International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
4K resolution called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160; the 4K television market share increased as prices fell during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U. S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD. The term "4K" is generic and refers to any resolution with a horizontal pixel count of 4,000. Several different 4K resolutions have been standardized by various organizations. In 2005, Digital Cinema Initiatives, a prominent standards organization in the cinema industry, published the Digital Cinema System Specification; this specification establishes standardized 2K and 4K container formats for digital cinema production, with resolutions of 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 respectively. The resolution of the video content inside follows the SMPTE 428-1 standard, which establishes the following resolutions for a 4K distribution: 4096 × 2160 3996 × 2160 4096 × 1716 2K distributions can have a frame rate of either 24 or 48 FPS, while 4K distributions must have a frame rate of 24 FPS.
Some articles claim that the terms "2K" and "4K" were coined by DCI and refer to the 2K and 4K formats defined in the DCI standard. However, usage of these terms in the cinema industry predates the publication of the DCI standard, they are understood as casual terms for any resolution 2000 or 4000 pixels in width, rather than names for specific resolutions. In 2007, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers published SMPTE ST 2036-1, which defines parameters for two UHDTV systems called UHDTV1 and UHDTV2; the standard defines the following characteristics for these systems: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or 7680 × 4320 Square pixels, for an overall image aspect ratio of 16∶9 A framerate of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 100, 119.88, or 120 Hz with progressive scan RGB, Y′CBCR 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 pixel encoding 10 bpc or 12 bpc color depth Colorimetry characteristics as defined in the standard, including color primaries, quantization parameters, the electro-optical transfer function.
These are the same characteristics standardized in ITU-R BT.2020. UHDTV1 systems are permitted to use BT.709 color primaries up to 60 Hz. In 2012, the International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector published Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 known as the Ultra High Definition Television standard. This standard adopts the same image parameters defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1. Although the UHDTV standard does not define any official names for the formats it defines, ITU uses the terms "4K", "4K UHD", or "4K UHDTV" to refer to the 3840 × 2160 system in public announcements and press releases. In some of ITU's other standards documents, the terms "UHDTV1" and "UHDTV2" are used as shorthand. In October 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association announced their definition of the term Ultra High-Definition for use with marketing consumer display devices. CEA defines an Ultra HD product as a TV, monitor, or projector with the following characteristics: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or larger An aspect ratio of 1.77∶1 or wider Support for color depth of 8 bpc or higher At least one HDMI input capable of supporting 3840 × 2160 at 24, 30, 60 Hz progressive scan, HDCP 2.2 Capable of processing images according to the color space defined in ITU-R BT.709 Capable of upscaling HD content The CEA definition does allow manufacturers to use other terms—such as 4K—alongside the Ultra HD logo.
Since the resolution in CEA's definition is only a minimum requirement, displays with higher resolutions such as 4096 × 2160 or 5120 × 2880 qualify as "Ultra HD" displays, provided they meet the other requirements. Some 4K resolutions, like 3840 × 2160, are casually referred to as 2160p; this name follows from the previous naming convention used by HDTV and SDTV formats, which refer to a format by the number of pixels/lines along the vertical axis rather than the horizontal pixel count. The term "2160p" could be applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most used in reference to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840 × 2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840 × 2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms cannot always be used interchangeably since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide. However, some companies have begun using the term "4K" to describe devices with support for a 2160p resolution if it is not close to 4000 pixels wide.
For example, many "4K" dash cams only support a resolution of 2880 × 2160. Samsung released a 5120 × 2160 TV, but marketed it as a "4K" TV despite its 5K-class resolution. YouTube and the television industry have adopted 3840 × 2160 as their 4K standard; as of 2014, 4K content from major broadcasters remains limited. On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by Canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the first broadcaster to provide a 4K linear channel an
The Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo. It is capable of displaying stereoscopic 3D effects without the use of 3D glasses or additional accessories. Nintendo announced the console in March 2010 and unveiled it at E3 2010 on June 15; the console succeeds the Nintendo DS, featuring backward compatibility with older Nintendo DS video games. Its primary competitor was the PlayStation Vita from Sony; the handheld offers new features such as the StreetPass and SpotPass tag modes, powered by Nintendo Network. It is pre-loaded with various applications including these: an online distribution store called Nintendo eShop, a social networking service called Miiverse; the Nintendo 3DS was released in Japan on February 26, 2011, worldwide beginning in March 2011. Less than six months on July 28, 2011, Nintendo announced a significant price reduction from US$249 to US$169 amid disappointing launch sales; the company offered ten free Nintendo Entertainment System games and ten free Game Boy Advance games from the Nintendo eShop to consumers who bought the system at the original launch price.
