Roscoe Mitchell is an American composer, jazz instrumentalist, and educator, known for being a technically superb – if idiosyncratic – saxophonist. The Penguin Guide to Jazz described him as one of the key figures in avant-garde jazz, critic John Pareles in The New York Times has mentioned that Mitchell qualifies as an iconoclast. In addition to his own work as a bandleader, Mitchell is known for cofounding the Art Ensemble of Chicago, Mitchell grew up in the Chicago, Illinois area where he played saxophone and clarinet at around age twelve. His family was involved in music with many different styles playing in the house when he was a child as well as having a secular music background. His brother, Norman, in particular was the one who introduced Mitchell to jazz, while attending Englewood High School in Chicago, he furthered his study of the clarinet. He studied under the first clarinetist of the Heidelberg Symphony while in Germany, Mitchell studied with Muhal Richard Abrams and played in his band, the Muhal Richard Abrams Experimental Band, starting in 1961.
In 1965, Mitchell was one of the first members of the non-profit organization Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians along with Jodie Christian, Steve McCall, and Phil Cohran. The following year Mitchell, Lester Bowie, Kalaparusha Maurice McIntyre, Lester Lashley, the album was a departure from the more extroverted work of the New York-based free jazz players due in part to the band recording with unorthodox devices such as toys and bicycle horns. From 1967 Mitchell, Favors and, on occasion, Jarman performed as the Roscoe Mitchell Art Ensemble, the Art Ensemble, the group included Phillip Wilson on drums for short span before he joined Paul Butterfields band. The group lived and performed in Europe from 1969 to 1971, to fill the void, Mitchell commented that they evolved into doing percussion ourselves. The band did eventually get a percussionist, Don Moye, who Mitchell had played with before and was living in Europe at that time, for performances, the band often wore brilliant African costumes and painted their faces.
The Art Ensemble of Chicago have been described as becoming possibly the most highly acclaimed jazz band in the 1970s and 1980s, Mitchell and the others returned to the States in 1971. After having been back in Chicago for three years, Mitchell established the Creative Arts Collective in 1974 that had a musical aesthetic to the AACM. The group was based in East Lansing and frequently used the facilities at Michigan State University. Mitchell formed the Sound Ensemble in the early 1970s, an outgrowth of the CAC in his words, that mainly of Mitchell, Hugh Ragin, Jaribu Shahid, Tani Tabbal. Buckner was part of group with Mitchell and Gerald Oshita called Space in the late 1990s. He conceived the Note Factory in 1992 with various old and he lived in the area of Madison and performed with a re-assembled Art Ensemble of Chicago. The band continued on despite the loss, Mitchell has made a point of working with younger musicians in various ensembles and combinations, many of whom were not yet born when the first Art Ensemble recordings were made
Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Georges Seurat. Around this time, the peak of France’s modern era emerged, followers of Neo-Impressionism, in particular, were drawn to modern urban scenes as well as landscapes and seashores. Science-based interpretation of lines and colors influenced Neo-Impressionists characterization of their own contemporary art, the Pointillist and Divisionist techniques are often mentioned in this context, because it was the dominant technique in the beginning of the Neo-impressionist movement. Some argue that Neo-Impressionism became the first true movement in painting. The Neo-Impressionists were able to create a movement very quickly in the 19th century, partially due to its connection to anarchism. The movement and the style were an attempt to drive harmonious vision from modern science, anarchist theory, during the emergence of Neo-Impressionism and his followers strove to refine the impulsive and intuitive artistic mannerisms of Impressionism.
Neo-impressionists used disciplined networks of dots and blocks of color in their desire to instill a sense of organization, in further defining the movement, Seurat incorporated the recent explanation of optic and color perceptions. The development of theory by Michel Eugène Chevreul and others by the late 19th century played a pivotal role in shaping the Neo-Impressionist style. Ogden Rood’s book, Modern Chromatics, with Applications to Art and Industry, acknowledged the different behaviors exhibited by colored light, while the mixture of the former created a white or gray color, that of the latter produced a dark, murky color. As painters, Neo-Impressionists had to deal with colored pigments, so to avoid the dullness, mixing of colors was not necessary. There are a number of alternatives to the term Neo-Impressionism and each has its own nuance and it emphasized the studies of color and light which were central to his artistic style. This term is used today. Divisionism, which is commonly used, is used to describe a mode of Neo-Impressionist painting.
