Robert Keith McFerrin Jr.also known as Bobby, is an American jazz vocalist and conductor. A ten-time Grammy Award winner, he is known for his unique vocal techniques, such as singing fluidly but with quick and considerable jumps in pitch—for example, sustaining a melody while rapidly alternating with arpeggios and harmonies—as well as scat singing, polyphonic overtone singing, improvisational vocal percussion, he is known for performing and recording as an unaccompanied solo vocal artist. He has collaborated with other artists from both the jazz and classical scenes. McFerrin's song "Don't Worry, Be Happy" was a No. 1 U. S. pop won Song of the Year and Record of the Year honors at the 1989 Grammy Awards. McFerrin has worked in collaboration with instrumentalists, including pianists Chick Corea, Herbie Hancock, Joe Zawinul, drummer Tony Williams, cellist Yo-Yo Ma. McFerrin was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of operatic baritone Robert McFerrin and singer Sara Copper, he attended the California State University, Sacramento.
McFerrin's first recorded work, the self-titled album Bobby McFerrin, was not produced until 1982, when McFerrin was 32 years old. Before that, he had spent six years developing his musical style, the first two years of which he attempted not to listen to other singers at all, in order to avoid sounding like them, he was influenced by Keith Jarrett, who had achieved great success with a series of improvised piano concerts including The Köln Concert of 1975, wanted to attempt something similar vocally. In 1984 McFerrin performed onstage at the Playboy Jazz Festival in Los Angeles as a sixth member of Herbie Hancock's VSOP II sharing horn trio parts with the Marsalis Brothers. In 1986, McFerrin was the voice of Santa Bear in Santa Bear's First Christmas, in 1987 he was the voice of Santa Bear/Bully Bear in the sequel Santa Bear's High Flying Adventure; that same year, he performed the theme song for the opening credits of Season 4 of The Cosby Show. In 1988, McFerrin recorded the song "Don't Worry, Be Happy", which became a hit and brought him widespread recognition across the world.
The song's success "ended McFerrin's musical life as he had known it," and he began to pursue other musical possibilities on stage and in recording studios. The song was used in George H. W. Bush's 1988 U. S. presidential election as Bush's 1988 official presidential campaign song, without Bobby McFerrin's permission or endorsement. In reaction, Bobby McFerrin publicly protested that particular use of his song, including stating that he was going to vote against Bush, dropped the song from his own performance repertoire, to make the point clearer. At that time, he performed on the PBS TV special Sing Out America! with Judy Collins. McFerrin sang a Wizard of Oz medley during that television special. In 1989, he performed the music for the Pixar short film Knick Knack; the rough cut to which McFerrin recorded his vocals had the words "blah blah blah" in place of the end credits. McFerrin spontaneously decided to sing "blah blah blah" as lyrics, the final version of the short film includes these lyrics during the end credits.
In 1989, he formed a ten-person "Voicestra" which he featured on both his 1990 album Medicine Music and in the score to the 1989 Oscar-winning documentary Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt. The song "Common Threads" has reappeared in some public service advertisements about AIDS. A modified version of the song Thinkin' About Your Body from the album Spontaneous Inventions was used in a series of UK Cadbury's chocolate adverts in 1989/1990; as early as 1992, widespread rumors circulated. The rumors intentionally made fun of the distinctly positive nature of his popular song "Don't Worry, Be Happy" by claiming McFerrin took his own life. In 1993, McFerrin sang Henry Mancini's "Pink Panther" theme for the movie Son of the Pink Panther. In addition to his vocal performing career, in 1994, Mr. McFerrin was appointed as creative chair of the Saint Paul Chamber Orchestra, he makes regular tours as a guest conductor for symphony orchestras throughout the United States and Canada, including the San Francisco Symphony, the New York Philharmonic, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the London Philharmonic, the Vienna Philharmonic and many others.