This strategy was considered a major success, the console went on to become one of Nintendo's most sold handheld consoles in the first two years of its release. As of September 30, 2018, the Nintendo 3DS family of systems combined have sold 73.53 million units. Several redesigns have been made since. An "entry-level" version of the console, the Nintendo 2DS, with a fixed "slate" form factor and lacking autostereoscopic functionality, was released in Western markets in October 2013; the New Nintendo 3DS features a more powerful CPU, a second analog stick called the C-Stick, additional buttons, an improved camera, other changes, was first released in Japan in October 2014. Nintendo began experimenting with stereoscopic 3D video game technology in the 1980s; the Famicom 3D System, an accessory consisting of liquid crystal shutter glasses, was Nintendo's first product that enabled stereoscopic 3D effects. Although few titles were released, Nintendo helped design one—called Famicom Grand Prix II: 3D Hot Rally—which was co-developed by Nintendo and HAL Laboratory and released in 1988.
The Famicom 3D System was never released outside Japan. Despite the limited success, Nintendo would press ahead with 3D development into the 1990s. Gunpei Yokoi, creator of the Game Boy handheld console and popular Metroid video game, developed a new 3D device for Nintendo called the Virtual Boy, it was a portable table-top system consisting of goggles and a controller that used a spinning disc to achieve full stereoscopic monochrome 3D. Released in 1995, the Virtual Boy sold fewer than a million units, spawning only 22 compatible game titles, was considered to be a commercial failure. Shigeru Miyamoto, known for his work on popular game franchises such as Mario and The Legend of Zelda, commented in a 2011 interview that he felt conflicted about Yokoi's decision to use wire-frame models for 3D and suggested that the product may not have been marketed correctly; the failure of the Virtual Boy left many at Nintendo doubting the viability of 3D gaming. Despite this, Nintendo continued to investigate the incorporation of 3D technology into other products.
The GameCube, released in 2001, is another 3D-capable system. With an LCD attachment, it could display true stereoscopic 3D, though only the launch title Luigi's Mansion was designed to utilize it. Due to the expensive nature of the requisite peripheral technology at the time, the GameCube's 3D functionality was never marketed to the public. Nintendo experimented with a 3D LCD during development of the Game Boy Advance SP, but the idea was shelved after it failed to achieve satisfactory results. Another attempt was made in preparation for a virtual navigation guide to be used on the Nintendo DS at Shigureden, an interactive museum in Japan. Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi encouraged additional 3D research in an effort to use the technology in the exhibition. Although the project fell short, Nintendo was able to collect valuable research on liquid crystal which would aid in the development of the Nintendo 3DS. Speculation on the development of a successor to the Nintendo DS began in late 2009.
At the time, Nintendo controlled as much as 68.3 percent of the handheld gaming market. In October 2009, tech tabloid Bright Side of News reported that Nvidia, a graphics processing unit developer that made headway with its Tegra System-on-Chip processors, had been selected by Nintendo to develop hardware for their next generation portable game console; that month, speaking about the future for Nintendo's portable consoles, company president Satoru Iwata mentioned that while mobile broadband connectivity via subscription "doesn't fit Nintendo customers", he was interested in exploring options like Amazon's Whispernet found on the Amazon Kindle which provides free wireless connectivity to its customers for the sole purpose of browsing and purchasing content from the Kindle Store. Nintendo had expressed interest in motion-sensing capabilities since the development of the original Nintendo DS, an alleged comment by Satoru Iwata from a 2010 interview with Asahi Shimbun implied that the successo
Electronic Gaming Monthly
Electronic Gaming Monthly is a monthly American video game magazine. It offers video game news, coverage of industry events, interviews with gaming figures, editorial content, product reviews; the magazine was founded in 1988 as U. S. National Video Game Team's Electronic Gaming Monthly under Sendai Publications. In 1994, EGM spun off EGM ², which focused on expanded tricks, it became Expert Gamer and the defunct GameNOW. After 83 issues, EGM switched from Sendai Publishing to Ziff Davis publisher; until January 2009, EGM only covered gaming on console software. In 2002, the magazine's subscription increased by more than 25 percent; the magazine was discontinued by Ziff Davis in January 2009, following the sale of 1UP.com to UGO Networks. The magazine's February 2009 issue was completed, but was not published. In May 2009, EGM founder Steve Harris purchased its assets from Ziff Davis; the magazine was relaunched in April 2010 by Harris' new company EGM Media, LLC, widening its coverage to the PC and mobile gaming markets.
