Nicolás Remigio Aurelio Avellaneda Silva was an Argentine politician and journalist, president of Argentina from 1874 to 1880. Avellaneda's main projects while in office were banking and education reform, leading to Argentina's economic growth; the most important events of his government were the Conquest of the Desert and the transformation of the City of Buenos Aires into a federal district. Born in San Miguel de Tucumán, his mother moved with him to Bolivia after the death of his father, Marco Avellaneda, during a revolt against Juan Manuel de Rosas, he studied law without graduating. Back at Tucumán he founded El Eco del Norte, moved to Buenos Aires in 1857, becoming director of the El Nacional and editor of El Comercio de la Plata, he finished his studies at Buenos Aires. Sarmiento helped him to become teacher of economy at the University of Buenos Aires, he wrote "Estudio sobre las leyes de tierras públicas", proposing to give the lands to producers that make production from them. This system, similar to the one employed at the United States, suggested to reduce bureaucracy and pointed that this would allow stable populations and population growth.
He was a member of the house of representatives in 1859 and Minister of Government of Adolfo Alsina in the Buenos Aires province in 1866. During Domingo Faustino Sarmiento's presidency, he was Minister of Education, he implemented the educational reform, defining of his government. Avellaneda attained the presidency in 1874 but had its legitimacy contested by Bartolomé Mitre and supported by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. Mitre was defeated by Julio Argentino Roca. Mitre was held prisoner and judged by military justice, but Avellaneda indulted him in order to promote pacification, he included Rufino de Elizalde and José María Gutiérrez, supporters of Mitre, as members of his cabinet. In line with people like Alberdi or Sarmiento, who thought that European immigration was crucial to the Argentine development, he promoted the "Avellaneda law" that allowed European farmers ease to get terrains; the immigration numbers were doubled in a few years. Having won the revolution and bringing peace to the country, Avellaneda faced the serious economic crisis, centering his efforts on the control of the land with the Conquest of the Desert and expanding the railroads, the cereal and meat exports, the European immigration, specially to Patagonia.
During his presidency, the economy of Argentina was affected by the European crisis putting the country on the edge of debt default. Deciding to take Argentina from its debts, he said that "there are two million Argentines who would economize to their hunger and thirst to fulfill the promises of our public commitments in the foreign markets", he applied a weak protectionism. The crisis was fixed with the growing exports of refrigerated meat to Europe, a new developing industrial method of the time. A prolific writer, his works have been published in 12 volumes. Aged 37, he was the youngest Argentine president elected, he had served in the Argentine Senate for five months in 1874 and returned to the Senate in 1883 until his death. He died on a ship returning from medical treatment in France. Mendelevich, Pablo. El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0. Nicolás Avellaneda at Find a Grave
Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda
Alonso Fernández de Avellaneda is the pseudonym of a man who wrote a sequel to Cervantes' Don Quixote. The identity of Fernández de Avellaneda has been the subject of many theories, but there is no consensus on who he was. One theory holds. Another theory is that it was by Gerónimo de Passamonte, the real-life inspiration for the character Ginés de Pasamonte of Part I. Critical opinion has held Avellaneda's work in low regard, Cervantes himself is critical of it in his own Part 2. However, it is possible that Cervantes would never have completed his own continuation were it not for the stimulus Avellaneda provided. Throughout Part 2 of Cervantes' book Don Quixote meets characters who know of him from their reading of his Part 1, but in Chapter 59 Don Quixote first learns of Avellaneda's Part 2, is outraged since it portrays him as being no longer in love with Dulcinea del Toboso; as a result of this Don Quixote decides not to go to Zaragoza to take part in the jousts, as he had planned, because such an incident features in that book.
From on Avellaneda's work is ridiculed at frequent intervals. There is evidence that some of Cervantes' condemnations are of tongue-in-cheek references to errors or jokes in Part 1. In Part 2, Chapter 59 of Cervantes' version, Don Quixote disregards Avellaneda's Part 2 because in it Sancho Panza's wife is called "Mari Gutiérrez" instead of "Teresa Panza". However, in the early chapters of Part 1 Sancho's wife is called by many names including "Juana Panza", "Mari Gutiérrez", "Juana Gutiérrez", "Teresa Cascajo", etc. "Teresa Panza" is settled on only. It is difficult to decide whether these are true mistakes, as malapropisms and puns are a running joke throughout the books. Cide Hamete Benengeli is miscalled "Berengena", Teresa is called "Teresona Panza", so on. A scanned copy of the book available online from Open Library Alfonso Martín-Jiménez, Cervantes and Avellaneda's Don Quixote Alfonso Martín Jiménez, Las dos segundas partes del «Quijote», Repositorio Documental de la Universidad de Valladolid, 2015
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Avellaneda is a municipality of Spain in the province of Ávila, autonomous community of Castile and León. It is in the judicial district of Piedrahita, it has an area of 10.39 km², a population of 40, population density of 3.85 people per km². It is in the region of Alto Tormes. Before the provincial reorganization in 1833 it was part of the province of Salamanca, like the rest of Alto Tormes; as of 2016, the mayor was Vicente Martín Hernández
Marco Avellaneda (mathematician)
Marco Avellaneda is an American mathematician and financial consultant. He is the director of the Division of Financial Mathematics at the Courant Institute at New York University. Avellaneda was born on February 1955, in Miramar, Argentina, his great-grandfather Nicolas Avellaneda was Argentina’s youngest President and was credited with having brought on a period of peace and significant economic output and exports at the end of the 19th century. He spent his formative years living in Buenos Aires and Paris. Avellaneda attended the University of Buenos Aires from 1977 to 1981, he moved to the United States in 1981, to pursue a doctorate in mathematics at the University of Minnesota–Twin Cities where he graduated with a PhD in 1985. He is married to Cassandra Richmond, a psychotherapist, lives in New York City, he began his academic career at New York University's Courant Institute as an Instructor in 1985 and has been a member of the faculty since then. He was appointed Director of the Division of Financial Mathematics in 1998.
His research interests include applied mathematics and physics, mathematical finance, econometrics of financial markets, derivative securities, portfolio theory and risk-management. He was a visiting member of the Institute for Advanced Studies in 1997, the Applied Mathematics Laboratory at Ecole Polytechnique in Paris, the University of Nice’s Institut Jean Dieudonne, the University of Minnesota’s Institute for Mathematics and its Applications, the University of Coimbra’s International Center for Mathematics, he served in the American Mathematical Society’s Committee for Science Policy from 2000 to 2003. He is best known for the Uncertain Volatility Model for option pricing and his contributions to the formulation of quantitative trading strategies, such as statistical arbitrage, correlation trading, automated market-making, he teaches courses at NYU in Risk and Portfolio Management and Derivative Securities. Avellaneda has consulted extensively on the subject, his first assignment, in 1996, was with the foreign-exchange derivatives desk at Banque Indousuez in New York.
He became Vice-President of the Fixed-Income research and Derivative Products Group at Morgan Stanley in 1996, where he worked for one year before returning to NYU. He was consultant for the fixed-income research team at Banque Paribas in 1999, he headed the options research team at Gargoyle Strategic Investments from 2000 to 2004. Avellaneda consulted with the Royal Bank of Canada, focusing on structured credit derivatives, in 2001-2002. In 2003, he founded the risk management advisory firm Finance Concepts with fellow mathematician Rama Cont and Nicole El Karoui. In 2004, he started Capital Fund Management’s Nimbus Fund, dedicated to the systematic trading of listed equity derivatives. Avellaneda's research interests center on applications of mathematics and statistics to financial markets in the areas of trading and risk-management. In 2010, he was recognized as Quant of the Year by Risk magazine, for his paper on pricing options on hard-to-borrow securities co-authored with Michael Lipkin
Avellaneda Park is a public park in the Parque Avellaneda section of Buenos Aires. Nearly 5 km west of colonial Buenos Aires, an extensive plot of land was deeded in 1755 to the Brotherhood of the Holy Charity of Jesus Christ, who established an orphanage and the area's largest herbal remedy plantation; the "Remedy Farm" was purchased by Domingo Olivera in 1828, who maintained the herbal plantation and established the newly independent nation's first agricultural research station there. His son, became a licensed agronomist, a founding member of the influential Argentine Rural Society and organizer of the country's first agricultural exposition, in 1866; the Olivera family sold the estate to the city of Buenos Aires in 1912 and, under the direction of City Parks Commissioner Charles Thays, the land was inaugurated as Olivera Park in 1914. The 50 hectare park was the city's largest continuous green space and in 1916, the city installed its municipal tree farm on the park's western end for landscaping needs throughout Buenos Aires.
Educator Antonio Zaccagnini opened a school for disabled children on the park's eastern end in 1925 and in 1930, following the passing of the Director of the Buenos Aires Zoo, Clemente Onelli, the ridable miniature railway he had installed at the zoo for children was relocated to Avellaneda Park. The widening of Francisco Bilbao Avenue during the 1950s separated an 8 hectare southern section of the park, converted for use by Edenor, the public electric utility serving the area; the most dramatic change in the park's dimensions, took place after military-appointed Mayor Osvaldo Cacciatore's expropriation of a wide swath along Bilbao Avenue in 1977. The land was slated for the Perito Moreno Freeway, one of eight Cacciatore approved. Opened in 1980, the freeway's toll plaza takes up much of; these developments and nationwide economic malaise during the 1980s contributed to the park's decline. The first reversal of this came in 1989, when the former Olivera mansion was reopened as a cultural center, following years of disuse.
A descendant of the mansion's namesake family, Enrique Olivera, became Mayor of Buenos Aires following the election of his predecessor, Fernando de la Rúa, to the Argentine Presidency. As Vice-Mayor, Olivera had initiated restoration projects for the ailing park and in July 2000, he reopened the Onelli miniature railway and inaugurated the Remedy Farm Cultural Center, a homage to the land's original use. Avellaneda Park Historic Train Parque Avellaneda
Avellaneda is a partido in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. It has an area of 55.17 km² and a population of 663,953 in 2001. Its administrative seat is the city of Avellaneda; the partido is located in the Greater Buenos Aires urban area, separated from the city of Buenos Aires by the Matanza River, popularly known as Riachuelo. The Bartolomé Mitre is the main avenue of the district, connecting with the main federal city through two bridges, the Pueyrredón Bridge to Barracas and the New Pueyrredón Bridge, directly to the 9 de Julio Avenue; the Nicolás Avellaneda Bridge connects the Isla Maciel with La Boca neighbourhood. The Partido was known as Barracas al Sud, until it was renamed in honor of Nicolás Avellaneda in 1904; the Avellaneda Partido is subdivided into four cities and four localities, listed here with their populations: Between Dock Sud, Sarandí, Villa Domínico and Wilde there is an area called Reserva Cinturón Ecológico, a part of a network of waste dumps, which after reaching capacity are planted with greenery.
Avellaneda is home to two of the most famous football clubs in Argentina: Independiente and Racing. The partido is home to several other football teams including Arsenal de Sarandí of the Primera Division Argentina, lower league teams San Telmo, Dock Sud and Victoriano Arenas. Official Website Ministry of the Interior statistics