In McFerrin's concert appearances, he combines serious conducting of classical pieces with his own unique vocal improvisations with participation from the audience and the orchestra. For example, the concerts end with McFerrin conducting the orchestra in an a cappella rendition of the "William Tell Overture," in which the orchestra members sing their musical parts in McFerrin's vocal style instead of playing their parts on their instruments. For a few years in the late 1990s, he toured a concert version of Porgy and Bess in honor of his father, who sang the role for Sidney Poitier in the 1959 film version, "to preserve the score's jazziness" in the face of "largely white orchestras" who tend not "to play around the bar lines, to stretch and bend". McFerrin says that because of his father's work in the movie, "This music has been in my body for 40 years longer than any other music."McFerrin participates in various music education programs and makes volunteer appearances as a guest music teacher and lecturer at public schools throughout the U.
S. McFerrin has collaborated with his son, Taylor, on variou
Franco Corelli was an Italian tenor who had a major international opera career between 1951 and 1976. Associated in particular with the spinto and dramatic tenor roles of the Italian repertory, he was celebrated universally for his powerhouse voice, electrifying top notes, clear timbre, passionate singing and remarkable performances. Dubbed the "prince of tenors", Corelli possessed handsome features and a charismatic stage presence which endeared him to audiences, he had a long and fruitful partnership with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City between 1961 and 1975. He appeared on the stages of most of the major opera houses in Europe and with opera companies throughout North America. Corelli was born Dario Franco Corelli in Ancona into a family many have thought to have little or no musical background. While his parents were not musical, his paternal grandfather Augusto had quit working at 35 to establish a successful career as an operatic tenor, his older brother Aldo subsequently quit school to become an operatic baritone, two of his uncles sang in the Teatro delle Muse chorus in Ancona.
His father was the family lived along the Adriatic Sea. Corelli loved the sea and decided to follow in the footsteps of his father by pursuing a degree in naval engineering at the University of Bologna. While studying there he entered a music competition under the dare of a friend, an amateur singer. While he did not win the competition, he was encouraged by the judges to pursue a singing career and Corelli entered the Pesaro Conservatory of Music to study opera. At the conservatory, Corelli studied under Rita Pavoni, but was unhappy with the results, saying these lessons destroyed his upper register. After this Corelli decided to become his own teacher, referred to voice teachers as "dangerous people" and a "plague to singers". Corelli stated that he learned part of his technique from a friend, a student of Arturo Melocchi, the voice teacher who taught Mario Del Monaco, who advocated a technique based on singing with the larynx lowered. Corelli studied with Melocchi himself only "sometimes."
Corelli modified the technique to avoid limitations that Corelli perceived in the ability of students of Melocchi to handle mezza-voce and legato singing. He studied the career of Del Monaco, who preceded Corelli into the first rank of Italian tenors using the lowered-larynx technique, and, sometimes criticized for lacking subtlety in his singing. Corelli stated: "I modified the method so that my larynx'floats'—I do not keep it lowered to the maximum at all times." Corelli learned by imitating the style and vocal effects of the recordings of great tenors like Enrico Caruso, Giacomo Lauri-Volpi, Aureliano Pertile, Beniamino Gigli. Opera News stated that Corelli's lowered-larynx technique "resulted in cavernous sound in high-flying passages, where it gained brilliance. Regulating the breath pressure, the tenor was able to reduce this sound while retaining the core of the voice in a diminuendo, or a morendo on a high B-flat, the effect requested by Verdi at the end of'Celeste Aida'." In the summer of 1951, Corelli won the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, earning a debut at Spoleto the following fall.