Notable contributors to Electronic Gaming Monthly have included Martin Alessi, Ken Williams, "Trickman" Terry Minnich, Andrew "Cyber-Boy" Baran, Danyon Carpenter, Marc Camron, Mark "Candyman" LeFebvre, Todd Rogers, Mike Weigand a.k.a. Major Mike, Al Manuel, Howard Grossman, Arcade Editor Mark "Mo" Hain, Mike "Virus" Vallas, Jason Streetz, Ken Badziak, Scott Augustyn, Chris Johnston, Che Chou, Dave Ruchala, Crispin Boyer, Greg Sewart, Jeanne Trais, Jennifer Tsao, artist Jeremy Norm Scott, Shawn "Shawnimal" Smith, West Coast Editor Kelly Rickards, Kraig Kujawa, Dean Hager, Jeremy Parish, Mark Macdonald. Writers who served stints as editor-in chief include Ed Semrad, Joe Funk, John Davison, James Mielke, artist Jeremy "Norm" Scott, Seanbaby. In addition, writers of EGM's various sister publications – including GameNow, Computer Gaming World/Games for Windows: The Official Magazine, Official U. S. PlayStation Magazine – would contribute to EGM, vice versa; the magazine is known for making April Fools jokes.
Its April 1992 issue was the source of the Sheng Long hoax in Street Fighter II: The World Warrior. The magazine includes the following sections: Insert Coin Letter from the editor - the editorial Login - Letters from readers and replies by the magazine Press Start This section contains a general article about video gaming EGM RoundTable - discussions around video games The Buzz - industry rumors The EGM Hot List - background information about a critically acclaimed game Features - feature articles The EGM Interview - interview with a person from the gaming industry Cover Story - preview of the game featured on the magazine cover Next Wave - previews of upcoming games Launch Point - short previews of upcoming games Review Crew - review section Review Recap - recapitulation of the review scores from the preceding issue Game Over - Commentary articles on video gaming related topics EGM's current review scale is based on a letter grade system in which each game receives a grade based on its perceived quality.
Games are reviewed by one member, except for "the big games", which were reviewed by one of a pool of editors known as "The Review Crew." They each write a few paragraphs about their opinion of the game. The magazine makes a strong stance. Towards the top of the scale, awards are given to games that average a B- or higher from the three individual grade: "Silver" awards for games averaging a grade of B- to B+; the current letter grade system replaced a long-standing 0–10 scale in the April 2008 issue. In that system, Silver went to a game with an average rating from 8 to 9, Gold to a game reviewed at 9 to 10, Platinum to a game that received nothing but 10 ratings; until 1998, as a matter of editorial policy, the reviewers gave scores of 10, never gave a Platinum Award. That policy changed when the reviewers gave Metal Gear Solid four 10 ratings in 1998, with an editorial announcing the shift. In addition, they gave the game with the highest average score for that issue a "Game of the Month" award.
