The Madrid Metro is a metro system serving the city of Madrid, capital of Spain. The system is the 7th longest metro in the world, having a length of 293 km. The Madrid Metro operates every day from 6 am until 1,30 am, a light rail system feeding the metro opened in 2007 called Metro Ligero. The Cercanias system works in conjunction with the metro servicing commuter train services to, some underground stations are large enough to hold public events, such as the three-day fitness festival in May 2011, which attracted 2,600 visitors. One station contains a 200-square-meter archaeological museum, the Madrid Metro has 1,698 escalators, the most of any system in the world. The first line of the Madrid metro opened on 17 October 1919 under the direction of the Compañía de Metro Alfonso XIII, the Madrid Metro is the first metro system in Spain and the second in the Spanish-speaking world after the Buenos Aires Underground. It was constructed in a section and the stations had 60 m platforms. The enlargement of this line and the construction of two others followed shortly after 1919, in 1924, traffic in Madrid switched from driving on the left, to driving on the right, but the lines of the Madrid Metro kept operating on the left hand side.
In 1936, the network had three lines and a line between Opera and Norte railway station. All these stations served as air raid shelters during the Spanish Civil War, after the Civil war, the public works to extend the network went on little by little. In the 1960s, a railway was constructed between Plaza de España and Carabanchel, linked to lines 2 and 3. A fifth metro line was constructed as well with narrow section but 90 m platforms, shortly after opening the first section of line 5, the platforms in line 1 were enlarged from 60 to 90 m, closing Chamberí station since it was too close to Iglesia. Chamberí has been closed ever since and has recently opened as a museum. In the early 1970s, the network was expanded to cope with the influx of population. New lines were planned with large 115 m platforms, lines 4 and 5 were enlarged as well. In 1979, bad management led to a crisis, Works already started were finished during the 1980s and all remaining projects were abandoned. After all those projects,100 km of track had been completed.
At the beginning of the 1990s, control of the network was transferred to a public enterprise, more large-scale expansion projects were carried out
An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses, or trains. Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks, the feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid. Electric trains that collect their current from overhead lines use a device such as a pantograph and it presses against the underside of the lowest overhead wire, the contact wire. Current collectors are electrically conductive and allow current to flow through to the train or tram, non-electric locomotives may pass along these tracks without affecting the overhead line, although there may be difficulties with overhead clearance. Alternative electrical power transmission schemes for trains include third rail, ground-level power supply and this article does not cover regenerative braking, where the traction motors act as generators to retard movement and return power to the overhead. To achieve good high-speed current collection, it is necessary to keep the wire geometry within defined limits.
This is usually achieved by supporting the wire from a second wire known as the messenger wire or catenary. This wire approximates the path of a wire strung between two points, a catenary curve, thus the use of catenary to describe this wire or sometimes the whole system. This wire is attached to the wire at regular intervals by vertical wires known as droppers or drop wires. It is supported regularly at structures, by a pulley, the whole system is subjected to a mechanical tension. As the contact wire makes contact with the pantograph, the insert on top of the pantograph is worn down. The straight wire between supports will cause the wire to cross over the whole surface of the pantograph as the train travels around the curve, causing uniform wear. On straight track, the wire is zigzagged slightly to the left. The movement of the wire across the head of the pantograph is called the sweep. The zigzagging of the line is not required for trolley poles. Depot areas tend to have only a wire and are known as simple equipment or trolley wire.
When overhead line systems were first conceived, good current collection was only at low speeds. Compound equipment - uses a second wire, known as the auxiliary
Line 7 (Madrid Metro)
Line 7 of the Madrid Metro originally opened on 17 July 1974 between Pueblo Nuevo and Las Musas. On 17 May 1975, the line was extended from Pueblo Nuevo to Avenida de América and for many years and this was a problem as line 7 was very scarcely used. This was solved in 1998 and 1999 when an extension to Pitis was opened in four stages, first, it was opened between Avenida de América and Gregorio Marañón on 1 April 1998, between Gregorio Marañón and Canal. Thirdly between Canal and Valdezarza and finally between Valdezarza and Pitis, Pitis however is the only station on the Madrid metro to have restricted opening times. This is because Pitis is a small village, and the stations main purpose is to provide interchange for Renfe services. So most trains run as far as Lacoma. There is a station built between Lacoma and Pitis called Arroyo del Fresno, but it is not open yet because the area around has not been developed, when this happens, the station is ready for immediate opening. On 4 May 2007, Line 7 was extended from Las Musas to the towns of Coslada, at the first station, Estadio Olímpico next to Madrids La Peineta Stadium, passengers have to change trains for Metro-Este to Coslada and San Fernando - the so-called Line 7B.
Line 7A uses 6-car trains of class 9000, and line 7B 3-car trains of class 9000
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile
Salamanca is one of the 21 districts that form the city of Madrid, Spain. Salamanca is located to the northeast of the center of Madrid. It covers an area of 540.742 hectares, the city was still enclosed within the defensive wall built in 1625 by king Philip IV of Spain, which blocked the city growth. In 1857, government allowed the Minister of Public Works, queen Isabella II allowed so in 1860 and the defensive walls were torn down in order to build the first Madrilian ensanche. Don José de Salamanca y Mayol, Marquis of Salamanca, gave his name to the area because of his involvement in the project and it was completely urbanized by 1927. Since then, the Salamanca district has one of the most representative areas for bourgeois madrileños. Salamanca is in the area of the Rondas, where the neighborhoods of Guindalera. Nowadays, the Salamanca district is one of the wealthiest areas in Madrid and some of its streets, the district has voted strongly in favor of the Peoples Party in all the recent Spanish general elections as well as the European Parliament elections in 2009 and before then.
Salamanca has about 150,775 inhabitants in 58.742 houses, Salamanca is well known for being one of the wealthiest and expensive areas in Madrid, with a high living cost and one of the highest real estate prices in the city. Serrano street is listed as the third most expensive street in Spain according to Cushman & Wakefield, Salamanca is home to the IE Business School which is ranked among the top 10 business schools in the world. Media related to Salamanca at Wikimedia Commons