It refers to the method of applying individual strokes of complementary, unlike other designations of this era, the term Neo-Impressionism was not given as a criticism. Instead, it embraces Seurats and his followers ideals in their approach to art, Pointillism merely describes a technique based on divisionism in which dots of color instead of blocks of color are applied. Neo-Impressionism was first presented to the public in 1886 at the Salon des Indépendants, the Indépendants remained their main exhibition space for decades with Signac acting as president of the association. But with the success of Neo-Impressionism, its fame spread quickly, in 1886, Seurat and Signac were invited to exhibit in the 8th and final Impressionist exhibition, with Les XX and La Libre Esthétique in Brussels. In 1892, a group of Neo-Impressionist painters united to show their works in Paris, in the Salons of the Hôtel Brébant,32, the following year they exhibited at 20, rue Laffitte
Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman was an American jazz saxophonist, violinist and composer. He was one of the innovators of the free jazz movement of the 1960s. His Broadway Blues has become a standard and has cited as a key work in the free jazz movement. He was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 1994 and his album Sound Grammar received the 2007 Pulitzer Prize for music. Coleman was born in 1930 in Fort Worth, where he was raised and he attended I. M. Terrell High School, where he participated in band until he was dismissed for improvising during The Washington Post. He began performing R&B and bebop initially on tenor saxophone, and started a band, the Jam Jivers, with some fellow students including Prince Lasha and Charles Moffett. Seeking a way to work his way out of his town, he took a job in 1949 with a Silas Green from New Orleans traveling show and with touring rhythm. After a show in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he was assaulted and he switched to alto saxophone, which remained his primary instrument, first playing it in New Orleans after the Baton Rouge incident.
He joined the band of Pee Wee Crayton and travelled with them to Los Angeles and he worked at various jobs, including as an elevator operator, while continuing to pursue his musical career. From the beginning of his career, Colemans music and playing were in many ways unorthodox and his raw, highly vocalized sound and penchant for playing in the cracks of the scale led many Los Angeles jazz musicians to regard Colemans playing as out-of-tune. He sometimes had difficulty finding like-minded musicians with whom to perform, pianist Paul Bley was an early supporter and musical collaborator. In 1958, Coleman led his first recording session for Contemporary, the session featured trumpeter Don Cherry, drummer Billy Higgins, bassist Don Payne and Walter Norris on piano. 1959 was a productive year for Coleman. His last release on Contemporary was Tomorrow Is the Question, a quartet album, with Shelly Manne on drums, and excluding the piano, which he would not use again until the 1990s. Next Coleman brought double bassist Charlie Haden – one of a handful of his most important collaborators – into a group with Cherry.
He signed a contract with Atlantic Records, who released The Shape of Jazz to Come in 1959. While definitely – if somewhat loosely – blues-based and often quite melodic, some musicians and critics saw Coleman as an iconoclast, including conductor Leonard Bernstein and composer Virgil Thomson regarded him as a genius and an innovator. Jazzwise listed it #3 on their list of the 100 best jazz albums of all time, Colemans quartet received a lengthy – and sometimes controversial – engagement at New York Citys famed Five Spot jazz club
As bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords, extended chords, chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way that expanded their role. The term bebop is derived from nonsense syllables used in scat singing and it appears again in a 1936 recording of Ise a Muggin by Jack Teagarden. A variation, appears in several 1939 recordings, the first, known print appearance occurred in 1939, but the term was little-used subsequently until applied to the music now associated with it in the mid-1940s. Some researchers speculate that it was a used by Charlie Christian because it sounded like something he hummed along with his playing. Another theory is that it derives from the cry of Arriba, used by Latin American bandleaders of the period to encourage their bands. At times, the bebop and rebop were used interchangeably. By 1945, the use of bebop/rebop as nonsense syllables was widespread in R&B music, ability to play sustained, high energy, and creative solos was highly valued for this newer style and the basis of intense competition.