If a "Game of the Month" title receives a port to another console, that version is disqualified from that month's award, such as with Resident Evil 4, which won the award for the Nintendo GameCube version and subsequently received the highest scores for the PlayStation 2 port months and Tony Hawk's Pro Skater 2, which won the Platinum award for two separate versions of the game. In 2002, EGM began giving games; as there is not always such a game in each issue, this award is only given out when a game qualifies. A team of four editors reviewed all the games; this process was dropped in favor of a system that added more reviewers to the staff so that no one person reviewed all the games for the month. Though the scores ranged from 0–10 on the previous numerical scale, the score of zero was never utilized, with exceptions being Mortal Kombat Advance, The Guy Game, Ping Pals. EGM en Español was released in Mexico in November 2002, it is edited by a different staff. Sometimes the content was more focused to
Video game console
A video game console is a computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play. The term "video game console" is used to distinguish a console machine designed for consumers to use for playing video games, in contrast to arcade machines or home computers. An arcade machine consists of a video game computer, game controller and speakers housed in large chassis. A home computer is a personal computer designed for home use for a variety of purposes, such as bookkeeping, accessing the Internet and playing video games. While arcades and computers are expensive or “technical” devices, video game consoles were designed with affordability and accessibility to the general public in mind. Unlike similar consumer electronics such as music players and movie players, which use industry-wide standard formats, video game consoles use proprietary formats which compete with each other for market share. There are various types of video game consoles, including home video game consoles, handheld game consoles and dedicated consoles.
Although Ralph Baer had built working game consoles by 1966, it was nearly a decade before the Pong game made them commonplace in regular people's living rooms. Through evolution over the 1990s and 2000s, game consoles have expanded to offer additional functions such as CD players, DVD players, Blu-ray disc players, web browsers, set-top boxes and more; the first video games appeared in the 1960s. They were played on massive computers connected to vector displays, not analog televisions. Ralph H. Baer conceived the idea of a home video game in 1951. In the late 1960s, while working for Sanders Associates, Baer created a series of video game console designs. One of these designs, which gained the nickname of the 1966 "Brown Box", featured changeable game modes and was demonstrated to several TV manufacturers leading to an agreement between Sanders Associates and Magnavox. In 1972, Magnavox released the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home video game console which could be connected to a TV set. Ralph Baer's initial design had called for a huge row of switches that would allow players to turn on and off certain components of the console to create different games like tennis, volleyball and chase.
Magnavox replaced the switch design with separate cartridges for each game. Although Baer had sketched up ideas for cartridges that could include new components for new games, the carts released by Magnavox all served the same function as the switches and allowed players to choose from the Odyssey's built-in games; the Odyssey sold about 100,000 units, making it moderately successful, it was not until Atari's arcade game Pong popularized video games that the public began to take more notice of the emerging industry. By autumn 1975, bowing to the popularity of Pong, canceled the Odyssey and released a scaled-down version that played only Pong and hockey, the Odyssey 100. A second, "higher end" console, the Odyssey 200, was released with the 100 and added on-screen scoring, up to four players, a third game—Smash. Released with Atari's own home Pong console through Sears, these consoles jump-started the consumer market. All three of the new consoles used simpler designs than the original Odyssey did with no board game pieces or extra cartridges.
In the years that followed, the market saw many companies rushing similar consoles to market. After General Instrument released their inexpensive microchips, each containing a complete console on a single chip, many small developers began releasing consoles that looked different externally, but internally were playing the same games. Most of the consoles from this era were dedicated consoles playing only the games that came with the console; these video game consoles were just called video games because there was little reason to distinguish the two yet. While a few companies like Atari and newcomer Coleco pushed the envelope, the market became flooded with simple, similar video games. Fairchild released the Fairchild Video Entertainment System in 1976. While there had been previous game consoles that used cartridges, either the cartridges had no information and served the same function as flipping switches or the console itself was empty and the cartridge contained all of the game components.
The VES, contained a programmable microprocessor so its cartridges only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. RCA and Atari soon released their own cartridge-based consoles, the RCA Studio II and the Atari 2600, respectively; the first handheld game console with interchangeable cartridges was the Microvision designed by Smith Engineering, distributed and sold by Milton-Bradley in 1979. Crippled by a small, fragile LCD display and a narrow selection of games, it was discontinued two years later; the Epoch Game Pocket Computer was released in Japan in 1984. The Game Pocket Computer featured an LCD screen with 75 X 64 resolution and could produce graphics at about the same level as early Atari 2600 games; the system sold poorly, as a result, only five games were made for it. Nintendo's Game & Watch series of dedicated game systems proved more successful, it helped to establish handheld gaming as popular and lasted until 1991. Many Game & Watch games were re-released on Nintendo's subsequent handheld systems.
The VES continued to be sold at a profit after 1977, both Bally and Magnavox brought their own programmable cartridge-based consoles to the market. However, i
A parallax barrier is a device placed in front of an image source, such as a liquid crystal display, to allow it to show a stereoscopic or multiscopic image without the need for the viewer to wear 3D glasses. Placed in front of the normal LCD, it consists of an opaque layer with a series of spaced slits, allowing each eye to see a different set of pixels, so creating a sense of depth through parallax in an effect similar to what lenticular printing produces for printed products and lenticular lenses for other displays. A disadvantage of the method in its simplest form is that the viewer must be positioned in a well-defined spot to experience the 3D effect. However, recent versions of this technology have addressed this issue by using face-tracking to adjust the relative positions of the pixels and barrier slits according to the location of the user's eyes, allowing the user to experience the 3D from a wide range of positions. Another disadvantage is that the horizontal pixel count viewable by each eye is halved, reducing the overall horizontal resolution of the image.
The principle of the parallax barrier was independently invented by Auguste Berthier, who published an article on stereoscopic pictures including his new idea illustrated with a diagram and pictures with purposely exaggerated dimensions of the interlaced image strips, by Frederic E. Ives, who made and exhibited a functional autostereoscopic image in 1901. About two years Ives began selling specimen images as novelties, the first known commercial use. In the early 2000s, Sharp developed the electronic flat-panel application of this old technology to commercialization selling two laptops with the world's only 3D LCD screens; these displays are no longer available from Sharp but still being manufactured and further developed from other companies like Tridelity and SpatialView. Hitachi has released the first 3D mobile phone for the Japanese market under distribution by KDDI. In 2009, Fujifilm released the Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D W1 digital camera, which features a built-in autostereoscopic LCD measuring 2.8" diagonal.
Nintendo has implemented this technology on its latest portable gaming consoles, the New Nintendo 3DS and the New Nintendo 3DS XL, after first including it on the previous console, the Nintendo 3DS. In addition to films and computer games, the technique has found uses in areas such as molecular modelling and airport security, it is being used for the navigation system in the 2010-model Range Rover, allowing the driver to view GPS directions, while a passenger watches a movie. It is used in the Nintendo 3DS hand-held game console and LG's Optimus 3D and Thrill smartphones, HTC's EVO 3D as well as Sharp's Galapagos smartphone series; the technology is harder to apply for 3D television sets, because of the requirement for a wide range of possible viewing angles. A Toshiba 21-inch 3D display uses parallax barrier technology with 9 pairs of images, to cover a viewing angle of 30 degrees; the slits in the parallax barrier allow the viewer to see only left image pixels from the position of their left eye, right image pixels from the right eye.
When choosing the geometry of the parallax barrier the important parameters that need to be optimised are. The closer the parallax barrier is to the pixels, the wider the angle of separation between the left and right images. For a stereoscopic display the left and right images must hit the left and right eyes, which means the views must be separated by only a few degrees; the pixel- barrier separation d for this case can be derived as follows. From Snell’s law: n sin x = sin y For small angles: sin y ≈ e 2 r and sin x ≈ p 2 d. Therefore: d = r n p e. For a typical auto-stereoscopic display of pixel pitch 65 micrometers, eye separation 63mm, viewing distance 30 cm, refractive index 1.52, the pixel-barrier separation needs to be about 470 micrometers. The pitch of a parallax barrier should ideally be two times the pitch of the pixels, but the optimum design should be less than this; this perturbation to the barrier pitch compensates for the fact that the edges of a display are viewed at a different angle to that of the centre, it enables the left and right images target the eyes appropriately from all positions of the screen.
