Auxiliary sciences of history

Auxiliary sciences of history are scholarly disciplines which help evaluate and use historical sources and are seen as auxiliary for historical research. Many of these areas of study and analysis were developed between the 16th and 19th centuries by antiquaries, would have been regarded as falling under the broad heading of antiquarianism. "History" was at that time regarded as a literary skill. However, with the spread of the principles of empirical source-based history championed by the Göttingen School of History in the late 18th century and by Leopold von Ranke from the mid-19th century onwards, they have been regarded as falling within the skill-set of the trained historian. Auxiliary sciences of history include, but are not limited to: Archaeology, the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture Archaeography, the study of ancient documents Archival science, the study and theory of creating and maintaining archives Chorography, the study of regions and places Chronology, the study of the sequence of past events Cliometrics, the systematic application of economic theory, econometric techniques, other formal or mathematical methods to the study of history Codicology, the study of books as physical objects Diplomatics, the study and textual analysis of historical documents Epigraphy, the study of ancient inscriptions Genealogy, the study of family relationships Heraldry, the study of armorial devices Numismatics, the study of coins Onomastics, the study of proper names Palaeography, the study of old handwriting Phaleristics, the study of military orders and award items Philately, the study of postage stamps Philology, the study of the language of historical sources Prosopography, the investigation of a historical group of individuals through a collective study of their lives Sigillography, the study of seals Toponymy, the study of place-names Vexillology, the study of flags Library of Congress Classification:Class C -- Auxiliary Sciences of History

Hector Gratton

Joseph Thomas Hector Gratton was a Canadian composer, conductor and music educator. As a composer his music is written in an folkloric and popular style which avoids harmonic sophistication, his compositional output includes several orchestral works, chamber works, works for solo piano. He wrote 4 ballets and a considerable amount of music for radio programs. In 1937 his symphonic poem Légende won the Jean Lallemand Prize which led to the work's premiere performance that year by the Montreal Symphony Orchestra under conductor Wilfrid Pelletier; the work was repeated by the orchestra in concerts the following year under conductor Sir Ernest MacMillan. Born in Hull, Gratton studied music theory and composition with Albertine Morin-Labrecque, Oscar O'Brien, Alfred Whitehead, he was a piano student of Alphonse Martin and Alfred La Liberté. From La Liberté he gained a great appreciation for the works and aesthetics of Nikolai Medtner and Alexander Scriabin, two composers which influenced his own compositional style.

During the 1920s, Gratton toured with Charles Marchand performing folk music, harmonized by O'Brien. He notably performed in concerts with Marchand at the CPR Festivals between 1927-1930, he soon after began working for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation during the early years of national radio. He composed and conducted music for Je me souviens, one of the first major Canadian radio series which featured scripts by Félix Leclerc. Notable among his compositions for CBC Radio was the incidental music for Cécile Chabot's 1945 Christmas story L'Imagerie. Gratton died in Montreal in 1970 at the age of 69, he was made an associate of the Canadian Music Centre posthumously. Several of his original manuscripts are part of the collection at the Library and Archives Canada

Frederick Bakewell

Frederick Collier Bakewell was an English physicist who improved on the concept of the facsimile machine introduced by Alexander Bain in 1842 and demonstrated a working laboratory version at the 1851 World's Fair in London. Born in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, he moved to Hampstead, Middlesex where he lived until his death. Bakewell was married to Henrietta Darbyshire with whom he had two sons and Armitage. Bakewell's "image telegraph" had many of the features of modern facsimile machines, replaced the pendulums of Bain's system with synchronized rotating cylinders; the system involved drawing on a piece of metal foil with a special insulating ink. A metal stylus driven by a screw thread traveled across the surface of the cylinder as it turned, tracing out a path over the foil; each time the stylus crossed the insulating ink, the current through the foil to the stylus was interrupted. At the receiver, a similar pendulum-driven stylus marked chemically treated paper with an electric current as the receiving cylinder rotated.

The chief problems with Bakewell's machine were how to keep the two cylinders synchronized and to make sure that the transmitting and receiving styli started at the same point on the cylinder at the same time. Despite these problems, Bakewell's machine was capable of transmitting handwriting and simple line drawings along telegraph wires; the system, never became commercial. In 1861, the system was improved by an Italian priest, Giovanni Caselli, able to use it to send handwritten messages as well as photographs on his pantelegraph, he introduced the first commercial telefax service between Paris and Lyon eleven years before the invention of workable telephones. In addition to his work on facsimile transmission, he held patents for many other innovations. Bakewell wrote texts on physics and natural phenomena. Philosophical conversations – 1833 Electric science. Bakewell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Frederick Bakewell at Internet Archive