Northeast Greenland National Park
Northeast Greenland National Park is the world's largest national park and the 9th largest protected land area. Established in 1974 and expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,000 km2 of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world, it was the first national park to be created in the Kingdom of Denmark and remains Greenland's only national park. The park shares borders laid out as straight lines, with the Sermersooq municipality in the south and with the Avannaata municipality in the west along the 45° West meridian on the ice cap in the west; the large interior of the park is part of the Greenland Ice Sheet, but there are large ice-free areas along the coast and on Peary Land in the north. Besides Peary land, the park includes the King Frederick VIII Land and King Christian X Land geographical areas; the area is subject to larger loss of ice. Created on 22 May 1974 from the northern uninhabited part of the former Ittoqqortoormiit Municipality in Tunu, in 1988 the park was expanded by another 272,000 km2 to its present size, adding the northeastern part of the former county of Avannaa.
In January 1977 it was designated an international biosphere reserve. The park is overseen by the Greenland Department of Nature; the historical research camps on the ice sheet−Eismitte and North Ice−fall within the boundaries of the present-day park. The park has no permanent human population. In 1986, the permanent population of the park was 40, living at Mestersvig, although 400 sites saw occasional summertime use; these 40 were soon left. Since censuses have recorded zero permanent human population. Only 31 people and about 110 dogs were present over winter in North East Greenland, distributed among the following stations: Daneborg headquarters of the Sirius Patrol, the park policing agency Danmarkshavn civilian weather station Station Nord military base Mestersvig military outpost with 1,800 m gravel runway Zackenberg summer-only research station Summit Camp research station on the Greenland Ice SheetDuring summer scientists add to these numbers; the research station ZERO 74°28′11″N 20°34′15″W can cater for over 20 scientists and station personnel.
An estimated 5,000 to 15,000 musk oxen, as well as numerous polar bears and walrus, can be found near the coastal regions of the park. This was claimed to be 40% of the world population of musk ox in 2008. Other mammals include Arctic fox, collared lemming and Arctic hare. Other marine mammals include ringed seal, bearded seal, harp seal and hooded seal as well as narwhal and Beluga whale. Species of birds which breed in the park include great northern diver, barnacle goose, pink-footed goose, common eider, king eider, snowy owl, sanderling and raven. List of national parks Nanok Main park webpage Image gallery UN website on park ZERO - Zackenberg Ecological Research Operations "Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Exploration History of Northeast Greenland
Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. Foxes have a flattened skull, upright triangular ears, a pointed upturned snout, a long bushy tail. Twelve species belong to the monophyletic "true foxes" group of genus Vulpes. Another 25 current or extinct species are always or sometimes called foxes. Foxes live on every continent except Antarctica. By far the most common and widespread species of fox is the red fox with about 47 recognized subspecies; the global distribution of foxes, together with their widespread reputation for cunning, has contributed to their prominence in popular culture and folklore in many societies around the world. The hunting of foxes with packs of hounds, long an established pursuit in Europe in the British Isles, was exported by European settlers to various parts of the New World; the word fox comes from Old English. This in turn derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ-, meaning ’thick-haired. Male foxes are known as dogs, tods or reynards, females as vixens, young as cubs, pups, or kits, though the latter name is not to be confused with a distinct species called kit foxes.
Vixen is one of few words in modern English that retains the Middle English southern dialect "v" pronunciation instead of "f". A group of foxes is referred to leash, or earth. Within the Canidae, the results of DNA analysis shows several phylogenetic divisions: The fox-like canids, which include the kit fox, red fox, Cape fox, Arctic fox, fennec fox; the wolf-like canids, including the dog, gray wolf, red wolf, eastern wolf, golden jackal, Ethiopian wolf, black-backed jackal, side-striped jackal and African wild dog. The South American canids, including hoary fox, crab-eating fox and maned wolf. Various monotypic taxa, including the bat-eared fox, gray fox, raccoon dog. Foxes are smaller than some other members of the family Canidae such as wolves and jackals, while they may be larger than some within the family, such as Raccoon dogs. In the largest species, the red fox, males weigh on average between 4.1 and 8.7 kg, while the smallest species, the fennec fox, weighs just 0.7 to 1.6 kg. Fox-like features include a triangular face, pointed ears, an elongated rostrum, a bushy tail.