Swing-era jam sessions and cutting contests in Kansas City became legendary, the Kansas City approach to swing was epitomized by the Count Basie Orchestra, which came to national prominence in 1937. One young admirer of the Basie orchestra in Kansas City was an alto saxophone player named Charlie Parker. Young was equally daring with his rhythm and phrasing as with his approach to harmonic structures in his solos and he would frequently repeat simple two or three note figures, with shifting rhythmic accents expressed by volume, articulation, or tone. His phrasing was far removed from the two or four bar phrases that players had used until then. They would often be extended to an odd number of measures and he would take a breath in the middle of a phrase, using the pause, or free space, as a creative device. The overall effect was that his solos were something floating above the rest of the music, Parker played along with the new Basie recordings on a Victrola until he could play Youngs solos note for note.
That understatement of harmonically sophisticated chords would soon be used by young musicians exploring the new language of bebop. That solo showed a sophisticated harmonic exploration of the tune, with implied passing chords, Hawkins would eventually go on to lead the first formal recording of the bebop style in early 1944. As the 1930s turned to the 1940s, Parker went to New York as a player in the Jay McShann Orchestra. Guitarist Charlie Christian, who had arrived in New York with the Benny Goodman Orchestra in 1939 was, like Parker, christians major influence was in the realm of rhythmic phrasing
Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century, the term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s. The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Andre Lhote, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging, Cubism spread rapidly across the globe and in doing so evolved to a greater or lesser extent. In essence, Cubism was the origin of a process that produced diversity. In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art, in other countries Futurism, Dada, Constructivism, De Stijl and Art Deco developed in response to Cubism.
Other common threads between these movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, and the association of mechanization. Cubism began between 1907 and 1911, Pablo Picassos 1907 painting Les Demoiselles dAvignon has often been considered a proto-Cubist work. Georges Braques 1908 Houses at L’Estaque prompted the critic Louis Vauxcelles to refer to bizarreries cubiques, Gertrude Stein referred to landscapes made by Picasso in 1909, such as Reservoir at Horta de Ebro, as the first Cubist paintings. A second phase, Synthetic Cubism, remained vital until around 1919, english art historian Douglas Cooper proposed another scheme, describing three phases of Cubism in his book, The Cubist Epoch. Douglas Coopers restrictive use of terms to distinguish the work of Braque, Gris. Alternative interpretations of Cubism have therefore developed, wider views of Cubism include artists who were associated with the Salle 41 artists, e. g. John Berger identifies the essence of Cubism with the mechanical diagram.
The metaphorical model of Cubism is the diagram, The diagram being a symbolic representation of invisible processes, structures. A diagram need not eschew certain aspects of appearance but these too will be treated as not as imitations or recreations. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Europeans were discovering African, Micronesian, artists such as Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso were intrigued and inspired by the stark power and simplicity of styles of those foreign cultures. Around 1906, Picasso met Matisse through Gertrude Stein, at a time when artists had recently acquired an interest in primitivism, Iberian sculpture, African art and African tribal masks. Picassos paintings of 1907 have been characterized as Protocubism, as seen in Les Demoiselles dAvignon
Impressionism originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. The Impressionists faced harsh opposition from the art community in France. The development of Impressionism in the arts was soon followed by analogous styles in other media that became known as impressionist music. Radicals in their time, early Impressionists violated the rules of academic painting and they constructed their pictures from freely brushed colours that took precedence over lines and contours, following the example of painters such as Eugène Delacroix and J. M. W. Turner. They painted scenes of modern life, and often painted outdoors. Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were painted in a studio. The Impressionists found that they could capture the momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting en plein air, the Impressionists, developed new techniques specific to the style. The public, at first hostile, gradually came to believe that the Impressionists had captured a fresh and original vision, even if the art critics and art establishment disapproved of the new style.
