L'Aquila is a city and comune in Southern Italy, both the capital city of the Abruzzo region and of the Province of L'Aquila. As of 2013, it has a population of 70,967 inhabitants. Laid out within medieval walls on a hill in the wide valley of the Aterno river, it is surrounded by the Apennine Mountains, with the Gran Sasso d'Italia to the north-east. L'Aquila sits upon a hillside in the middle of a narrow valley. A maze of narrow streets, lined with Baroque and Renaissance buildings and churches, open onto elegant piazzas. Home to the University of L'Aquila, it is a lively college town and, as such, has many cultural institutions: a repertory theatre, a symphony orchestra, a fine-arts academy, a state conservatory, a film institute. There are several ski resorts in the surrounding province. Close to the highest of the Apennine summits, L'Aquila is positioned at an elevation of 721 metres in the Valley of the Aterno-Pescara, situated between four mountain peaks above 2,000 metres; the mountains block the city off from warm humid air currents from the Mediterranean, give rise to a climate, cool in comparison to most of central Italy, dry.
It has been said that the city enjoys each year one cool one. L'Aquila is 100 kilometres east-northeast of Rome, with which it is connected by an autostrada through the mountains; the city's construction was begun by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily, out of several existing villages, as a bulwark against the power of the papacy. The name of Aquila means "Eagle" in Italian. Construction was completed in 1254 under Conrad IV of Germany; the name was switched to Aquila degli Abruzzi in 1861, L'Aquila in 1939. After the death of Conrad, the city was destroyed by his brother Manfred in 1259, but soon rebuilt by Charles I of Anjou, its successor as king of Sicily; the walls were completed in 1316. It became the second city of the Kingdom of Naples, it was an autonomous city, ruled by a diarchy composed of the King's Captain. It fell under the lordship of Niccolò dell'Isola, appointed by the people as the People's Knight, but he was killed when he became a tyrant, it fell under Pietro "Lalle" Camponeschi, Count of Montorio, who became the third side of a new triarchy, with the Council and the King's Captain.
Camponeschi, Great Chancellor of the kingdom of Naples, became too powerful, was killed by order of Prince Louis of Taranto. His descendants fought with the Pretatti family for power for several generations, but never again attained the power of their ancestor; the last, the one true "lord" of L'Aquila, was Ludovico Franchi, who challenged the power of the pope by giving refuge to Alfonso I d'Este, former duke of Ferrara, the children of Giampaolo Baglioni, deposed lord of Perugia. In the end, the Aquilans had him deposed and imprisoned by the king of Naples; the power of L'Aquila was based on the close connection between the city and its mother-villages, which had established the city as a federation, each of them building a borough and considering it as a part of the mother-village. The Fountain of the 99 Spouts, was given its name to celebrate the ancient origin of the town; the City Council was composed of the Mayors of the villages, the city had no legal existence until King Charles II of Naples appointed a "Camerlengo", responsible for city tributes.
The Camerlengo took political power, as President of the City Council. From its beginnings the city constituted an important market for the surrounding countryside, which provided it with a regular supply of food: from the fertile valleys came the precious saffron. Within a few decades L'Aquila became a crossroads in communications between cities within and beyond the Kingdom, thanks to the so-called "via degli Abruzzi", which ran from Florence to Naples by way of Perugia, Rieti, L'Aquila, Isernia, Venafro and Capua. Negotiations for the succession of Edmund, son of Henry III of England, to the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily involved L'Aquila in the web of interests linking the Roman Curia to the English court. On December 23, 1256, Pope Alexander IV elevated the churches of Saints Massimo and Giorgio to the status of cathedrals as a reward to the citizens of L'Aquila for their opposition to King Manfred who, in July 1259, had the city razed to the ground in an attempt to destroy the negotiations.