Foxes are digitigrade, thus, walk on their toes. Unlike most members of the family Canidae, foxes have retractable claws. Fox vibrissae, or whiskers, are black; the whiskers on the muzzle, mystaciae vibrissae, average 100–110 mm long, while the whiskers everywhere else on the head average to be shorter in length. Whiskers are on the forelimbs and average 40 mm long, pointing downward and backward. Other physical characteristics vary according to adaptive significance. Fox species differ in fur color and density. Coat colors range from pearly white to black and white to black flecked with white or grey on the underside. Fennec foxes, for example, have short fur to aid in keeping the body cool. Arctic foxes, on the other hand, have tiny ears and short limbs as well as thick, insulating fur, which aid in keeping the body warm. Red foxes, by contrast, have a typical auburn pelt, the tail ending with white marking. A fox's coat color and texture may vary due to the change in seasons. To get rid of the dense winter coat, foxes moult once a year around April.
Coat color may change as the individual ages. A fox's dentition, like all other canids, is I 3/3, C 1/1, PM 4/4, M 3/2 = 42. Foxes have pronounced carnassial pairs, characteristic of a carnivore; these pairs consist of the upper premolar and the lower first molar, work together to shear tough material like flesh. Foxes' canines are pronounced characteristic of a carnivore, are excellent in gripping prey. In the wild, the typical lifespan of a fox is one to three years, although individuals may live up to ten years. Unlike many canids, foxes are not always pack animals, they live in small family groups, but some are known to be solitary. Foxes are omnivores; the diet of foxes is made up of invertebrates such as insects, small vertebrates such as reptiles and birds, can include eggs and plants. Many species are generalist predators. Most species of fox consume around 1 kg of food every day. Foxes cache excess food, burying it for consumption under leaves, snow, or soil. Foxes tend to use a pouncing technique where they crouch down to camouflage themselves in the terrain using their hind legs, leap up with great force to land on top of their targeted prey.
Using their pronounced canine te
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium; the majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century settling across the island. Greenland is the world's largest island. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside Antarctica. With a population of about 56,480, it is the least densely populated territory in the world. About a third of the population live in the capital and largest city; the Arctic Umiaq Line ferry acts as a lifeline for western Greenland, connecting the various cities and settlements. Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.
Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having settled Iceland to escape persecution from the King of Norway and his central government. These Norsemen would set sail from Greenland and Iceland, with Leif Erikson becoming the first known European to reach North America nearly 500 years before Columbus reached the Caribbean islands. Inuit peoples arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1262; the Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century when Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline. Soon after their demise, beginning in 1499, the Portuguese explored and claimed the island, naming it Terra do Lavrador. In the early 18th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. To strengthen trading and power, Denmark–Norway affirmed sovereignty over the island; because of Norway's weak status, it lost sovereignty over Greenland in 1814 when the union was dissolved.
Greenland became Danish in 1814, was integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. In 1973, Greenland joined the European Economic Community with Denmark. However, in a referendum in 1982, a majority of the population voted for Greenland to withdraw from the EEC, effected in 1985. Greenland contains the world's largest and most northerly national park, Northeast Greenland National Park. Established in 1974, expanded to its present size in 1988, it protects 972,001 square kilometres of the interior and northeastern coast of Greenland and is bigger than all but twenty-nine countries in the world. Greenland is divided into five municipalities – Sermersooq, Qeqertalik and Avannaata. Greenland does not have an independent seat at the United Nations. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favor of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government. Under the new structure, in effect since 21 June 2009, Greenland can assume responsibility for policing, judicial system, company law and auditing.
It retains control of monetary policy, providing an initial annual subsidy of DKK 3.4 billion, planned to diminish over time. Greenland expects to grow its economy based on increased income from the extraction of natural resources; the capital, held the 2016 Arctic Winter Games. At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world coming from hydropower; the early Norse settlers named the island as Greenland. In the Icelandic sagas, the Norwegian-born Icelander Erik the Red was said to be exiled from Iceland for manslaughter. Along with his extended family and his thralls, he set out in ships to explore an icy land known to lie to the northwest. After finding a habitable area and settling there, he named it Grœnland in the hope that the pleasant name would attract settlers; the Saga of Erik the Red states: "In the summer, Erik left to settle in the country he had found, which he called Greenland, as he said people would be attracted there if it had a favorable name."The name of the country in the indigenous Greenlandic language is Kalaallit Nunaat.