In a parallax barrier system for a high-resolution display, the performance can be simulated by Fresnel diffraction theory. From these simulations, the following can be deduced. If the slit width is small, light passing the slits is diffracted causing crosstalk; the brightness of the display is reduced. If the slit width is large, light passing the slit does not diffract so much, but the wider slits create crosstalk due to geometric ray paths. Therefore, the design suffers more crosstalk; the brightness of the display is increased. Therefore, the best slit width is given by a trade off between crosstalk and brightness. Note that the parallax barrier may be placed behind the LCD pixels. In this case, light from a slit passes the left image pixel in the left direction, vice versa; this produces the same basic effect as a front parallax barrier. In a parallax barrier system, the left eye sees only half the
New Nintendo 3DS
The New Nintendo 3DS is a handheld game console developed by Nintendo. It is the fourth system in the Nintendo 3DS family of handheld consoles, following the original Nintendo 3DS, the Nintendo 3DS XL, the Nintendo 2DS; the system was released in Japan on October 11, 2014, in Australia and New Zealand on November 21, 2014, on January 6, 2015 in Europe in a special Club Nintendo-exclusive "Ambassador Edition", at retail in Europe on February 13, 2015. Like the original 3DS, the New Nintendo 3DS has a larger variant, the New Nintendo 3DS XL, released in all three regions. In North America, the New Nintendo 3DS XL was released on February 13, 2015, while the standard-sized New Nintendo 3DS was released on September 25, 2015. Improvements upon the previous models include upgraded processors and increased RAM, an analog pointing stick, two additional shoulder triggers, face detection for optimizing the autostereoscopic 3D display, an included 4 GB microSD card and built-in NFC, as well as minor design changes.
The New Nintendo 3DS received positive reviews from critics. In the July 2017 lead-up to the release of the New Nintendo 2DS XL, Nintendo confirmed that production on the standard-sized New Nintendo 3DS in Japan had ended; the XL model remains in production. The New Nintendo 3DS family features various changes from prior models; the systems feature a refined design, featuring colored face buttons resembling the Super Famicom's and PAL version Super Nintendo Entertainment System's color scheme. The New Nintendo 3DS's screen is 1.2 times the size of the original Nintendo 3DS, while the screen of the XL variant is the same size as its predecessor. Some models are produced with an IPS screen for the upper display, but some still retain the old TN screen for upper display. There is no known correlation between production date and display type. Nintendo has not publicly addressed the discrepancies in production. A new feature known as "Super Stable 3D" improves the quality of the systems' autostereoscopic 3D effects by using a sensor to detect the angle that the player is viewing the screen at, adjusting the effects to compensate.
The sensor is used as an ambient light sensor for automatic brightness adjustment. Both systems' bodies are larger than their previous iterations, with the XL variant weighing less than the previous 3DS XL; the system's game card slot, stylus holder, power button were re-located to the base. The hardware wireless switch was replaced by a software toggle; the standard New Nintendo 3DS features interchangeable back plates. The XL variant does not allow use of these plates, instead having a couple of fixed metallic designs; the internal specifications of the device have been updated, including additional processor cores, an increase to 256 MB of RAM, near field communication support for use with Amiibo products. Controls on the new systems were expanded with the inclusion of a pointing stick on the right hand side of the device, referred to as the "C-Stick", additional ZL and ZR shoulder buttons, allowing for functionality equivalent to the Circle Pad Pro add-on peripheral released for previous models.
These additional buttons are backwards-compatible with games programmed for use with Circle Pad Pro. Unlike previous models, which used standard SD cards, the New Nintendo 3DS line uses Micro-SD cards for data storage, which are stored alongside the battery behind the device's rear cover, which needs some screws to be removed in order to access the Micro-SD card slot. Data can be transferred to and from the SD card wirelessly using any system with SMB client access, like PCs; the new systems continue to use the same AC adapter as other devices in the 3DS family. Aside from minor adjustments to reflect its hardware design differences, the system software of the New Nintendo 3DS is otherwise identical to that of the original 3DS, offering online features such as Nintendo Network for multiplayer and online gaming, Nintendo eShop for downloading and purchasing games, StreetPass and SpotPass; the web browser was updated to include HTML5-based video playback support. On Japanese models, a content filter is active by default which can be disabled with the registration of a credit card, intended to prevent children from visiting mature websites.
As with prior models, the New Nintendo 3DS family remains compatible with all games released for the 3DS and DS. Some 3DS games have improved performance and/or graphics on the new systems due to their upgraded hardware; the C-Stick and ZL/ZR controls are backwards compatible with games that support the Circle Pad Pro add-on. Some games, such as Xenoblade Chronicles 3D, are optimized for the upgraded hardware, exclusive to New Nintendo 3DS with no support for prior models. In March 2016, Nintendo began to release SNES titles on Virtual Console for New 3DS. Like previous models, all 3DS games and downloaded software are region-locked. Due to its difference in size, peripherals designed to fit the shape of the original