In the middle of the 19th century—a time of change, as Emperor Napoleon III rebuilt Paris, the Académie was the preserver of traditional French painting standards of content and style. Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued, the Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. Paintings in this style were made up of brush strokes carefully blended to hide the artists hand in the work. Colour was restrained and often toned down further by the application of a golden varnish, the Académie had an annual, juried art show, the Salon de Paris, and artists whose work was displayed in the show won prizes, garnered commissions, and enhanced their prestige. The standards of the juries represented the values of the Académie, represented by the works of artists as Jean-Léon Gérôme. In the early 1860s, four young painters—Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and they discovered that they shared an interest in painting landscape and contemporary life rather than historical or mythological scenes.
A favourite meeting place for the artists was the Café Guerbois on Avenue de Clichy in Paris, where the discussions were led by Édouard Manet. They were soon joined by Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne, during the 1860s, the Salon jury routinely rejected about half of the works submitted by Monet and his friends in favour of works by artists faithful to the approved style. In 1863, the Salon jury rejected Manets The Luncheon on the Grass primarily because it depicted a woman with two clothed men at a picnic. While the Salon jury routinely accepted nudes in historical and allegorical paintings, the jurys severely worded rejection of Manets painting appalled his admirers, and the unusually large number of rejected works that year perturbed many French artists
20th-century classical music
This era was without a dominant style and composers have created highly diverse kinds of music. Modernism, post-romanticism, expressionism, later, serialism, musique concrète and electronic music were all developed during this period. Jazz was an important influence on composers in this period. At the turn of the century, music was characteristically late Romantic in style, composers such as Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss and Jean Sibelius were pushing the bounds of Post-Romantic Symphonic writing. At the same time, the Impressionist movement, spearheaded by Claude Debussy, was being developed in France, maurice Ravels music, often labelled as impressionist, explores music in many styles not always related to it. Many composers reacted to the Post-Romantic and Impressionist styles and moved in different directions. From this sprang an unprecedented linguistic plurality of styles, techniques, in Vienna, Arnold Schoenberg developed atonality, out of the expressionism that arose in the early part of the 20th century.
He developed the technique which was developed further by his disciples Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Stravinsky explored twelve-tone technique, too, as did many other composers, even Scott Bradley used the technique in his scores for the Tom, after the First World War, many composers started returning to the past for inspiration and wrote works that draw elements from it. This type of music thus became labelled neoclassicism, igor Stravinsky, Sergei Prokofiev and Paul Hindemith all produced neoclassical works. Italian composers such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo developed musical Futurism and this style often tried to recreate everyday sounds and place them in a Futurist context. The Machine Music of George Antheil and Alexander Mosolov developed out of this, in the 1940s and 50s composers, notably Pierre Schaeffer, started to explore the application of technology to music in musique concrète. The term electroacoustic music was coined to include all forms of music involving magnetic tape, synthesizers, multimedia.
Live electronic music uses live electronic sounds within a performance, Cages Cartridge Music being an early example, spectral music is a further development of electroacoustic music that uses analyses of sound spectra to create music. Cage, Boulez, Milton Babbitt, Luigi Nono, from the early 1950s onwards, Cage introduced elements of chance into his music. Process music explores a particular process which is laid bare in the work. The term experimental music was coined by Cage to describe works that produce unpredictable results, important cultural trends often informed music of this period, modernist, postmodernist or otherwise. Igor Stravinsky and Sergei Prokofiev were particularly drawn to primitivism in their careers, as explored in works such as The Rite of Spring
Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically. By requiring the viewer to combine the colors optically instead of mixing pigments, Divisionists believed they were achieving the maximum luminosity scientifically possible. Georges Seurat founded the style around 1884 as chromoluminarism, drawing from his understanding of the theories of Michel Eugène Chevreul, Ogden Rood and Charles Blanc. Divisionism developed along with style, which is defined specifically by the use of dots of paint. Divisionism, along with the Neo-Impressionism movement as a whole, found its beginnings in Georges Seurats masterpiece, Seurat had received classical training at the École des Beaux-Arts, and, as such, his initial works reflected the Barbizon style. Mixing pigments physically is a process with cyan, magenta. On the other hand, if colored light is mixed together, an additive mixture results, the primary colors are the same. g.
Direct sunlight, As appropriate, yellow-orange colors representing the sun’s action would be interspersed with the colors to emulate the effect of direct sunlight. Shadow, If lighting is indirect, various other colors, such as blues and purples, can be used to simulate the darkness. Reflected light, An object which is adjacent to another in a painting could cast reflected colors onto it, Contrast, To take advantage of Chevreul’s theory of simultaneous contrast, contrasting colors might be placed in close proximity. Seurat’s theories intrigued many of his contemporaries, as other artists seeking a reaction against Impressionism joined the Neo-Impressionist movement, Paul Signac, in particular, became one of the main proponents of divisionist theory, especially after Seurat’s death in 1891. In fact, Signac’s book, D’Eugène Delacroix au Néo-Impressionnisme, published in 1899, coined the term Divisionism and became widely recognized as the manifesto of Neo-Impressionism. Additionally, through Paul Signac’s advocacy of Divisionism, an influence can be seen in some of the works of Vincent van Gogh, Henri Matisse, Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay and Pablo Picasso.
In 1907 Metzinger and Delaunay were singled out by the critic Louis Vauxcelles as Divisionists who used large, mosaic-like cubes to construct small, both artists had develop a new sub-style that had great significance shortly thereafter within the context of their Cubist works. Piet Mondrian, Jan Sluijters, Leo Gestel and Nico van Rijn, in the Netherlands, the Futurists would adapt the style, in part influenced by Gino Severinis Parisian experience, into their dynamic paintings and sculpture. The influence of Seurat and Signac on some Italian painters became evident in the First Triennale in 1891 in Milan, pellizza da Volpedo applied the technique to social subjects, in this he was joined by Morbelli and Longoni. Among Pelliza’s Divisionist works were Speranze deluse and Il sole nascente and it was, however, in the subject of landscapes that divisionism found strong advocates, including Segantini, Previati and Carlo Fornara. Further adherents in painting subjects were Plinio Nomellini, Rubaldo Merello, Giuseppe Cominetti, Angelo Barabino, Camillo Innocenti, Enrico Lionne
Jazz fusion is a musical genre that developed in the late 1960s when musicians combined aspects of jazz harmony and improvisation with styles such as funk, rock and blues, and Latin jazz. During this time many jazz musicians began experimenting with electric instruments and amplified sound for the first time, as well as electronic effects, many of the developments during the late 1960s and early 1970s have since become established elements of jazz fusion musical practice. Fusion arrangements vary in complexity—some employ groove-based vamps fixed to a key, or even a single chord. Others can feature odd or shifting time signatures with elaborate chord progressions, typically, these arrangements, whether simple or complex, will feature extended improvised sections that can vary in length. As with jazz, fusion often employs brass and woodwind instruments such as trumpet and saxophone as melody and soloing instruments, the rhythm section typically consists of electric bass, electric guitar, electric piano/synthesizer and drums.
As with traditional jazz improvisation, fusion instrumentalists generally require a level of technical proficiency. The term jazz-rock is often used as a synonym for jazz fusion as well as for music performed by late 1960s, experimentation continued in the 1990s and 2000s. Fusion albums, even those that are made by the group or artist. Rather than being a musical style, fusion can be viewed as a musical tradition or approach. Afro-Cuban jazz, one the earliest form of Latin jazz, is a fusion of Afro-Cuban clave-based rhythms with jazz harmonies and techniques of improvisation. Afro-Cuban jazz first emerged in the early 1940s with the Cuban musicians Mario Bauza and Frank Grillo Machito in the band Machito and his Afro-Cubans, based in New York City. Early combinations of jazz with Cuban music, such as Dizzys and Pozos Manteca and Charlie Parkers and Machitos Mangó Mangüé, were referred to as Cubop. During its first decades, the Afro-Cuban jazz movement was stronger in the United States than in Cuba itself, allmusic Guide states that until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate.
One of the earliest releases from Pink Floyd, London 66–67 incorporated jazz-influenced improvisation to their psychedelic compositions, these developments made little impact in the United States. Jazz vibraphonist Gary Burton was an innovator in the 1960s, in 1967, Burton worked with electric guitarist Larry Coryell and recorded Duster, which is considered one of the first fusion records. Texas-born guitarist Coryell was a pioneer of jazz in the same era. Trumpeter and composer Miles Davis had a influence on the development of jazz fusion with his 1968 album Miles in the Sky. It is the first of Davis albums to incorporate electric instruments, with Herbie Hancock and Ron Carter playing electric piano and bass guitar, respectively
For the Ornette Coleman album see Free Jazz, A Collective Improvisation. Though the music of jazz composers varied widely, a common feature was dissatisfaction with the limitations of bebop, hard bop. Often described as avant-garde, free jazz has described as an attempt to return jazz to its primitive, often religious, roots. As its name implies, free jazz cannot be defined more than loosely, as many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms, and it was never completely distinct as a genre. Many free jazz musicians, notably Pharoah Sanders and John Coltrane, used harsh overblowing or other techniques to elicit unconventional sounds from their instruments, Free jazz musicians created a progressive musical language which drew on earlier styles of jazz such as Dixieland jazz and African music. Typically this kind of music is played by groups of musicians. The music often swings but without regular meter, and there are frequent accelerandi and ritardandi, Free jazz is strongly associated with the 1950s innovations of Ornette Coleman and Cecil Taylor and the works of saxophonist John Coltrane.
Other important pioneers include Charles Mingus, Eric Dolphy, Albert Ayler, Archie Shepp, Joe Maneri, some of bassist Charles Minguss work was important in establishing free jazz. Although today free jazz is the generally used term, many terms were used to describe the loosely defined movement, including avant-garde, energy music. During its early and mid-1960s heyday, much free jazz was released by established labels such as Prestige, Blue Note, keith Johnson of AllMusic describes a Modern Creative genre, in which musicians may incorporate free playing into structured modes -- or play just about anything. Defining the essence of jazz is complicated, many musicians draw on free jazz concepts and idioms. Many individual musicians reject efforts at classification, regarding them as useless or unduly limiting, earlier jazz styles typically were built on a framework of song forms with a set framework of chord changes. In free jazz, the dependence on a fixed and pre-established form is eliminated, Free jazz, especially during its inception, contains theme of both progressive musical language and gathering inspiration from the past.
The rejection of the bop aesthetic was combined with a fascination with earlier styles of jazz such as Dixieland jazz with its collective improvisation. This includes Ed Blackwells use of the West African talking drum, typically this kind of music is played by small groups of musicians, although some examples use larger numbers. For example, John Coltranes 1965 album Ascension, uses eleven musicians, other forms of jazz use clear regular meters and strongly pulsed rhythms, usually in 4/4 or 3/4. Free jazz normally retains a general pulsation and often swings but without regular meter, despite all of this, it is still very often possible to tap ones foot to a free jazz performance, meter is more freely variable but has not disappeared entirely. Previous jazz forms used harmonic structures, and even when improvisation occurred it was founded on the notes in the chords, Free jazz almost by definition is free of such structures, but by definition it retains much of the language of earlier jazz playing
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin. This was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art, the movement was in favour of art as a practice for social purposes. Constructivism had an effect on modern art movements of the 20th century, influencing major trends such as the Bauhaus. Its influence was pervasive, with effects upon architecture, graphic design, industrial design, film, fashion. The term Construction Art was first used as a term by Kazimir Malevich to describe the work of Alexander Rodchenko in 1917. Constructivism first appears as a term in Naum Gabos Realistic Manifesto of 1920. Aleksei Gan used the word as the title of his book Constructivism, Constructivism was a post-World War I development of Russian Futurism, and particularly of the counter reliefs of Vladimir Tatlin, which had been exhibited in 1915. Constructivism as theory and practice was derived largely from a series of debates at INKhUK in Moscow, the definition would be extended to designs for two-dimensional works such as books or posters, with montage and factography becoming important concepts.