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people. In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today through archaeological finds; the earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC. From around 2500 BC to 800 BC, southern and western Greenland were inhabited by the Saqqaq culture. Most finds of Saqqaq-period archaeological remains have been around Disko Bay, including the site of Saqqaq, after which the culture is named. From 2400 BC to 1300 BC, the Independence I culture existed in northern Greenland, it was a part of the Arctic small tool tradition. Towns, including Deltaterrassern
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals. Seal hunting is practiced in nine countries and one region of Denmark: United States, Namibia, Norway, Finland and Greenland. Most of the world's seal hunting takes place in Greenland; the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans regulates the seal hunt in Canada. It sets quotas, monitors the hunt, studies the seal population, works with the Canadian Sealers' Association to train sealers on new regulations, promotes sealing through its website and spokespeople; the DFO set harvest quotas of over 90,000 seals in 2007. The actual kills in recent years have been less than the quotas: 82,800 in 2007. In 2007, Norway claimed that 29,000 harp seals were killed, Russia claimed that 5,479 seals were killed, Greenland claimed that 90,000 seals were killed in their respective seal hunts. Harp seal populations in the northwest Atlantic declined to 2 million in the late 1960s as a result of Canada's annual kill rates, which averaged to over 291,000 from 1952 to 1970.
Conservationists demanded reduced rates of killing and stronger regulations to avert the extinction of the harp seal. In 1971, the Canadian government responded by instituting a quota system; the system was competitive, with each boat catching as many seals as it could before the hunt closed, which the Department of Fisheries and Oceans did when they knew that year's quota had been reached. Because it was thought that the competitive element might cause sealers to cut corners, new regulations were introduced that limited the catch to 400 seals per day, 2000 per boat total. A 2007 population survey conducted by the DFO estimated the population at 5.5 million. It is illegal in Canada to hunt newborn harp seals and young hooded seals; when the seal pups begin to molt their downy white fur at the age of 12–14 days, they are called "ragged-jacket" and can be commercially hunted. After molting, the seals are called "beaters", named for the way they beat the water with their flippers; the hunt remains controversial, attracting significant media coverage and protests each year.
Images from past hunts have become iconic symbols for conservation, animal welfare, animal rights advocates. In 2009, Russia banned the hunting of harp seals less than one year old; the term seal is used to refer to a diverse group of animals. In science, they are grouped together in the Pinnipeds, which includes the walrus, not popularly thought of as a seal, not considered here; the two main families of seals are the Otariidae, Phocidae. The fur seal yields a valuable fur. Seals have been used for their pelts, their flesh, their fat, used as lamp fuel, cooking oil, a constituent of soap, the liquid base for red ochre paint, for processing materials such as leather and jute. Archeological evidence indicates the Native Americans and First Nations People in Canada have been hunting seals for at least 4,000 years. Traditionally, when an Inuit boy killed his first seal or caribou, a feast was held; the meat was an important source of fat, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and iron, the pelts were prized for their warmth.
The Inuit diet is rich in fish and seal. There were 150,000 circumpolar Inuit in 2005 in Greenland, Alaska and Canada. According to Kirt Ejesiak, former secretary and chief of staff to then-Premier of Nunavut, Paul Okalik and the first Inuk from Nunavut to attend Harvard, for the c. 46,000 Canadian Inuit, the seal was not "just a source of cash through fur sales, but the keystone of their culture. Although Inuit harvest and hunt many species that inhabit the desert tundra and ice platforms, the seal is their mainstay; the Inuktitut vocabulary designates specific objects made from seal bone, sinew and fur used as tools, thread, fuel, clothing and tents. There are words referring to seasons, place names and kinship relationships based on the seal. One region of Canada's north is inhabited by the Netsilingmiut, or "people of the seal." The title of Ejesiak's article acknowledged the pivotal 1991 publication entitled Animal Rights, Human Rights by George Wenzel, a McGill University geographer and anthropologist who worked more than two decades with the Clyde Inuit of Baffin Island.
