Climate of New England
The climate of New England varies across its 500-mile span from northern Maine to southern Connecticut. Extreme southern New England is warmer and sees far less snow, than the northernmost points of northern New England. Maine, New Hampshire, most of Massachusetts have a humid continental climate. In this region, the winters are long and heavy snow is common in winter; the summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short and rainfall is spread through the year. Cities like Worcester, Massachusetts; the frost-free growing season ranges from 90 days in far northern Maine and the mountains of New Hampshire and Vermont to 140 days along the Maine coast and in most of western Massachusetts. In central and eastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, northern Connecticut, the same humid continental prevails, though summers are warm to hot, winters are shorter, there is less snowfall, with the general exception of the higher elevations and other cooler locations. Cities like Boston and Providence receive 20 to 50 inches of snow annually.
Summers can be hot and humid, with high temperatures in the lower Connecticut River valley of Massachusetts and northern Connecticut between 90 and 95 °F. Summer thunderstorms are common between August; the frost-free growing season ranges from 140 days in parts of central Massachusetts to near 160 days across interior Connecticut and most Rhode Island. Coastal Rhode Island, southern Connecticut are the broad transition zone from continental climates to the north, to temperate climates to the south. In this region, summers are long hot and humid, tropical air masses are common; the coast of Connecticut from Stamford, through the New Haven area to New London is the mildest area of New England in winter. Winter precipitation is rain as much as snow, or a mix of precipitation types, seasonal snowfall is far less than interior areas. Most cities along the Connecticut coast average only 20 to 28 inches of snow annually, though in some winters there is little snowfall. Winters tend to be sunnier in southern Connecticut and southern Rhode Island compared to northern and central New England.
Tropical cyclones have struck southern Connecticut and coastal Rhode Island several times, including in 1938 and 1954 when several hundred people were killed. The frost-free growing season approaches 200 days along the Connecticut coast. Autumn in New England
Dominion of New England
The Dominion of New England in America was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England and the Mid-Atlantic Colonies. Its political structure represented centralized control similar to the model used by the Spanish monarchy through the Viceroyalty of New Spain; the dominion was unacceptable to most colonists because they resented being stripped of their rights and having their colonial charters revoked. Governor Sir Edmund Andros tried to make legal and structural changes, but most of these were undone and the Dominion was overthrown as soon as word was received that King James II had left the throne in England. One notable change was the introduction of the Church of England into Massachusetts, whose Puritan leaders had refused to allow it any sort of foothold; the Dominion encompassed a large area from the Delaware River in the south to Penobscot Bay in the north, composed of the Province of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut Colony, Province of New York, Province of New Jersey, plus a small portion of Maine.
It was too large for a single governor to manage. Governor Andros was unpopular and was seen as a threat by most political factions. News of the Glorious Revolution in England reached Boston in 1689, the Puritans launched the 1689 Boston revolt against Andros, arresting him and his officers. Leisler's Rebellion in New York deposed the dominion's lieutenant governor Francis Nicholson. After these events, the colonies, assembled into the dominion reverted to their previous forms of government, although some governed formally without a charter. New charters were issued by the new joint rulers William III of England and Queen Mary II. A number of English colonies were established in North America and in the West Indies during the first half of the 17th century, with varying attributes; some originated as commercial ventures, such as the Virginia Colony, while others were founded for religious reasons, such as Plymouth Colony and Massachusetts Bay Colony. The governments of the colonies varied. Virginia became a crown colony, despite its corporate beginning, while Massachusetts and other New England colonies had corporate charters and a great deal of administrative freedom.
Other areas were proprietary colonies, such as Maryland and Carolina and operated by one or a few individuals. Following the English Restoration in 1660, King Charles II sought to streamline the administration of these colonial territories. Charles and his government began a process that brought a number of the colonies under direct crown control. One reason for these actions was the cost of administration of individual colonies, but another significant reason was the regulation of trade. Throughout the 1660s, the English Parliament passed a number of laws to regulate the trade of the colonies, collectively called the Navigation Acts; the American colonists resisted these laws in the New England colonies which had established significant trading networks with other English colonies and with other European countries and their colonies Spain and the Dutch Republic. The Navigation Acts outlawed some existing New England practices, in effect turning merchants into smugglers while increasing the cost of doing business.