As much as involving itself in designs for industry, the Constructivists worked on public festivals, perhaps the most famous of these was in Vitebsk, where Malevichs UNOVIS Group painted propaganda plaques and buildings. Inspired by Vladimir Mayakovskys declaration the streets our brushes, the squares our palettes, artists, in addition some Constructivists were heavily involved in the ROSTA Windows, a Bolshevik public information campaign of around 1920. Some of the most famous of these were by the poet-painter Vladimir Mayakovsky, the constructivists tried to create works that would make the viewer an active viewer of the artwork. These theories were tested in theatre, particularly with the work of Vsevolod Meyerhold, Meyerhold developed a biomechanical acting style, which was influenced both by the circus and by the scientific management theories of Frederick Winslow Taylor. Meanwhile, the sets by the likes of Vesnin and Stepanova tested Constructivist spatial ideas in a public form. A more populist version of this was developed by Alexander Tairov, with sets by Aleksandra Ekster.
These ideas would influence German directors like Bertolt Brecht and Erwin Piscator, Gabo publicly criticized Tatlins design saying, Either create functional houses and bridges or create pure art, not both. This had already caused a controversy in the Moscow group in 1920 when Gabo. This was opposed to the utilitarian and adaptable version of Constructivism held by Tatlin, the tower was never built, due to a lack of money following the revolution. A Constructivist international was formed, which met with Dadaists and De Stijl artists in Germany in 1922, participants in this short-lived international included Lissitzky, Hans Richter, and László Moholy-Nagy
Muhal Richard Abrams
Muhal Richard Abrams is an American educator, composer, clarinetist and jazz pianist in the free jazz medium. Abrams attended DuSable High School in Chicago, by 1946, he enrolled in music classes at Roosevelt University, but I didnt get too much out of that, because it wasnt what I was hearing in the street. He decided to study independently, Ive always had an ability to study. I used that ability, not even knowing what it was, the books of Joseph Schillinger were very influential in Abrams development. In Abrams words, From there, I acquired a small spinet piano and started to teach myself how to play the instrument and read the notes – or, first of all and it took time and a lot of sweat. But I analyzed it and before long I was playing with the musicians on the scene, I listened to Art Tatum, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell and many others and concentrated on Duke Ellington and Fletcher Henderson for composition. Later I got scores and studied more extensive things that take place in classical composition, Abrams first gigs were playing the blues, R&B, and hard bop circuit in Chicago and working as a sideman with everyone from Dexter Gordon and Max Roach to Ruth Brown and Woody Shaw.
In 1950 he began writing arrangements for the King Fleming Band, after this group folded he kept a low profile until he organized the Experimental Band in 1962, a contrast to his earlier hard bop venture in its use of free jazz concepts. This band, with its lineup, evolved into the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. Rather than playing in night clubs, AACM members often rented out theaters and lofts where they could perform for attentive. The album Levels and Degrees of Light was the landmark first recording under Abrams leadership, Abrams played with saxophonists Eddie Harris and other more bop-oriented musicians during this era. Abrams moved to New York permanently in 1975 where he was involved in the local Loft Jazz scene, in 1983, he established the New York chapter of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians. In the 1970s, Abrams composed for orchestras, string quartets, solo piano, voice. He is an influential artist, having played sides for many musicians early in his career, releasing important recordings as a leader.
2, which was performed by the Kronos Quartet, on November 22,1985 and he has recorded extensively under his own name and as a sideman on others records. Notably regarding the latter he has recorded with Anthony Braxton Duets 1976 on Arista Records, Marion Brown and he has recorded and toured the United States and Europe with his orchestra, quartet, duo and as a solo pianist. His musical affiliations is a whos who of the world, including Roach, Eddie Lockjaw Davis, Art Farmer, Sonny Stitt, The Art Ensemble of Chicago, Harris. In 1990 Abrams won the Jazzpar Prize, an annual Danish prize within jazz, Abrams received a 1997 Foundation for Contemporary Arts Grants to Artists Award