It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
Private browsing, privacy mode or incognito mode is a privacy feature in some web browsers to disable browsing history and the web cache. This allows a person to browse the Web without storing local data that could be retrieved at a date. Privacy mode will disable the storage of data in cookies and Flash cookies; this privacy protection is only within the browser application as it may leave traces on the hard drive and memory of the device, or via websites by associating the IP address at the web server. The earliest reference to private browsing was in May 2005, was used to discuss the privacy features in the Safari browser bundled with Mac OS X Tiger; the feature has since been adopted in other browsers, led to popularization of the term in 2008 by mainstream news outlets and computing websites when discussing beta versions of Internet Explorer 8. However, privacy modes operate as shields because browsers do not remove all data from the cache after the session. Plug-ins, like Silverlight, are able to set cookies.
The common web browser plugin Adobe Flash Player began supporting privacy mode in Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari with the release of version 10.1 in June 2010.. Some browsers allow users to select the privacy mode for single tabs, whereas others create a more isolated environment protected by password and cryptography. Private browsing has multiple uses, including: Reducing history, including autofill and personal information. Performing "pure searches" that are not influenced by prior browsing history or networks or friends' recommendations, which may weight and more rank certain results than others. Preventing accidental saving of login credentials to accounts. Signing into multiple accounts via multiple tabs. Testing websites. Preventing other users of the computer from finding one's search history. Viewing explicit material without outside knowledge; the Mozilla Foundation performed a study about the user behavior when the feature is switched on and how long the session lasts. The results were that most sessions last only about 10 minutes, though there are periods where activation increases.
Private browsing is known by different names in different browsers. In 2012, Brazilian researchers published the results of a research project where they applied forensic techniques to extract information about the users browsing activities on Internet Explorer and Firefox browsers with their private mode enabled, they were able to collect enough data to identify pages visited and partially reconstruct them. This research was extended to include Chrome and Safari browsers; the gathered data proved that browsers' private mode implementations are not able to hide users' browsing activities and that browsers in private mode leave traces of activities in caching structures and files related to the paging process of the operating system. Another independent security analysis, performed by a group of researchers at Newcastle University in 2014, shows a range of security vulnerabilities in the implementation of the private mode across four major browsers; the results are summarized below. Browser extensions are potential threats to the user privacy.
By design, existing browsers choose to enable extensions in the private mode by default. This however allows an installed extension to secretly record the visited websites without the user's awareness. Newer versions of Chrome disable extensions in the private mode by default, but allow the private and the normal modes to run in parallel; this makes it possible for an installed extension in the normal mode to learn the user activities in the private mode by measuring the usage of shared computing resources. Data erasure by the browser alone is found to be insufficient. For example, the records of visited websites during the private session can be retained in memory for a long time after the private session is closed. In addition, the visited website records are kept by the operating system in the local DNS cache. Furthermore, the modified timestamps of certain profile files saved on the disk may reveal if the private mode was turned on and when it was turned on. Software bugs present in some browsers are found to degrade the security of the private mode.
For example, in some earlier versions of Safari, the browser retained private browsing history records if the browser program was not closed or if the user acted to add a bookmark within the private mode. Depending on whether the session is in the private or the normal mode, web browsers exhibit different user interfaces and traffic characteristics; this allows a remote website to tell if the user is in the private mode, for example, by checking the color of the hyperlinks or measuring the time of writing cookies. In 2010, professors at Stanford University found that while Firefox won't record your history during a private browsing session, it still records the sites on which you've installed SSL certificates and allows specific permissions. If you download an SSL certificate from a website or told that site to stop displaying pop-ups and downloading cookies, all of that information is still stored on Firefox. In 2015, researchers from Pennsylvania State University found that a cons
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page and video is identified by a distinct Uniform Resource Locator, enabling browsers to retrieve these resources from a web server and display them on the user's device. A web browser is not the same thing as a search engine, though the two are confused. For a user, a search engine is just a website, such as google.com, that stores searchable data about other websites. But to connect to a website's server and display its web pages, a user needs to have a web browser installed on their device; the most popular browsers are Chrome, Safari, Internet Explorer, Edge. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was invented in 1990 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, he recruited Nicola Pellow to write the Line Mode Browser, which displayed web pages on dumb terminals. 1993 was a landmark year with the release of Mosaic, credited as "the world's first popular browser". Its innovative graphical interface made the World Wide Web system easy to use and thus more accessible to the average person.
This, in turn, sparked the Internet boom of the 1990s when the Web grew at a rapid rate. Marc Andreessen, the leader of the Mosaic team, soon started his own company, which released the Mosaic-influenced Netscape Navigator in 1994. Navigator became the most popular browser. Microsoft debuted Internet Explorer in 1995. Microsoft was able to gain a dominant position for two reasons: it bundled Internet Explorer with its popular Microsoft Windows operating system and did so as freeware with no restrictions on usage; the market share of Internet Explorer peaked at over 95% in 2002. In 1998, desperate to remain competitive, Netscape launched what would become the Mozilla Foundation to create a new browser using the open source software model; this work evolved into Firefox, first released by Mozilla in 2004. Firefox reached a 28% market share in 2011. Apple released its Safari browser in 2003, it remains the dominant browser on Apple platforms. The last major entrant to the browser market was Google, its Chrome browser, which debuted in 2008, has been a huge success.
Once a web page has been retrieved, the browser's rendering engine displays it on the user's device. This includes video formats supported by the browser. Web pages contain hyperlinks to other pages and resources; each link contains a URL, when it is clicked, the browser navigates to the new resource. Thus the process of bringing content to the user begins again. To implement all of this, modern browsers are a combination of numerous software components. Web browsers can be configured with a built-in menu. Depending on the browser, the menu may be named Options, or Preferences; the menu has different types of settings. For example, users can change their home default search engine, they can change default web page colors and fonts. Various network connectivity and privacy settings are usually available. During the course of browsing, cookies received from various websites are stored by the browser; some of them contain login credentials or site preferences. However, others are used for tracking user behavior over long periods of time, so browsers provide settings for removing cookies when exiting the browser.
Finer-grained management of cookies requires a browser extension. The most popular browsers have a number of features in common, they allow users to browse in a private mode. They can be customized with extensions, some of them provide a sync service. Most browsers have these user interface features: Allow the user to open multiple pages at the same time, either in different browser windows or in different tabs of the same window. Back and forward buttons to go back to the previous page forward to the next one. A refresh or reload button to reload the current page. A stop button to cancel loading the page. A home button to return to the user's home page. An address bar to display it. A search bar to input terms into a search engine. There are niche browsers with distinct features. One example is text-only browsers that can benefit people with slow Internet connections or those with visual impairments. Mobile browser List of web browsers Comparison of web browsers Media related to Web browsers at Wikimedia Commons
Opera (web browser)
Opera is a web browser for Microsoft Windows, Android, iOS, macOS, Linux operating systems. Opera Ltd. is publicly listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange, with majority ownership and control belonging to Chinese Businessman Yahui Zhou, creator of Beijing Kunlun Tech which specialises in mobile games and cybersecurity specialist Qihoo 360. Opera is a Chromium-based browser using the Blink layout engine, it differentiates itself because of other features. Opera was conceived at Telenor as a research project in 1994 and was bought by Opera Software in 1995, it had its own proprietary Presto layout engine. The Presto versions of Opera received many awards, but Presto development ended after the big transition to Chromium in 2013. There are three mobile versions called Opera Mobile, Opera Touch and Opera Mini. Opera began in 1994 as a research project at Telenor, the largest Norwegian telecommunications company. In 1995, it branched out into a separate company named Opera Software. Opera was first publicly released in 1996 with version 2.10.
In an attempt to capitalize on the emerging market for Internet-connected handheld devices, a project to port Opera to mobile device platforms was started in 1998. Opera 4.0, released in 2000, included a new cross-platform core that facilitated the creation of editions of Opera for multiple operating systems and platforms. Up to this point, Opera had to be purchased after the trial period ended. Version 5.0 saw the end of this requirement. Instead, Opera became ad-sponsored. Versions of Opera gave the user the choice of seeing banner ads or targeted text advertisements from Google. With version 8.5 the advertisements were removed and the primary financial support for the browser came through revenue from Google. Among the new features introduced in version 9.1 was fraud protection using technology from GeoTrust, a digital certificate provider, PhishTank, an organization that tracks known phishing web sites. This feature was further improved and expanded in version 9.5, when GeoTrust was replaced with Netcraft, malware protection from Haute Secure was added.
Many distinctive Opera features of the previous versions were dropped, Opera Mail was separated into a standalone application derived from Opera 12. In November 2016, the original Norwegian owner of Opera sold his stake in the business to a Chinese consortium under the name Golden Brick Capital Private Equity Fund I Limited Partnership for $600 million. An earlier deal was not approved by regulators. In January 2017, the source code of Opera 12.15 was leaked. To demonstrate how radically different a browser could look, Opera Neon, dubbed a "concept browser", was released in January 2017. PC World compared it to demo models that automakers and hardware vendors release to show their visions of the future. Instead of a Speed Dial, it displays the accessed websites in resemblance to a desktop with computer icons scattered all over it in artistic formation. Opera has originated features adopted by other web browsers, including Speed Dial, pop-up blocking, re-opening closed pages, private browsing, tabbed browsing.
Opera includes a download manager. Opera has "Speed Dial", which allows the user to add an unlimited number of pages shown in thumbnail form in a page displayed when a new tab is opened. Speed Dial allows the user to more navigate to the selected web pages, it is possible to control some aspects of the browser using the keyboard shortcuts. Page zooming allows text and other content such as Adobe Flash Player, Java platform and Scalable Vector Graphics to be increased or decreased in size to help those with impaired vision. Opera Software claims that when the Opera Turbo mode is enabled, the compression servers compress requested web pages by up to 50%, depending upon the content, before sending them to the users; this process reduces the amount of data transferred and is useful for crowded or slow network connections, making web pages load faster or when there are costs dependent on the total amount of data usage. This technique is used in Opera Mini for mobile devices and smartwatches. One security feature is the option to delete private data, such as HTTP cookies, browsing history
Avast Software s.r.o. is a Czech multinational cybersecurity software company headquartered in Prague, Czech Republic that researches and develops computer security software, machine learning and artificial intelligence. Avast has more than 435 million monthly active users and the largest market share among anti-malware application vendors worldwide as of January 2018; the company has 1,700 employees across its 25 offices worldwide. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera in 1988 as a cooperative, it had been a private company since 2010 and had its IPO in May 2018. In July 2016, Avast acquired competitor AVG Technologies for $1.3 billion. At the time, AVG was the third-ranked antivirus product, it is dual-listed on the Prague Stock Exchange and on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Avast was founded by Eduard Kučera and Pavel Baudiš in 1988; the founders met each other at the Research Institute for Mathematical Machines in Czechoslovakia. They studied math and computer science, because the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia would require them to join the communist party to study physics.
At the Institute, Pavel Baudiš discovered the Vienna virus on a floppy disk and developed the first program to remove it. Afterwards, he asked Eduard Kucera to join him in cofounding Avast as a cooperative; the cooperative was called Alwil and only the software was named Avast. The cooperative was changed to a joint partnership in 1991, two years after the velvet revolution caused a regime change in Czechoslovakia; the new regime severed ties with the Soviet Union and reverted the country's economic system to a market economy. In 1995, Avast employee Ondřej Vlček wrote the first antivirus program for the Windows 95 operating system. In the 1990s security researchers at the Virus Bulletin, an IT security testing organization, gave the Avast an award in every category tested, increasing the popularity of the software. However, by the late 1990s, the company was struggling financially. Alwil rebuffed acquisition offers by McAfee, licensing the Avast antivirus engine. By 2001, Alwil was experiencing financial difficulties, when it converted to a freemium model, offering a base Avast software product at no cost.
As a result of the freemium model, the number of users of the software grew to one million by 2004 and 20 million by 2006. Former Symantec executive Vince Steckler was appointed CEO of Avast in 2009. In 2010, Alwil changed its name to Avast, adopting the name of the software, raised $100 million in venture capital investments; the following December, Avast filed for an initial public offering, but withdrew its application the following July, citing changes in market conditions. In 2012, Avast fired its outsourced tech support service iYogi, after it was discovered that iYogi was using misleading sales tactics to persuade customers to buy unnecessary services. By 2013, Avast had been translated into 43 languages. At the time, the company had 350 employees. In 2014, CVC Capital bought an interest in Avast for an undisclosed sum; the purchase valued Avast at $1 billion. That year, Avast acquired mobile app developer Inmite in order to build Avast's mobile apps. Additionally, in 2014 Avast's online support forum was compromised, exposing 400,000 names and email addresses.
By 2015, Avast had the largest share of the market for antivirus software. In July 2016, Avast reached an agreement to buy AVG for $1.3 billion. AVG was a large IT security company that sold software for mobile devices. In July 2017, Avast acquired UK-based Piriform for an undisclosed sum. Piriform was the developer of CCleaner. Shortly afterwards it was disclosed that someone may have created a malicious version of CCleaner with a backdoor for hackers. Avast had its IPO on the London Stock Exchange in May 2018, which valued it at £2.4bn and was one of the UK’s biggest technology listings. Avast develops and markets business and consumer IT security products for servers and mobile devices; the company sells both the acquired AVG-branded products. As of late 2017, the company had merged the AVG and Avast business product lines and were working to integrate the corporate departments from both companies. Additionally, Avast has developed utility software products to improve battery life on mobile devices, cleanup unnecessary files on a hard drive, find secure wireless networks or create a VPN connection to the internet.
Avast and AVG consumer security software are sold on a freemium model, where basic security features are free, but more advanced features require purchasing a premium version. The free version is supported by ads. Additionally, all Avast users provide data about their PC or mobile device to Avast, used to identify new security threats. Antivirus scanning, browser cleanup, a secure browser, password management, network security features are provided for free, while firewall, anti-spam, online banking features have to be purchased. According to PC Pro, the software does not "nag" users about upgrading. About 3% of Avast's users pay for a premium version; the Avast business product family includes features for endpoint protection, Wi-Fi security, identity protection, password management, data protection. For example, the desktop product will look for vulnerabilities in the wi-fi network and run applications suspect of having malicious hardware in an isolated sandbox; the Avast Business Managed Workplace monitors and manages desktops, assesses on-site security protocols.
The company sells management software for IT administrators to deploy and manage Avast installations. PC Magazine gave the Avast free antivirus software an overall score of 8.8 out of 10 and gave AVG a score of 8.4
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0