Some of the New England colonies presented specific problems for the king, combining those colonies into a single administrative entity was seen as a way to resolve those problems. Plymouth Colony had never been formally chartered, the New Haven Colony had sheltered two of the regicides of Charles I, the king's father; the territory of Maine was disputed by competing grantees and by Massachusetts, New Hampshire was a small established crown colony. Massachusetts had a long history of theocratic rule, in addition to their widespread resistance to the Navigation Acts, they exhibited little tolerance for non-Puritans, including supporters of the Church of England. Charles II sought to change the Massachusetts government, but they resisted all substantive attempts at reform. In 1683, legal proceedings began to vacate the Massachusetts charter; the primary motivation in London was not to attain efficiency in administration, but to guarantee that the purpose of the colonies was to make England richer.
England's desire for colonies that produced agricultural staples worked well for the southern colonies, which produced tobacco and indigo, but not so well for New England due to the geology of the region. Lacking a suitable staple, the New Englanders engaged in trade and became successful competitors to English merchants, they were now starting to develop workshops that threatened to deprive England of its lucrative colonial market for manufactured articles, such as textiles, leather goods, ironware. The plan, was to establish a uniform all-powerful government over the northern colonies so that the people would be diverted away from manufacturing and foreign trade. Following the revocation of the Massachusetts charter, Charles II and the Lords of Trade moved forward with plans to establish a unified administration over at least some of the New England colonies; the specific objectives of the dominion included the regulation of trade, reformation of land title practices to conform more to English methods and practices, coordination on matters of defense, a streamlining of the administration into fewer centers.
The Dominion comprised the territories of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of New Hampshire, the Province of Maine, the Narraganset Country (present-day Wash
Leaf peeping is an informal term in the United States for the activity in which people travel to view and photograph the fall foliage in areas where leaves change colors in autumn in northern New England and the upper Midwest.. An organised excursion for leaf peeping is called a foliage tour. A similar custom in Japan is called momijigari; the term "leaf peeper" is used both with disdain. Hobbyists who get together for leaf peeping refer to their gatherings as leaf peepshows."Leaf peeping" is considered an autumn activity throughout the United States and Canada. The term "leaf peeping" has been used in numerous television shows, including "And It's Surely To Their Credit," an episode of The West Wing which aired on November 1, 2000 and "Live Free or Die," an episode of "The Sopranos" which aired on April 16, 2006. In "Lethal Weapons", an episode of Family Guy, obnoxious New York tourists visiting Rhode Island to see fall leaves are pejoratively referred to as "leafers". Momijigari, from the Japanese momiji, "red leaves" or "maple tree" and kari, "hunting", is the Japanese tradition of going to visit scenic areas where leaves have turned red in the autumn.
It is called kōyō. Kōyō is another pronunciation of the characters for "momiji" which means "fall colors" or "leaves changing colors", it is called kanpūkai in Hokkaidō, which means "getting together to view the leaves". Many Japanese people take part in this, with the cities of Nikkō and Kyoto being famous destinations; the tradition is said to have originated in the Heian era as a cultured pursuit, is the reason why many deciduous trees can be found in the Kyoto area. There is a tradition of going to see areas where grasses change colour, such as on the Oze plain. Hanami This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding Japanese Wikipedia article as of November 28, 2006; the Foliage Network Fall Archives - New England "Momijigari", Japanese events calendar
Blackstone River Greenway
The Blackstone River Greenway is a completed 48-mile paved rail trail defining the course of the East Coast Greenway through the Blackstone Valley from Worcester, Massachusetts to Providence, Rhode Island. As of 2016 11.5 miles of the trail has been completed in Rhode Island, connecting the communities of Woonsocket, Lincoln and Manville. Some 2.5 miles of completed trail in Massachusetts connect Worcester and Millbury, as well as 3.7 miles of trail connecting Uxbridge and Blackstone. The path parallels the right-of-way of the Providence and Worcester Railroad and its predecessor, the Blackstone Canal, running alongside the Blackstone River. In some places, the bike path follows the old canal towpath, with the long-abandoned canal running along one side and the river on the other. Once finished, the greenway will be linked to the East Bay Bike Path, for an additional 14.5 miles of trail to Bristol, Rhode Island. The Blackstone River Greenway is a designated section of the East Coast Greenway, the 3,000-mile trail system connecting cities from Maine to Florida.
