car. Compared with internal combustion engine cars, electric cars are quieter, have no tailpipe emissions, lower emissions in general. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations, these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas; the two all-time best selling electric cars, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S, have EPA-rated ranges reaching up to 151 mi and 335 mi respectively.
The Leaf is the best-selling highway-capable electric car with more than 400,000 units sold globally by March 2019, followed by the Tesla Model S with 263,500 units sold worldwide by December 2018. As of December 2018, there were about 5.3 million light-duty all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles in use around the world. Despite the rapid growth experienced, the global stock of plug-in electric cars represented just about 1 out of every 250 vehicles on the world's roads by the end of 2018; the plug-in car market is shifting towards electric battery vehicles, as the global ratio between annual sales of battery BEVs and PHEVs went from 56:44 in 2012, to 60:40 in 2015, rose to 69:31 in 2018. Electric cars are a variety of electric vehicle; the term "electric vehicle" refers to any vehicle that uses electric motors for propulsion, while "electric car" refers to highway-capable automobiles powered by electricity. Low-speed electric vehicles, classified as neighborhood electric vehicles in the United States, as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe, are plug-in electric-powered microcars or city cars with limitations in terms of weight and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads and city streets up to a certain posted speed limit, which varies by country.
While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are referred to by a different name. An electric car carrying solar panels to power it is a solar car, an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an on-board battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle. Most the term "electric car" is used to refer to battery electric vehicles, but may refer to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In 1884, over 20 years before the Ford Model T, Thomas Parker built the first practical production electric car in London using his own specially designed high-capacity rechargeable batteries; the Flocken Elektrowagen of 1888 was designed by German inventor Andreas Flocken. Electric cars were among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion in the late 19th century and early 20th century, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time.
The electric vehicle stock peaked at 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the 20th century. In 1897, electric cars found their first commercial use in the US. Based on the design of the Electrobat II, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one brougham were used in New York City as part of a project funded in part by the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the US were Anthony Electric, Columbia, Edison, Milburn, Bailey Electric and others. Unlike gasoline-powered vehicles, the electric ones were less noisy, did not require gear changes. Advances in internal combustion engines in the first decade of the 20th century lessened the relative advantages of the electric car, their much quicker refueling times, cheaper production costs, made them more popular. However, a decisive moment was the introduction in 1912 of the electric starter motor which replaced other laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.
Six electric cars held the land speed record. The last of them was the rocket-shaped La Jamais Contente, driven by Camille Jenatzy, which broke the 100 km/h speed barrier by reaching a top speed of 105.88 km/h on 29 April 1899. In the early 1990s, the California Air Resources Board began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal being a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models, including the Chrysler TEVan, Ford Ranger EV pickup truck, GM EV1, S10 EV pickup, Honda EV Plus hatchback, Nissan Altra EV miniwagon, Toyota RAV4 EV. Both US Electricar and Solectria produced 3-phase AC Geo-bodied electric cars with the support of GM, Delco; these early cars were withdrawn from the U. S. market. California electric automaker Tesla Motors began development in 2004 on what would become the Tesla Roadster, first delivered to customers in 2008; the Roadster was the first highway legal serial production all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, the first production all-electric car to travel more than 320 km per charge.
Tesla global sales passed 250,000 units in September 2017. The Renault–Nissa
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site consisting of buildings and machinery, or more a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops". Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail and water loading and unloading facilities. Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are called plants and may have most of their equipment – tanks, pressure vessels, chemical reactors and piping – outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products; the term mill referred to the milling of grain, which used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, paper manufacturing were powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill, paper mill, etc. Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or pre-modern developments of industry. In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens. An article within the New York Times article dated 13 October 2011 states: "In African Cave, Signs of an Ancient Paint Factory" –... discovered at Blombos Cave, a cave on the south coast of South Africa where 100,000-year-old tools and ingredients were found with which early modern humans mixed an ochre-based paint. Although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states: a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere:... the utilization of machines presupposes social cooperation and the division of labour The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use with operation the same on every occasion of functioning.
The wheel was invented c. 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c. 2000 BC. The Iron Age began 1200–1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production. Archaeology provides a date for the earliest city as 5000 BC as Tell Brak, therefore a date for cooperation and factors of demand, by an increased community size and population to make something like factory level production a conceivable necessity. According to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C. By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, a rate sufficient to meet the needs of 80,000 persons, were in use by the Roman Empire. The Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. By 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins and other goods. Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system; the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, England expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area; the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the developm
The Mittelland Canal known as the Midland Canal, is a major canal in central Germany. It forms an important link in the waterway network of that country, providing the principal east-west inland waterway connection, its significance goes beyond Germany as it links France and the Benelux countries with Poland, the Czech Republic and the Baltic Sea. At 325.7 kilometres in length, the Mittelland Canal is the longest artificial waterway in Germany. The Mittelland Canal branches off the Dortmund-Ems Canal at Hörstel, runs north along the Teutoburg Forest, past Hannover and meets with the Elbe River near Magdeburg. Near Magdeburg it connects to the Elbe-Havel Canal, making a continuous shipping route to Berlin and on to Poland. At Minden the canal crosses the river Weser over two aqueducts, near Magdeburg it crosses the Elbe with an aqueduct. Connections by side canals exist at Ibbenbüren, Osnabrück, Hanover-Linden, Hanover-Misburg and Salzgitter. West of Wolfsburg, the Elbe Lateral Canal branches off, providing a connection to Hamburg, to the Baltic Sea.
Construction of the Mittelland Canal was started in 1906, starting from Bergeshövede on the Dortmund-Ems Canal. The section to Minden on the Weser was opened in February 1915 and was named Ems-Weser-Kanal; the section from Minden to Hanover was finished in the autumn of 1916. The section to Sehnde and the branch canal to Hildesheim were completed in 1928, Peine was reached in 1929, Braunschweig in 1933; the final section to Magdeburg was opened in 1938, thus creating a direct link between Western and Eastern Germany. The branch canal to Salzgitter was opened in 1941; the planned canal bridge over the Elbe, necessary to avoid low water conditions in summer, was not built due to the Second World War. After partitioning of Germany following the Second World War, the Mittelland Canal was split between West Germany and East Germany, with the border to the east of Wolfsburg. To provide access from the western section of the canal to Hamburg and Northern Germany, avoiding both East Germany and the Elbe River's sometimes limited navigability, the Elbe Lateral Canal was opened in 1977.
After the reunification of Germany, the importance of the Mittelland Canal as a link from the west to Berlin and the east was reinforced. The project to bridge the Elbe was therefore restarted, the resulting Magdeburg Water Bridge opened in 2003, providing a direct link to the Elbe-Havel Canal. There are further plans to connect the channel to the Twentekanaal in the Netherlands to shorten the connection towards the Port of Rotterdam. Ibbenbüren Osnabrück Bramsche Lübbecke Minden Garbsen Hannover Sehnde Hildesheim Peine Salzgitter Braunschweig Wolfsburg Haldensleben Magdeburg Minden Aqueduct Magdeburg Water Bridge
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M