He was scheduled to sing Radames in Verdi's Aïda and spent three months preparing the role with conductor Giuseppe Bertelli. However, Corelli switched to Don José in Bizet's Carmen, feeling that at this point he lacked the technical finesse and legato for the role of Radamès. In May 1952, he made his debut at the Rome Opera as Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Maria Caniglia as Adriana; the same year he appeared in operas with smaller opera houses throughout Italy and on the Italian radio. In 1953 he joined the Rome Opera's roster of principal tenors where he spent much of his time performing through 1958, his first role with the company in 1953 was that of Romeo in Zandonai's heard opera Giulietta e Romeo. That season he sang Pollione in Bellini's Norma opposite Maria Callas in the title role, it was the first time the two sang opposite one another and Callas became an admirer of Corelli. The two performed with each other over the next several years in a partnership that lasted to the end of Callas's career.
While singing at the Rome Opera, Corelli made numerous appearances with other opera houses both in Italy and internationally. He made his first appearance at La Scala in Milan in 1954, as Licinio in Spontini's La vestale opposite Callas's Giulia for the opening of the 1954–1955 season, he returned several more times to that house over the next five years, singing opposite Callas in productions of Fedora, Il pirata and Poliuto. He notably portrayed the role of Dick Johnson in a celebrated performance of La fanciulla del West at La Scala in 1956, opposite Gigliola Frazzoni and Tito Gobbi, broadcast live on Italian radio. Other important debuts for Corelli soon followed, including his first appearances at: the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence and the Arena di Verona Festival in 1955. Among the many triumphs of the decade for Corelli were two celebrated performances at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, a 1958 appearance as Don Alvaro in La forza del destino opposite Renata Tebaldi as Leonora and a 1959 performance of Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Magda Olivero in the title role.
During his early c
Yo-Yo Ma is a Chinese-American cellist. Born in Paris, he spent his schooling years in New York City and was a child prodigy, performing from the age of four and a half, he graduated from the Juilliard School and Harvard University, has performed as a soloist with orchestras around the world. He received 19 Grammy Awards. In addition to recordings of the standard classical repertoire, he has recorded a wide variety of folk music such as American bluegrass music, traditional Chinese melodies, the tangos of Argentinian composer Ástor Piazzolla, Brazilian music, he has collaborated with artists including jazz singer Bobby McFerrin, guitarist Carlos Santana, Sérgio Assad and his brother and singer-songwriter and guitarist James Taylor. Ma's primary performance instrument is a Montagnana cello crafted in 1733 and valued at US$2.5 million. He has been a United Nations Messenger of Peace since 2006, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 2001, Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2011, Polar Music Prize in 2012.
Yo-Yo Ma had a musical upbringing. His mother, Marina Lu, was a singer and his father, Hiao-Tsiun Ma, was a violinist and professor of music at Nanjing National Central University, his sister, Yeou-Cheng Ma, played the violin before obtaining a medical degree and becoming a pediatrician. The family moved to New York. From the earliest possible age, Ma played the violin and viola, but settled on cello in 1960 at age four. Ma jokes that his first choice was the double bass due to its large size, but he compromised and took up cello instead; the child prodigy began performing before audiences at age five and performed for presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy when he was seven. At age eight, he appeared on American television with his sister in a concert conducted by Leonard Bernstein. In 1964, Isaac Stern introduced them on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, they performed the Sonata of Sammartini, he attended Trinity School in New York but transferred to the Professional Children's School, from which he graduated at age 15.
He appeared as a soloist with the Harvard Radcliffe Orchestra in a performance of the Tchaikovsky Rococo Variations. Ma studied at The Juilliard School at age 19 with Leonard Rose and attended Columbia University but dropped out, he enrolled at Harvard College. Prior to entering Harvard, Ma played in the Marlboro Festival Orchestra under the direction of cellist and conductor Pablo Casals. Ma spent four summers at the Marlboro Music Festival after meeting and falling in love with Mount Holyoke College sophomore and festival administrator Jill Hornor his first summer there in 1972. Before that time, Ma had gained fame, had performed with many of the world's major orchestras, he has played chamber music with pianist Emanuel Ax, with whom he has a close friendship from their days together at the Juilliard School of Music. Ma received his bachelor's degree from Harvard in 1976. In 1991, he received an honorary doctorate from Harvard. In 1997, he was featured on John Williams' soundtrack to the Hollywood film Seven Years in Tibet.
In 2000, he was heard on the soundtrack of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and, in 2003, on that of Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. He collaborated with Williams again on the original score for the 2005 film Memoirs of a Geisha. Ma has worked with Italian composer Ennio Morricone and has recorded Morricone's compositions of the Dollars Trilogy including The Good, the Bad and the Ugly, as well as Once Upon a Time in America, The Mission, The Untouchables, he has over 90 albums, 18 of which are Grammy Award winners. Ma is a recipient of the International Center in New York's Award of Excellence. Ma was named Peace Ambassador by then-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in January 2006, he is a founding member of the influential Chinese-American Committee of 100, which addresses the concerns of Americans of Chinese heritage. On November 3, 2009, President Obama appointed Ma to serve on the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities, his music was featured in the 2010 documentary Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story, narrated by Academy Award winner Dustin Hoffman.
In 2010, President Obama announced that he would be recognizing Ma with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. In 2010, Ma was named Joyce Green Creative Consultant of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. In partnership with the orchestra's music director, Riccardo Muti, he launched the Citizen Musician initiative. Yo-Yo Ma is represented by the independent artist management firm Opus 3 Artists. In 2010, he appeared on a solo album by guitarist Carlos Santana, Guitar Heaven: The Greatest Guitar Classics of All Time, playing alongside Santana and singer India Arie on a Beatles' classic, While My Guitar Gently Weeps. In 2015, Ma performed alongside singer-songwriter and guitarist James Taylor for two separate tracks on Taylor's chart-topping record Before This World: You And I Again, in addition to the title track. In 2019, Ma will be directing at the 2019 Youth Music Culture Guangdong. Ma formed his own Silk Road Ensemble, following the trade route which for more than 2,000 years had been used for trade across Europe and Asia to China.
His goal was that of bringing together musicians from diverse countries all of which are linked via the Silk Road. His records with them were on the Sony Classical label, he founded the Silk Road Connect, involving children from middle schools in the United States, including New York City. Ma has been referred to as "omnivorous" by critics and possesses
Alphonse de Lamartine
Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine, Knight of Pratz was a French writer and politician, instrumental in the foundation of the Second Republic and the continuation of the Tricolore as the flag of France. Lamartine was born in Mâcon, Burgundy, on 21 October 1790, his family were members of the French provincial nobility, he spent his youth at the family estate. Lamartine is famous for his autobiographical poem, "Le lac", which describes in retrospect the fervent love shared by a couple from the point of view of the bereaved man. Lamartine was masterly in his use of French poetic forms. Raised a devout Catholic, Lamartine became a pantheist, writing La Chute d'un ange, he wrote Histoire des Girondins in 1847 in praise of the Girondists. Lamartine made his entrance into the field of poetry with a masterpiece, Les Méditations Poétiques, awoke to find himself famous, he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1825. He worked for the French embassy in Italy from 1825 to 1828. In 1829, he was elected a member of the Académie française.
He was elected a deputy in 1833. In 1835 he published the "Voyage en Orient", a brilliant and bold account of the journey he had just made, in royal luxury, to the countries of the Orient, in the course of which he had lost his only daughter. From on he confined himself to prose. Around 1830, Lamartine's opinions shifted in the direction of liberalism; when elected in 1833 to the National Assembly, he founded his own "Social Party" with some influence from Saint-Simonian ideas and established himself as a prominent critic of the July Monarchy, becoming more and more of a republican in the monarchy's last years. He was in charge of the government during the turbulence of 1848, he was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 24 February 1848 to 11 May 1848. Due to his great age, Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure, Chairman of the Provisional Government delegated many of his duties to Lamartine, he was a member of the Executive Commission, the political body which served as France's joint Head of State. Lamartine was instrumental in the founding of the Second Republic of France, having met with Republican Deputies and journalists in the Hôtel de Ville to agree on the makeup of its provisional government.
Lamartine himself was chosen to declare the Republic in traditional form in the balcony of the Hôtel de Ville, ensured the continuation of the Tricouleur as the flag of the nation. On 25 February 1848 Lamartine said about the Tricolored Flag: "I spoke as a citizen earlier, well! Now listen to me, your Foreign Minister. If I remove the tricolor, know it, you will remove me half the external force of France! Because Europe knows the flag of his defeats and of our victories in the flag of the Republic and of the Empire. By seeing the red flag, they'll see the flag of a party! This is the flag of France, it is the flag of our victorious armies, it is the flag of our triumphs that must be addressed before Europe. France and the tricolor is the same thought, the same prestige terror, if necessary, for our enemies! Consider how much blood you would have to make for another flag fame! Citizens, for me, the red flag, I am not adopting it, I'll tell you why I'm against with all the strength of my patriotism.
It's that the tricolor has toured the world with the Republic and the Empire with your freedoms and your glory, the red flag was that around the Champ-de-Mars, dragged into the people's blood."During his term as a politician in the Second Republic, he led efforts that culminated in the abolition of slavery and the death penalty, as well as the enshrinement of the right to work and the short-lived national workshop programs. A political idealist who supported democracy and pacifism, his moderate stance on most issues caused many of his followers to desert him, he was an unsuccessful candidate in the presidential election of 10 December 1848, receiving fewer than 19,000 votes. He subsequently dedicated himself to literature, he published volumes on the most varied subjects during the Empire, having retired to private life and having become the prey of his creditors, he condemned himself to what he calls "literary hard-labor in order to exist and pay his debts". Lamartine ended his life in poverty, publishing monthly installments of the Cours familier de littérature to support himself.
He died in Paris in 1869. Nobel prize winner Frédéric Mistral's fame was in part due to the praise of Alphonse de Lamartine in the fortieth edition of his periodical Cours familier de littérature, following the publication of Mistral's long poem Mirèio. Mistral is the most revered writer in modern Occitan literature. Lamartine is considered to be the first French romantic poet, was acknowledged by Paul Verlaine and the Symbolists as an important influence. Alphonse de Lamartine was an Orientalist with a particular interest in Lebanon and the Middle East, he travelled to Lebanon and the Holy Land in 1832–33. During that trip, while he was in Beirut, on 7 December 1832, he lost his only remaining child, Julia. During his trip to Lebanon he had met prince Bashir Shihab II and prince Simon Karam, who were enthusiasts of poetry. A valley in Lebanon is still called the Valley of Lamartine as a commemoration of that visit, the Lebanon cedar forest still harbors the "Lamartine Cedar", said to be the cedar under which Lamartine had sat 200 years ago.
Lamartine was so influenced by his trip that he staged his 1838 epic poem La Chute d'un ange in L
The pump organ, reed organ, harmonium, or melodeon is a type of free-reed organ that generates sound as air flows past a vibrating piece of thin metal in a frame. The piece of metal is called a reed. More portable than pipe organs, free-reed organs were used in smaller churches and in private homes in the 19th century, but their volume and tonal range were limited, they had one or sometimes two manuals, with pedal-boards being rare. The finer pump organs had a wider range of tones, the cabinets of those intended for churches and affluent homes were excellent pieces of furniture. Several million free-reed organs and melodeons were made in the USA and Canada between the 1850s and the 1920s. During this time Estey Organ and Mason & Hamlin were popular manufacturers. Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein, professor of physiology at Copenhagen, was credited with the first free-reed instrument made in the Western world, after winning the annual prize in 1780 from the Imperial Academy of St. Petersburg; the harmonium's design derives from the earlier regal.
A harmonium-like instrument was exhibited by Gabriel-Joseph Grenié in 1810. He called it an orgue expressif, because his instrument was capable of greater expression, as well as of producing a crescendo and diminuendo. Alexandre Debain improved Grenié's instrument and gave it the name harmonium when he patented his version in 1840. There was concurrent development of similar instruments. A mechanic who had worked in the factory of Alexandre in Paris emigrated to the United States and conceived the idea of a suction bellows, instead of the ordinary bellows that forced the air outward through the reeds. Beginning in 1885, the firm of Mason & Hamlin, of Boston made their instruments with the suction bellows, this method of construction soon superseded all others in America. Harmoniums reached the height of their popularity in the West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they were popular in small churches and chapels where a pipe organ would be too large or too expensive. Harmoniums weigh less than similar sized pianos and are not as damaged in transport, thus they were popular throughout the colonies of the European powers in this period not only because it was easier to ship the instrument out to where it was needed, but it was easier to transport overland in areas where good-quality roads and railways may have been non-existent.
An added attraction of the harmonium in tropical regions was that the instrument held its tune regardless of heat and humidity, unlike the piano. This "export" market was sufficiently lucrative for manufacturers to produce harmoniums with cases impregnated with chemicals to prevent woodworm and other damaging organisms found in the tropics. At the peak of the instruments' Western popularity around 1900, a wide variety of styles of harmoniums were being produced; these ranged from simple models with plain cases and only four or five stops, up to large instruments with ornate cases, up to a dozen stops and other mechanisms such as couplers. Expensive harmoniums were built to resemble pipe organs, with ranks of fake pipes attached to the top of the instrument. Small numbers of harmoniums were built with two manuals; some were built with pedal keyboards, which required the use of an assistant to run the bellows or, for some of the models, an electrical pump. These larger instruments were intended for home use, such as allowing organists to practise on an instrument on the scale of a pipe organ, but without the physical size or volume of such an instrument.
For missionaries, chaplains in the armed forces, travelling evangelists, the like, reed organs that folded up into a container the size of a large suitcase or small trunk were made. The invention of the electronic organ in the mid-1930s spelled the end of the harmonium's success in the West; the Hammond organ could imitate the tonal quality and range of a pipe organ whilst retaining the compact dimensions and cost-effectiveness of the harmonium as well as reducing maintenance needs and allowing a greater number of stops and other features. By this time, harmoniums had reached high levels of mechanical complexity, not only through the need to provide instruments with a greater tonal range, but due to patent laws, it was common for manufacturers to patent the action mechanism used on their instruments, thus requiring any new manufacturer to develop their own version. The last mass-producer of harmoniums in North America was the Estey company, which ceased manufacture in the mid-1950s; as the existing stock of instruments aged and spare parts became hard to find and more were either scrapped or sold.
It was not uncommon for harmoniums to be "modernised" by having electric blowers fitted very unsympathetically. The majority of Western harmoniums today are in the hands of enthusiasts, though the instrument remains popular in South Asia. Modern electronic keyboards can emulate the sound of
Alessandro Moreschi was a castrato singer of the late 19th century and the only castrato to make solo recordings. Alessandro Moreschi was born into a Roman Catholic family in the town of Monte Compatri in the Papal States, near Frascati, it is possible that he was born with an inguinal hernia, for which castration was still thought to be a cure in nineteenth-century Italy. Another possibility is that he was castrated around 1865, which would have been more in line with the centuries-old practice of castrating vocally talented boys well before puberty. In any case, much in life, he referred to his enjoyment of singing as a boy in the chapel of the Madonna del Castagno, just outside his native town, it seems that Moreschi's singing abilities came to the notice of Nazareno Rosati a member of the Sistine Chapel choir, acting as a scout for new talent, took him to Rome in about 1870. Moreschi became a pupil at the Scuola di San Salvatore in Lauro, where he was taught by Gaetano Capocci, maestro di cappella of the Papal basilica of St John Lateran.
In 1873, aged only fifteen, he was appointed First Soprano in the choir of that basilica, became a regular member of the groups of soloists hired by Capocci to sing in the salons of Roman high society. His singing at such soirées was vividly described by Anna Lillie de Hegermann-Lindencrone, the American wife of the Danish Ambassador to the Holy See: "Mrs Charles Bristed of New York, a recent convert to the Church of Rome, receives on Saturday evening... The Pope's singers are the great attraction... for her salon is the only place outside of the churches where one can hear them. The famous Moresca, who sings at the Laterano, is a full-faced soprano of some forty winters, he has a sigh in each breath. He sang the jewel song in Faust; when he asks if he is Marguerita, one feels tempted to answer'Macchè' for him." In 1883 Capocci presented a special showcase for his protégé: the first performance in Italy of the oratorio Christus am Ölberge by Beethoven, in which Moreschi sang the demanding coloratura role of the Seraph.
On the strength of this performance, he became known as l'Angelo di Roma, shortly after, having been auditioned by all the members of the Sistine Chapel choir, he was appointed First Soprano there, a post he held for the next thirty years. Moreschi's Director at the Sistine was Domenico Mustafà, himself once a fine castrato soprano, who realised that Moreschi was, amongst other things, the only hope for the continuation of the Sistine tradition of performing the famous setting of the Miserere by Gregorio Allegri during Holy Week; when Moreschi joined the Sistine choir, there were still six other castrato members, but none of them was capable of sustaining this work's taxing soprano tessitura. Moreschi's star status sometimes seems to have turned his head: "Moreschi's behaviour was capricious enough to make him forget a proper professional bearing, as on the occasion after a concert when he paraded himself among the crowd like a peacock, with a long, white scarf, to be congratulated..."The Sistine Chapel Choir was run on traditional lines centuries old, had a strict system of hierarchies.
In 1886, the senior castrato, Giovanni Cesari, it was then that Moreschi took over as Direttore dei concertisti. In 1891 Moreschi took his turn as segretario puntatore, being responsible for the day-book of the choir's activities, the following year was appointed maestro pro tempore, a administrative post concerned with calling choir meetings, fixing rehearsals, granting leave of absence and the like. During this year, Alessandro was responsible for overseeing the choir's correct performance of its duties in the Sistine Chapel. Artistically speaking, the job involved him in developing repertoire; this entire period was one of great upheaval within the Sistine choir's organisation as well as Catholic church music at large: the reforming movement known as Cecilianism, which had originated in Germany, was beginning to have its influence felt in Rome. Its calls for the Church's music to return to the twin bases of Gregorian chant and the polyphony of Palestrina were a direct threat to both the repertoire and the practice of the Sistine Chapel.
These were resisted by Mustafà. In 1898, he celebrated fifty years as a member of the Sistine, but appointed Lorenzo Perosi as joint Perpetual Director; this 26-year-old priest from Tortona in Piedmont turned out to be a real thorn in Mustafà's side. Moreschi was much a silent witness to the struggles between the forces of tradition and reform, but was caught up in secular matters: on 9 August 1900, at the express request of the Italian royal family, he sang at the funeral of the assassinated king, Umberto I; this was all the more extraordinary because the Papacy still had no formal contact with the Italian secular state, which it regarded as a mere usurper. In the spring of 1902, in the Vatican, Moreschi made the first of his recordings for the Gramophone & Typewriter Company of London, he made additional recordings in 1904: there are seventeen tracks in all. Between these two sessions, several most fateful events occurred: in 1903 the aged Mustafà retired, a few months Pope Leo XIII, a strong supporter of Sistine tradition, died.
His successor was Pope Pius X, an powerful advocate of Cecilianism. One of the new pontiff's first official acts was the promulgation of the motu proprio, Tra le sollecitudini, which appeared, appropriately enough, on St Cecili