In 1985, the Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor was designated by the United States Congress, following the path of the Blackstone River from Providence to Worcester. Rhode IslandIn 1997, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management and Department of Transportation began work on the first Rhode Island segment, from Lincoln to Ashton; this segment was completed in 1998. A second Rhode Island segment was completed from Ashton to Manville. In August 2007, a bridge reconstruction project at Martin Street in Lincoln was completed, ending a three-year bike path closure; the new bridge incorporated a major safety improvement with the path passing underneath Martin Street instead of meeting it at grade. In November 2007, a 2-mile extension from Manville to the Woonsocket Water Treatment Plant was opened. A 1-mile segment from Lonsdale to Valley Falls, which includes more than 500 feet of boardwalk over part of the Lonsdale Marsh, opened in 2008. A segment through the River's Edge Recreational Complex in Woonsocket was completed in 2008, that segment was linked to the previously-completed portions to the south that year.
In 2011, an 8.5 miles segment of on-road bicycle lanes opened connecting the Blackstone River Greenway with the East Bay Bike Path, starting in Providence. In 2013, sharrows were painted through Woonsocket from the Massachusetts border to the River's Edge Recreational Complex. In early Summer 2017, a new 0.6 miles section of path was completed in Providence, stretching from Gano Street to Pitman Street, along the Seekonk River. As of 2017 the bike path is 11 miles long, 10 miles of which make up the longest segment, additional segments are under design to extend the path further through Woonsocket toward the Massachusetts border and through the cities of Providence and Central Falls. Construction of Section 8C from Cold Spring Park to the Massachusetts border was awarded to John Rocchio Corporation with a $2.8 million bid and a July 19, 2019 substantial completion date. MassachusettsIn 1996, a study undertaken by the Massachusetts Highway Department and the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation produced a plan for seven segments of trail linking Worcester with Blackstone and the Rhode Island border.
Blackstone to Millville Millville to Uxbridge Uxbridge to Northbridge Northbridge to Grafton Grafton to Millbury via Sutton Millbury to Worcester Worcester Construction was delayed due to a lack of state funds, a shortfall attributed to the over-budget "Big Dig" highway tunnel project in Boston. In 2005, as part of the Massachusetts Turnpike-Route 146 interchange project, the first 2.5-mile segment, from Worcester to Millbury, was opened to the public. In 2010, an agreement was reached between MassDOT and DCR for DCR to take over the management of the design and environmental permitting of Sections 1 through 5 of the Greenway, including preparation of the Environmental Impact Report. Section 6 was constructed by MassDOT, Section 7 will be designed by the City of Worcester, constructed by MassDOT. In 2013, five bridges in Blackstone that run concurrently with the Southern New England Trunkline Trail were repaired and repainted; these are the two Factory Pond Bridges, the northern Canal Street Bridge, a Blackstone River Bridge, the St. Paul Street Bridge.
By September 2014, these bridges received new ipe wood decks and safety railings. In 2014, new bridges were constructed over Kane Court and Main Street, a tunnel was built under Church Street, all in the town of Blackstone; the entire 3.7-mile path was completed in December 2016. All of the trail between the missing Blackstone River and Rte. 122 bridge in Blackstone and Rte. 146A in Uxbridge is part of both the SNETT and the Blackstone River Greenway. Southern New England Trunkline Trail East Bay Bike Path Washington Secondary Rail Trail Greenways Alliance of Rhode Island Blackstone Bikeway and Visitors Center Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Division of Parks & Recreation Blackstone River Greenway Rails-to-Trails Conservancy Blackstone Trail Map Assabet River Rail Trail, Inc
New England town
The New England town referred to as a town in New England, is the basic unit of local government and local division of state authority in each of the six New England states and without a direct counterpart in most other U. S. states. New England towns overlay the entire area of a state, similar to civil townships in other states where they exist, but they are functioning municipal corporations, possessing powers similar to cities in other states. New Jersey's system of powerful townships, boroughs and cities is the system, most similar to that of New England. New England towns are governed by a town meeting legislative body; the great majority of municipal corporations in New England are based on the town model. S. County government in New England states is weak at best, in some states nonexistent. Connecticut, for example, does Rhode Island. Both of those states retain counties only as geographic subdivisions with no governmental authority, while Massachusetts has abolished eight of fourteen county governments so far.