Wenzel's "scholarly examination" of "the impact of the animal rights movement upon the culture and economy of the Canadian Inuit" was among the first to reveal how animal rights groups, "well-meaning people in the dominant society through misunderstanding and ignorance can inflict destruction" on a vulnerable minority. Inuit seal hunting accounts for the majority of the seal hunt, but just three percent of the hunt in southern Canada. Ringed seals were once the main staple for food, have been used for clothing, fuel for lamps, as delicacy, igloo windows, in harnesses for huskies. Though no longer used to this extent, ringed seals are still an important food and clothing source for the people of Nunavut. Called nayiq by the Central Alaskan Yup'ik people, the ringed seal is
Ivittuut Greenlandic pronunciation:, was a municipality, located on the coast of Arsuk fjord in southern Greenland. With an area of just 100 km², it was the smallest municipality of Greenland, bordering on the former Narsaq municipality in the north and south, on the west by the Labrador Sea, it has been integrated into the new Sermersooq municipality. Due its small size, the land of the municipality is all ice free, as it does not extend inward to the ice sheet of Greenland; the town of Ivittuut is abandoned, the only settlement of the municipality is the naval base Kangilinnguit, to stay. The municipality only existed de jure and was about to be absorbed by Narsaq when the 2009 municipal reform took place. Kangilinnguit is the Danish naval headquarters of Greenland; the base was established to protect the important cryolite mine of Ivittuut. Www.arsukfjorden.gl Local web site with maps and other information
A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls. Trawling is a method of fishing that involves dragging or pulling a trawl through the water behind one or more trawlers. Trawls are fishing nets that are pulled along the bottom of the sea or in midwater at a specified depth. A trawler may operate two or more trawl nets simultaneously. There are many variants of trawling gear, they vary according to local traditions, bottom conditions, how large and powerful the trawling boats are. A trawling boat can be a small open boat with only 30 horsepower or a large factory ship with 10,000 horsepower. Trawl variants include beam trawls, large-opening midwater trawls, large bottom trawls, such as "rock hoppers" that are rigged with heavy rubber wheels that let the net crawl over rocky bottom. During the 17th century, the British developed the Dogger, an early type of sailing trawler operated in the North Sea; the Dogger takes its name from the Dutch word dogger. Doggers were slow but sturdy.
The modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the'largest fishing port in the world' by the mid 19th century. With the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, the Grimsby Dock Company was opened in 1854 as the first modern fishing port; the facilities incorporated many innovations of the time – the dock gates and cranes were operated by hydraulic power, the 300-foot Grimsby Dock Tower was built to provide a head of water with sufficient pressure by William Armstrong. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets. These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet.
They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots. The earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built; this vessel was Pioneer LH854. She was of wooden construction with two masts and carried a gaff rigged main and mizen using booms, a single foresail. Allan argued; however local fishermen saw power trawling as a threat. Allan built a total of ten boats at Leith between 1877 and 1881. Twenty-one boats were completed at Granton, his last vessel being Degrave in 1886. Most of these were sold to foreign owners in France, Belgium and the West Indies; the first steam boats were made of wood, but steel hulls were soon introduced and were divided into watertight compartments. They were well designed for the crew with a large building that contained the wheelhouse and the deckhouse; the boats built in the 20th century only had a mizzen sail, used to help steady the boat when its nets were out. The main function of the mast was now as a crane for lifting the catch ashore.
It had a steam capstan on the foredeck near the mast for hauling nets. These boats had a crew of twelve made up of a skipper, driver and nine deck hands. Steam fishing boats had many advantages, they were about 20 ft longer than the sailing vessels so they could carry more nets and catch more fish. This was important, as the market was growing at the beginning of the 20th century, they could travel faster and further and with greater freedom from weather and tide. Because less time was spent travelling to and from the fishing grounds, more time could be spent fishing; the steam boats gained the highest prices for their fish, as they could return to harbour with their fresh catch. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II.
The first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. In 1947, the company Christian Salvesen, based in Leith, refitted a surplus Algerine-class minesw
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area. Larger ice masses covering more than 50,000 km2 are termed ice sheets. Ice caps are not constrained by topographical features. By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields; the dome of an ice cap is centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice flows away from this high point towards the ice cap's periphery. Ice caps have significant effects on the geomorphology of the area. Plastic moulding and other glacial erosional features become present upon the glacier's retreat. Many lakes, such as the Great Lakes in North America, as well as numerous valleys have been formed by glacial action over hundreds of thousands of years. On Earth, there are about 30 million km3 of total ice mass; the average temperature of an ice mass ranges between −20 °C and −30 °C. The core of an ice cap exhibits a constant temperature that ranges between −15 °C and −20 °C. A high-latitude region covered in ice, though not an ice cap, are called polar ice caps.
Vatnajökull is an example of an ice cap in Iceland