On August 29, 1294, the hermit Pietro del Morrone was consecrated as pope Celestine V in the church of Santa Maria di Collemaggio, in commemoration of which the new pope decreed the annual religious rite of the Pardon, still observed today in the city on August 28 and 29: it is the immediate ancestor of the Jubilee Year. The pontificate of Celestine V gave a new impulse to building development, as can be seen from the city statutes. In 1311, King Robert of Anjou granted privileges which had a decisive influence on the development of trade; these privileges protected all activities related to sheep-farming, exempting them from customs duties on imports and export
Alfred von Domaszewski
Alfred von Domaszewski was an Austrian historian born in Timișoara in the Habsburg Monarchy. He received his education in Vienna, following graduation remained in Vienna as a secondary school teacher. In 1884 he began work as an assistant at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. In 1887 he became an associate professor of ancient history at the University of Heidelberg, where in 1890 he attained full professorship. One of his better known students was historian Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz. In 1882 he accompanied German archaeologist Carl Humann to Smyrna on behalf of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, with support from the Vienna Ministry of Education, he assisted Humann on a reconstruction project involving the Monumentum Ancyranum. With philologist Rudolf Ernst Brünnow, he provided a comprehensive analysis and map of the ancient city of Petra. Die Religion des römischen Heeres, 1895. Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 1907. Geschichte der römischen Kaiser, 1909. Abhandlungen zur römischen Religion, 1909.
"This article is based on translations of equivalent articles at the Dutch and German Wikipedia", whose sources include a biography @ Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815–1950. Band 1. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien 1957, S. 193. Deutsche Wikisource extensive bibliography
History of Italy
The history of Italy covers the Ancient period, the Middle ages and the Modern era. In antiquity, Italy was the metropole of the Roman Empire. Rome was founded as a Kingdom in 753 BC and became a Republic in 509 BC, when the monarchy was overthrown in favor of a government of the Senate and the People; the Roman Republic unified Italy at the expense of the Etruscans and Greeks of the peninsula. Rome led the federation of the Italic peoples to the domination of Western Europe, Northern Africa, the Near East by conquering Epirus, Britain, Lusitania, the Balkans, Macedonia, parts of Germania, Carthage, Numidia, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Armenia and parts of Arabia. Caesar Augustus became the first Roman Emperor in 27 BC and ended the civil wars between the Populares and the Optimates, initiating the Pax Romana: Italy was the core of global Technology, Economy and Literature. Various Emperors were successful in foreign policy and domestic issues while others acted as paranoid despots; the military anarchy of the third century led to the separation of the Eastern Roman Empire from the Western Roman Empire.
Both empires ended the persecutions of Christians with the Edict of Milan and granted religious primacy to Bishop of Rome with the Edict of Thessalonica. The Roman Empire ended in 476 when the West fell to Odoacer and the East became the Byzantine Empire. During the early middle ages, the Italian peninsula suffered a series of wars of conquest by the Goths, the Byzantines and the Lombards; the day of Christmas of the year 800, Pope Leo III crowned the germanic ruler Charlemagne with the title of Holy Roman Emperor and as such sovereign of northern Italy, with the exclusion of the Papal States. The Roman Pontiff and the Germanic Emperor became the universal powers of Italy and Europe, but entered in conflict for the investiture controversy and the clash between their factions: the Guelphs and Ghibellines; the struggle between the Papacy and the Empire led to the collapse of the Imperial-feudal system in Italy between the Humiliation of Canossa of Emperor Henry IV at the feet of Pope Gregory VII and Matilda of Tuscany and the Treaty of Venice signed by Friedrich Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III after the Battle of Legnano.
Papal claims to temporal authority were put forward with the Dictatus Papae and the Third Lateran Council. By the 12th century Italy was organized in republican city-states called comuni, except for the Kingdom of Sicily formed by the Norsemen and inclusive of the entire mezzogiorno. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the first crusade and opened mediterranean trade to the maritime republics; the result was an Italian commercial revolution, that shifted European economy from agriculture to trade, caused the birth of banking and universities in Italy. Between 1198 and 1215, Pope Innocent III approved the Franciscan and Dominican orders and allowed Venice to sack Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade. Innocent III turned several states of Europe into papal fiefs and replaced the Germanic Emperor Otto IV with the King of Sicily Frederick II "the wonder of the world". Frederick of Sicily made Italy the cultural and strategic centre of a large reign that included the HRE and, following the Sixth Crusade, the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Frederick II refused to sumbit his dominions to the Mongol Empire and planned an expedition against the Golden Horde, but died in 1250 exhausted by civil wars against German princes and Italian republicans. Medieval culture peaked around 1300 with the paintings or Giotto, the writings of Dante, the travels of Marco Polo. Renaissance philosophy, art and exploration marked the transition to the modern era and notable figures such as Leonardo, Michelangelo, Amerigo Vespucci, Galileo made important contributions in their fields between the Trecento and the Seicento; the period was characterised by the activities of the condottieri in the Italian Wars, a long conflict that broke the Peace of Lodi maintained by Lorenzo de Medici and began a period of domestic disputes and foreign invasions. The peace of Cateau-Cambresis established Habsburg Spain as the ruler of the South of Italy and Milan, while the Duchy of Florence and the Venetian Republic remained independent. Meanwhile, the Papacy reached its zenith of political power by reacting to protestantism with the Catholic Reformation, a movement that resulted in: the Council of Trent, the Christianization of large parts of the world, the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar and the formation of Holy Leagues to prevent Ottoman expansion in the West.
However, the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and the birth of Westphalian sovereignty diminished Roman Catholic influence in Europe and led to the consolidation of large states, while Italy was fragmented and divided. The 17th and 18th centuries were a period of decline in much of Italy, except for the cultural impact of Baroque and Neoclassicism. Following a series of wars of succession in Europe, Lombardy went to Habsburg Austria, who acquired Tuscany and Venice, the South passed to the Spanish Bourbons. Following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Risorgimento movement emerged to unite Italy and liberate it from foreign control. After the unsuccessful attempt of 1848, the Italian Wars of Independence against Austria in the North, the Expedition of the Thousand against the Spanish
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of L'Aquila
The Roman Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of L'Aquila is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. It was erected as the Diocese of L'Aquila on 20 February 1257 by Pope Alexander IV and promoted to an archdiocese by Pope Pius IX on 19 January 1876. Pope Paul VI elevated it to the rank of a metropolitan archdiocese on 15 August 1972, with the suffragan sees of Avezzano and Sulmona–Valva; the archdiocese's mother church and the seat of its archbishop is L'Aquila Cathedral. L'Aquila contains the Basilica of San Bernardino da Siena; the current Archbishop of L'Aquila is Giuseppe Petrocchi, since June 8, 2013, Giovanni D'Ercole, F. D. P. was named auxiliary bishop of L'Aquila on 16 November 2009. The city and diocese of L'Aquila suffered a devastating earthquake in 2009; the dome of the Cathedral collapsed, the remains of Pope Celestine V were thrown from their tomb in Santa Maria Colmaggio. Berardo da Padula Niccolò Sinizzo Nicola Castroceli. Bartolomeo Conti Filippo Delci Angelo Acciaioli Pietro Guglielmi Paolo Rainaldi Isacco D'Arcione Giovanni Zacchei Stefano Sidonio Clemente Secinari Oddo Ludovico Cola Giacomo Donadei Amico Agnifili Francesco Agnifili Ludovico Borgio Giovanbattista Gaglioffi Giovanni Di Leone Gualtiero Suardo Giovanni da Prato Francesco Franchi Giovanni Piccolomini Pompeo Colonna Giovanni Piccolomini Bernardo Sancio Alvaro Della Quadra Giovanni D'Acugna Mariano De Racciaccaris Basilio Pignatelli Giuseppe de Rossi Gundisalvo De Ruenda Álvaro de Mendoza Gaspare De Gaioso Clemente Del Pezzo Francesco Tellio De Leon Carlo De Angelis Giovanni de Torrecilla y Cárdenas Arcangelo Tipaldi Ignazio Della Zerda Domenico Taglialatela Giuseppe Coppola Ludovico Sabatini Benedetto Cervone Francesco Saverio Gualtieri Girolamo Manieri Michele Navazio Luigi Filippi Augusto Antonio Vicentini Francesco Paolo Carrano Peregrin-François Stagni, SM Adolfo Turchi Gaudenzio Manuelli Carlo Confalonieri Costantino Stella Carlo Martini Mario Peressin Giuseppe Molinari Giuseppe Petrocchi Maximus of Aquila Roman Catholicism in Italy Timeline of L'Aquila Official site Catholic-Hierarchy GCatholic.org index of a history of L'Aquila mentioning Arch Bishops
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples. In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible; the process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers and from the New Testament that witnesses died for their testimonies.
During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, on account of this witness, endures suffering or death. The term, in this sense, entered the English language as a loanword; the death of a martyr or the value attributed. The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion; the early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr. The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms. In the Bahá'í Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God. However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained. Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Kuomintang party in modern China.
Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs. In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness. However, over time many Christian testimonies were rejected, the witnesses put to death, the word martyr developed its present sense. Where death ensues, the witnesses follow the example of Jesus in offering up their lives for truth; the concept of Jesus as a martyr has received greater attention. Analyses of the Gospel passion narratives have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style. Several scholars have concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.
In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the Christians of the first few centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom. In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire, it developed that a martyr was one, killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will certainly result in imminent death; this definition of martyr is not restricted to the Christian faith. Though Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like Abel and the Maccabees, as holy, the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of John the Baptist, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner, the first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith, to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen, those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned." From the time of Constantine, Christianity was decriminalized, under Theodosius I, became the state religion, which diminished persecution.
As some wondered how they could most follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality, desert monks, self-mortification, following Christ by separation from the world. This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of one's life in a violent death. In Christianity, death in sectarian persecution can be viewed as martyrdom. For example, there were martyrs recognised on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534, with two hundred and eighty Christians martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the reversion to the Church of England under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559 and three hundred Roman Catholics martyred by the Church authorities in England over the following hundred and fifty years in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. More modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks though the numbers are disputed.
There are claims that the numbers of Christians killed for their faith annually are exaggerated. Despite the promotion of ahimsa within Sanatana Dharma
The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili, who dwelt in southern Scandinavia before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in north-western Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia north of the Danube river, where they subdued the Heruls and fought frequent wars with the Gepids; the Lombard king Audoin defeated the Gepid leader Thurisind in 551 or 552. Following this victory, Alboin decided to lead his people to Italy, which had become depopulated and devastated after the long Gothic War between the Byzantine Empire and the Ostrogothic Kingdom there. In contrast with the Goths and the Vandals, the Lombards left Scandinavia and descended due south through Germany and Slovenia, only leaving Germanic territory a few decades before reaching Italy.
The Lombards would have remained a predominantly Germanic tribe by the time they invaded Italy. The Lombards were joined by numerous Saxons, Gepids, Bulgars and Ostrogoths, their invasion of Italy was unopposed. By late 569 they had conquered all of northern Italy and the principal cities north of the Po River except Pavia, which fell in 572. At the same time, they occupied areas in southern Italy, they established a Lombard Kingdom in north and central Italy named Regnum Italicum, which reached its zenith under the 8th-century ruler Liutprand. In 774, the Kingdom was integrated into his Empire. However, Lombard nobles continued to rule southern parts of the Italian peninsula, well into the 11th century when they were conquered by the Normans and added to their County of Sicily. In this period, the southern part of Italy still under Longobardic domination was known to the foreigners, by the name Langbarðaland, in the Norse runestones, their legacy is apparent in the regional name Lombardy. The fullest account of Lombard origins and practices is the Historia Langobardorum of Paul the Deacon, written in the 8th century.
Paul's chief source for Lombard origins, however, is the 7th-century Origo Gentis Langobardorum. The Origo Gentis Langobardorum tells the story of a small tribe called the Winnili dwelling in southern Scandinavia; the Winnili were split into three groups and one part left their native land to seek foreign fields. The reason for the exodus was overpopulation; the departing people were led by the brothers Ybor and Aio and their mother Gambara and arrived in the lands of Scoringa the Baltic coast or the Bardengau on the banks of the Elbe. Scoringa was ruled by the Vandals and their chieftains, the brothers Ambri and Assi, who granted the Winnili a choice between tribute or war; the Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute." The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan, who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise. The Winnili were fewer in number and Gambara sought help from Frea, who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands.
At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them the victory." From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards. When Paul the Deacon wrote the Historia between 787 and 796 he was a Catholic monk and devoted Christian, he thought the pagan stories of his people "silly" and "laughable". Paul explained. A modern theory suggests that the name "Langobard" comes from a name of Odin. Priester states that when the Winnili changed their name to "Lombards", they changed their old agricultural fertility cult to a cult of Odin, thus creating a conscious tribal tradition. Fröhlich inverts the order of events in Priester and states that with the Odin cult, the Lombards grew their beards in resemblance of the Odin of tradition and their new name reflected this. Bruckner remarks that the name of the Lombards stands in close relation to the worship of Odin, whose many names include "the Long-bearded" or "the Grey-bearded", that the Lombard given name Ansegranus shows that the Lombards had this idea of their chief deity.
The same Old Norse root Barth or Barði, meaning "beard", is shared with the Heaðobards mentioned in both Beowulf and in Widsith, where they are in conflict with the Danes. They were a branch of the Langobards. Alternatively some etymological sources suggest an Old High German root, meaning “axe”, while Edward Gibbon puts forth an alternative suggestion which argues that: …Börde still signifies “a fertile plain by the side of a river,” and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Börd