With few exceptions, counties serve as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Towns are laid out so that nearly all land within the boundaries of a state is allocated to a town or other corporate municipality. All land is incorporated into the bounds of a municipal corporation's territory, except in some sparsely populated areas of the three northern New England states. Towns are municipal corporations, with their powers defined by a combination of municipal corporate charter, state statutes, the state constitution. In most of New England, the laws regarding their authority have been broadly construed. In practice, most New England towns have significant autonomy in managing their own affairs, with nearly all of the powers that cities have in most other U. S. states. New Hampshire and Vermont follow Dillon's Rule, which holds that local governments are creatures of the state. Traditionally, a town's legislative body is the open town meeting, a form of direct democratic rule, with a board of selectmen possessing executive authority.
Only several Swiss cantons with Landsgemeinde remain as democratic as the small New England town meetings. A town always contains a built-up populated place with the same name as the town. Additional built-up places with different names are found within towns, along with a mixture of additional urban and rural territory. There is no territory, not part of a town between each town. In most parts of New England, towns are not laid out on a grid. Vermont is the leading exception to this, much of the interior of Maine was laid out as surveyed townships; the town center contains a town common used today as a small park. All residents live within the boundaries of a municipal corporation. Residents receive most local services at the municipal level, county government tends to provide few or no services. Differences among states do exist in the level of services provided at the municipal and county level, but most functions handled by county-level government in the rest of the United States are handled by town-level government in New England.
In Connecticut, Rhode Island, most of Massachusetts, county government has been abolished, counties serve as dividing lines for the judicial system. In other areas, some counties provide other limited administrative services. In many cases, the house numbers on rural roads in New England reset to zero upon crossing a town line. Residents identify with their town for purposes of civic identity, thinking of the town in its entirety as a single, coherent community. There are some cases where residents identify more with villages or sections of a town than with the town itself in Rhode Island, but this is the exception, not the rule. More than 90% of the municipalities in the six New England states are identified as towns. Other forms of municipalities that exist are based on the town concept, as well—most notably cities. Most New England cities have adopted a city form of government, with a council and a mayor or manager. Municipal entities based on the concept of a compact populated place are uncommon, such as a Vermont village or Connecticut borough.
In areas of New England where such forms do exist, they remain part of the parent town and do not have all of the corporate powers and authority of an independent municipality. Towns date back to the time of the earliest English colonial settlement, which predominated in New England, they pre-date the development of counties in the region. Areas were organized as towns as they were settled, throughout the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. Town boundaries were not laid out on any kind of regular grid, but were drawn to reflect local settlement and transportation patterns affected by natural features. In early colonial times, recognition of towns was informal connected to local church divisions. By 1700, colonial governments had become more involved in the official establishment of new towns. Towns were governed by a town meeting form of government, as many still are today. Towns were the only form of incorporated municipality in New England; the city form of government was not introduced until much later.
Boston, for instance, was a town for the first two centuries of its existence. The entire land areas of Connecticut an
Autumn known as fall in American English and sometimes in Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer to winter, in September or March, when the duration of daylight becomes noticeably shorter and the temperature cools considerably. One of its main features in temperate climates is the shedding of leaves from deciduous trees; some cultures regard the autumnal equinox as "mid-autumn", while others with a longer temperature lag treat it as the start of autumn. Meteorologists use a definition based on Gregorian calendar months, with autumn being September and November in the northern hemisphere, March and May in the southern hemisphere. In North America, autumn traditionally starts on September 21 and ends on December 21, it is considered to end with the winter solstice. Popular culture in the United States associates Labor Day, the first Monday in September, as the end of summer and the start of autumn; as daytime and nighttime temperatures decrease, trees shed their leaves.
In traditional East Asian solar term, autumn starts on or around 8 August and ends on or about 7 November. In Ireland, the autumn months according to the national meteorological service, Met Éireann, are September and November. However, according to the Irish Calendar, based on ancient Gaelic traditions, autumn lasts throughout the months of August and October, or a few days depending on tradition; the names of the months in Manx Gaelic are based on autumn covering August and October. In Argentina and New Zealand, autumn begins on 1 March and ends on 31 May; the word autumn comes from the ancient Etruscan root autu- and has within it connotations of the passing of the year. It was borrowed by the neighbouring Romans, became the Latin word autumnus. After the Roman era, the word continued to be used as the Old French word autompne or autumpne in Middle English, was normalised to the original Latin. In the Medieval period, there are rare examples of its use as early as the 12th century, but by the 16th century, it was in common use.
Before the 16th century, harvest was the term used to refer to the season, as it is common in other West Germanic languages to this day. However, as more people moved from working the land to living in towns, the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, autumn, as well as fall, began to replace it as a reference to the season; the alternative word fall for the season traces its origins to old Germanic languages. The exact derivation is unclear, with the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are derived either from a common root or from each other; the term came to denote the season in 16th-century England, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year". During the 17th century, English emigration to the British colonies in North America was at its peak, the new settlers took the English language with them.
While the term fall became obsolete in Britain, it became the more common term in North America. The name backend, a once common name for the season in Northern England, has today been replaced by the name autumn. Association with the transition from warm to cold weather, its related status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits and grains that ripen at this time. Many cultures feature autumnal harvest festivals the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the autumn Thanksgiving holiday of the United States and Canada, the Jewish Sukkot holiday with its roots as a full-moon harvest festival of "tabernacles". There are the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, many others; the predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather.
This view is presented in English poet John Keats' poem To Autumn, where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of'mellow fruitfulness'. In North America, while most foods are harvested during the autumn, foods associated with the season include pumpkins and apples, which are used to make the seasonal beverage apple cider. Autumn in poetry, has been associated with melancholia; the possibilities and opportunities of summer are gone, the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, the amount of usable daylight drops and many people turn inward, both physically and mentally, it has been referred to as an unhealthy season. Similar examples may be found in Irish poet William Butler Yeats' poem The Wild Swans at Coole where the maturing season that the poet observes symbolically represents his own ageing self. Like the natural world that he observes, he too has reached his prime and now must look forward to the inevitability of old age and death. French p
The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing southward for 406 miles through four states. It rises at the U. S. border with Quebec and discharges at Long Island Sound. Its watershed encompasses five U. S. states and one Canadian province, 11,260 square miles via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. It produces 70 % of Long Island Sound's fresh water; the Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of two million people surrounding Springfield and Hartford, Connecticut. The word "Connecticut" is a French corruption of the Mohegan word quinetucket, which means "beside the long, tidal river"; the word came into English during the early 1600s to name the river, called "The Great River". Prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614, numerous indigenous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley. Information concerning how these tribes lived and interacted stems from English accounts written during the 1630s.
The Pequots dominated a territory in the southernmost region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut northward to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. They warred with and attempted to subjugate neighboring agricultural tribes such as the Western Niantics, while maintaining an uneasy stand-off with their rivals the Mohegans; the Mattabesset tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637, their culture was similar to the Pequots, as they had split off from them and become their rivals some time prior to European exploration of the area. The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts.
The Pocomtuc village of Agawam became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. The Pocomtuc villagers at Agawam helped Puritan explorers settle this site and remained friendly with them for decades, unlike tribes farther north and south along the Connecticut River; the region stretching from Springfield north to the New Hampshire and Vermont state borders fostered many agricultural Pocomtuc and Nipmuc settlements, with its soil enhanced by sedimentary deposits. These villages endured invasions from more aggressive confederated tribes living in New York, such as the Mohawk and Iroquois tribes; the Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The Western Abenaki tribe lived in the Green Mountains region of Vermont but wintered as far south as the Northfield, Massachusetts area.
They merged with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by wars and famines. In 1614, Dutch explorer Adriaen Block became the first European to chart the Connecticut River, sailing as far north as Enfield Rapids, he called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In 1623, Dutch traders constructed a fortified trading post at the site of Hartford, Connecticut called the Fort Huys de Hoop. Four separate Puritan-led groups settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford and Springfield; the first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and founded the village of Matianuck several miles north of the Dutch fort. A group left the Massachusetts Bay Colony from Watertown, seeking a site where they could practice their religion more freely. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford.
In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631; the patent, had been physically lost, the annexation was certainly illegal. The fourth English settlement along the Connecticut River came out of a 1635 scouting party commissioned by William Pynchon to find the most advantageous site for commerce and agriculture, hoping to found a city there, his scouts located the Pocumtuc village of Agawam, where the Bay Path trade route crossed the Connecticut River at two of its major tributaries—the Chicopee River to the east and Westfield River to the west—and just north of Enfield Falls, the river's first unnavigable waterfall. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage.
It was named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed S