Second French Empire
The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Many historians disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. By the late 20th century some were celebrating it as leading example of a modernizing regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon liberalized his rule after 1858, he promoted French business, exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians. In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe.
Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernize the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on reelection, it concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president.
As soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub. Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece.
The financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of August 16, 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict. Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasizing the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratization of culture.
The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France. The goal was to mobilize Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favorable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favored Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation. Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it; the administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant communities.
Napoleon III manipulated a range of politicized poli
Louis Aragon was a French poet, one of the leading voices of the surrealist movement in France, who co-founded with André Breton and Philippe Soupault the surrealist review Littérature. He was a novelist and editor, a long-time member of the Communist Party and a member of the Académie Goncourt. Louis Aragon was born in Paris, he was raised by his mother and maternal grandmother, believing them to be his sister and foster mother, respectively. His biological father, Louis Andrieux, a former senator for Forcalquier, was married and thirty years older than Aragon's mother, whom he seduced when she was seventeen. Aragon's mother passed Andrieux off to her son as his godfather. Aragon was only told the truth at the age of 19, as he was leaving to serve in the First World War, from which neither he nor his parents believed he would return. Andrieux's refusal or inability to recognize his son would influence Aragon's poetry on. Having been involved in Dadaism from 1919 to 1924, he became a founding member of Surrealism in 1924, with André Breton and Philippe Soupault under the pen-name "Aragon".
In the 1920s, Aragon became a fellow traveller of the French Communist Party along with several other surrealists, joined the Party in January 1927. In 1933 he began to write for the party's newspaper, L'Humanité, in the "news in brief" section, he would remain a member for the rest of his life, writing several political poems including one to Maurice Thorez, the general secretary of the PCF. During the World Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture, Aragon opposed his former friend André Breton, who wanted to use the opportunity as a tribune to defend the writer Victor Serge, associated with Leon Trotsky's Left Opposition. Aragon was critical of the USSR after the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during which Joseph Stalin's personality cult was denounced by Nikita Khrushchev; the French surrealists had long claimed Lewis Carroll as one of their own, Aragon published his translation of The Hunting of the Snark in 1929, "shortly before he completed his transition from Snarxism to Marxism", as Martin Gardner puts it.
Witness the key stanza of the poem in Aragon's translation: Gardner, who calls the translation "pedestrian" and deems the rest of Aragon's writings on Carroll's nonsense poetry full of factual errors, says that there is no evidence that Aragon intended any of it as a joke. Apart from working as a journalist for L'Humanité, Louis Aragon became, along with Paul Nizan, editor secretary of the journal Commune, published by the Association des Écrivains et Artistes Révolutionnaires, which aimed at gathering intellectuals and artists in a common front against fascism. Aragon became a member of the directing committee of the Commune journal in January 1937, along with André Gide, Romain Rolland and Paul Vaillant-Couturier; the journal took the name of "French literary review for the defence of culture". With Gide's withdrawal in August 1937, Vaillant-Couturier's death in autumn 1937 and Romain Rolland's old age, Aragon became its effective director. In December 1938, he called as chief editor the young writer Jacques Decour.
The Commune journal was involved in the mobilization of French intellectuals in favor of the Spanish Republic. In March 1937, Aragon was called on by the PCF to head the new evening daily, Ce soir, which he was charged with launching, along with the writer Jean-Richard Bloch. Ce soir attempted to compete with Paris-Soir. Outlawed in August 1939, Ce soir was re-opened after the Liberation, Aragon again became its lead, first with Bloch alone after Bloch's death in 1947; the newspaper, which counted Emile Danoën among its collaborators, closed in March 1953. In 1939 he married Russian-born author Elsa Triolet, the sister of Lilya Brik, a mistress and partner of Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, he had met her in 1928, she became his muse starting in the 1940s. Aragon and Triolet collaborated in the left-wing French media before and during World War II, going underground for most of the German occupation. Aragon was mobilized in 1939, awarded the Croix de guerre and the military medal for acts of bravery.
After the May 1940 defeat, he took refuge in the Southern Zone. He was one of several poets, along with René Char, Francis Ponge, Robert Desnos, Paul Éluard, Jean Prévost, Jean-Pierre Rosnay, etc. to join the Resistance, both through literary activities and as an actual organiser of Resistance acts. Otto Abetz was the German governor, produced a series of "black lists" of authors forbidden to be read, circulated or sold in Nazi Occupied France; these included anything written by a Jew, a communist, an Anglo-Saxon or anyone else, anti-Germanic or anti-fascist. Aragon and André Malraux were both on these "Otto Lists" of forbidden authors. During the war, Aragon wrote for the underground press Les Éditions de Minuit and was a member of the National Front Resistance movement, his poetry was published along texts by Vercors, Pierre Seghers or Paul Eluard in Switzerland in 1943 after being smuggled out of occupied France by his friend and publisher François Lachenal. He participated with his wife in the setting-up of the National Front of Writers in the Southern Zone.
This activism led him to break his friendly relationship with Pierre Drieu La Rochelle, who had chosen Collaborationism. Along with Paul Éluard, Pierre Seghers and René Char, Aragon would maintain the memory of the Resistance in his post-war poems, he thus wrote, in 1954, Strophes pour se souvenir in commemoration of the role of foreigners in the Resistance, which cel
The Opéra Bastille is a modern opera house in Paris, France. Inaugurated in 1989 as part of President François Mitterrand’s “Grands Travaux”, it became the main facility of the Paris National Opera, France's principal opera company, alongside the older Palais Garnier. Designed by Uruguayan architect Carlos Ott, it is located at the Place de la Bastille, in the 11th arrondissement; the idea for a new "popular and modern" opera house in Paris first came up in the 1880s, only years after the opening of the Palais Garnier. It would remain virtual for a century and reemerge periodically due to the recurrent "crisis at the Opera" and to the limitations imposed on modern opera production by the palais Garnier, it was notably promoted in 1965–1968 by stage director Jean Vilar, the most prominent figure in "popular theatre" at the time, commissioned a reform project for the National Opera Theatre and echoed composer Pierre Boulez’ provocative appeal to "blow up opera houses", as well as by senior civil servant François Bloch-Lainé in a 1977 report on the Opera's management and perspectives.
In 1981, the newly elected President François Mitterrand included a new opera house in his large monument-building programme known as the “Grands Travaux”. The project was part of the Cité de la musique, a complex of musical institutions in North-Eastern Paris, it was decided to separate it and to build it in the Bastille area of Paris, a working-class district that evoked the French Revolution and was a traditional starting or ending point for demonstrations. The following year, an international competition was launched, under supervision of the Opera Bastille Public Corporation, to select an architect. 756 entries were received, and, in November 1983, the competition was won by little-known architect Carlos Ott, an Uruguayan living in Canada. It was said that the jury, who—as it is quite common with architectural competitions—did not know the authors of the submission, mistakenly assumed that his design was from American architect Richard Meier. Construction began in 1984 with the demolition of the gare de la Bastille train station, which had opened in 1859 and closed in 1969, where art expositions had been held thereafter.
In 1986, the new right-wing government led by Jacques Chirac considered canceling the project, but decided it was too advanced and gave it the green light again. President Mitterrand remained involved throughout the building process, to the point that the planning team referred to him to decide on the seats’ colour following internal disagreement. In the original project, the house included a small concert hall and a multi-purpose hall; the latter was a public request by Pierre Boulez, who had long been publicly lamenting the lack of a proper venue for contemporary music and experimental performances in Paris. However, due to the construction delays, it was shelved, much to Boulez’ irritation, a similar facility was built as part of the Cité de la musique; the concert hall, known as the Bastille Amphitheatre, was built. After heavy budget overruns, the final construction cost was at 2.8 billion French francs. The building was inaugurated by François Mitterrand on 13 July 1989, on the eve of the 200th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, in the presence of thirty-three foreign heads of state or heads of government.
A semi-staged gala concert, directed by Robert Wilson under the title la Nuit avant le jour, was conducted by Georges Prêtre and featured singers such as Teresa Berganza and Plácido Domingo. The Paris Opera's traditional Bastille Day free concert was given there the following day; the house, unfinished at the time of the official inauguration, did not see its first opera performance until 17 March 1990, with Hector Berlioz’ les Troyens, directed by Pier Luigi Pizzi. The Opéra Bastille's management and public perception were marred by various controversies and scandals in the house's first decade and before its opening. In 1987, conductor Daniel Barenboim, who had led the orchestre de Paris, was hired to become the house's first Artistic Director, began planning the first seasons. In January 1989, six months before inauguration, the company's board chairman Pierre Bergé, otherwise head of the Yves Saint Laurent fashion house, fired Barenboim after the conductor's refusal to cut his pay by half as well as due to his modernist stance, which Bergé deemed unfit for a "popular" opera house.
It was noted that Barenboim had been hired by a right-wing government, while Bergé was a prominent supporter and donor of the Socialist Party. This decision proved controversial in the artistic field: Patrice Chéreau backed off the staging of the inaugural gala, composer Pierre Boulez resigned from the Board of Directors, Herbert von Karajan and Georg Solti, along with several other prominent conductors, signed a letter of protest and called for a boycott of the opéra Bastille, canceling their own concerts there; this made the search for a new Artistic Director difficult. Chung took the pit for the first opera performance in May 1990. Although his term was extended to last until 2000, Chung was fired in 1994 after the right-wing coalition's election victory, the
Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre (Paris Métro)
Palais Royal – Musée du Louvre is a station on lines 1 and 7 of the Paris Métro. It is one of the eight original stations opened as part of the first section of line 1 between Porte de Vincennes and Porte Maillot on 19 July 1900, under the name Palais Royal; the line 7 platforms were opened on 1 July 1916 with the extension of the line from Opéra. It was the southern terminus of the line until it was extended to Pont Marie on 16 April 1926; the station was given its current name in 1989, soon after the opening of the new entrance to the Louvre Museum. It is named after the Louvre; the entrance on Place Colette was redesigned by Jean-Michel Othoniel, as the "Kiosque des noctambules", completed in October 2000 for the centenary of the Métro. Two cupolas of the "Kiosque des noctambules" are made of colored glass beads that are threaded to structure of aluminum, they make an unexpected and original work in the traditional environment of the Place Colette. Attractions accessible from this metro station include the Louvre, the Place du Carrousel, the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall.
Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton. 2862533076
Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc, in French Jeanne d'Arc or Jehanne, nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans", is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint. She was born to a peasant family, at Domrémy in north-east France. Joan claimed to have received visions of the Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years' War; the uncrowned King Charles VII sent Joan to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief army. She gained prominence. Several additional swift victories led to Charles VII's coronation at Reims; this long-awaited event paved the way for the final French victory. On 23 May 1430, she was captured at Compiègne by the Burgundian faction, a group of French nobles allied with the English, she was handed over to the English and put on trial by the pro-English bishop Pierre Cauchon on a variety of charges.
After Cauchon declared her guilty she was burned at the stake on 30 May 1431, dying at about nineteen years of age. In 1456, an inquisitorial court authorized by Pope Callixtus III examined the trial, debunked the charges against her, pronounced her innocent, declared her a martyr. In the 16th century she became a symbol of the Catholic League, in 1803 she was declared a national symbol of France by the decision of Napoleon Bonaparte, she was beatified in 1909 and canonized in 1920. Joan of Arc is one of the nine secondary patron saints of France, along with Saint Denis, Saint Martin of Tours, Saint Louis, Saint Michael, Saint Rémi, Saint Petronilla, Saint Radegund and Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. Joan of Arc has remained a popular figure in literature, painting and other cultural works since the time of her death, many famous writers, filmmakers and composers have created, continue to create, cultural depictions of her; the Hundred Years' War had begun in 1337 as an inheritance dispute over the French throne, interspersed with occasional periods of relative peace.
Nearly all the fighting had taken place in France, the English army's use of chevauchée tactics had devastated the economy. The French population had not regained its former size since the Black Death of the mid-14th century, its merchants were isolated from foreign markets. Before the appearance of Joan of Arc, the English had nearly achieved their goal of a dual monarchy under English control and the French army had not achieved any major victories for a generation. In the words of DeVries, "The kingdom of France was not a shadow of its thirteenth-century prototype."The French king at the time of Joan's birth, Charles VI, suffered from bouts of insanity and was unable to rule. The king's brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, the king's cousin John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children; this dispute included accusations that Louis was having an extramarital affair with the queen, Isabeau of Bavaria, allegations that John the Fearless kidnapped the royal children.
The conflict climaxed with the assassination of the Duke of Orléans in 1407 on the orders of the Duke of Burgundy. The young Charles of Orléans succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, the Count of Armagnac, their faction became known as the "Armagnac" faction, the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the "Burgundian faction". Henry V of England took advantage of these internal divisions when he invaded the kingdom in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt on 25 October and subsequently capturing many northern French towns. In 1418 Paris was taken by the Burgundians, who massacred the Count of Armagnac and about 2,500 of his followers; the future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen, after all four of his older brothers had died in succession. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419; this ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection.
The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, blamed Charles for the murder and entered into an alliance with the English. The allied forces conquered large sections of France. In 1420 the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V and his heirs instead of her son Charles; this agreement revived suspicions that the Dauphin may have been the illegitimate product of Isabeau's rumored affair with the late duke of Orléans rather than the son of King Charles VI. Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother, John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, acted as regent. By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control; the English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional coronation site for French kings since 816.
This was an important consideration since neither claimant to the throne of France had been crowned yet. In 1428 the English had begun the siege of Orléans, one of the few remaining cities still loyal to Charles VII and an important objective since it held a strategic position along the Loire River, which ma
The Palais-Royal called the Palais-Cardinal, is a former royal palace located in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France. The screened entrance court faces the Place du Palais-Royal, opposite the Louvre. In 1830 the larger inner courtyard of the palace, the Cour d'Honneur, was enclosed to the north by what was the most famous of Paris's covered arcades, the Galerie d'Orléans. Demolished in the 1930s, its flanking rows of columns still stand between the Cour d'Honneur and the popular Palais-Royal Gardens; the Palais-Royal now serves as the seat of the Ministry of the Constitutional Council. Called the Palais-Cardinal, the palace was the personal residence of Cardinal Richelieu; the architect Jacques Lemercier began his design in 1629. Upon Richelieu's death in 1642 the palace became the property of the King and acquired the new name Palais-Royal. After Louis XIII died the following year, it became the home of the Queen Mother Anne of Austria and her young sons Louis XIV and Philippe, duc d'Anjou, along with her advisor Cardinal Mazarin.
From 1649, the palace was the residence of the exiled Henrietta Maria and Henrietta Anne Stuart and daughter of the deposed King Charles I of England. The two had escaped England in the midst of the English Civil War and were sheltered by Henrietta Maria's nephew, King Louis XIV. Henrietta Anne was married to Louis' younger brother, Philippe de France, duc d'Orléans in the palace chapel on 31 March 1661; the following year the new duchesse d'Orléans gave birth to a daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, inside the palace. After their marriage, the palace became the main residence of the House of Orléans; the Duchess created the ornamental gardens of the palace, which were said to be among the most beautiful in Paris. Under the new ducal couple, the Palais-Royal would become the social center of the capital; the court gatherings at the Palais-Royal were famed all around the capital as well as all of France. It was at these parties that the crème de la crème of French society came to be seen. Guests included the main members of the royal family like Anne of Austria.
Philippe's favourites were frequent visitors. The palace was redecorated and new apartments were created for the Duchess's maids and staff. Several of the women who came to be favourites to King Louis XIV were from her household: Louise de La Vallière, who gave birth there to two sons of the king, in 1663 and 1665. After Henrietta Anne died in 1670 the Duke took a second wife, the Princess Palatine, who preferred to live in the Château de Saint-Cloud. Saint-Cloud thus became the main residence of her eldest son and the heir to the House of Orléans, Philippe Charles d'Orléans known as the duc de Chartres. In 1692, on the occasion of the marriage of the duc de Chartres to Françoise Marie de Bourbon, Mademoiselle de Blois, a legitimised daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan, the King deeded the Palais-Royal to his brother. For the convenience of the bride, new apartments were built and furnished in the wing facing east on the rue de Richelieu, it was at this time that Philippe commissioned the gallery for his famous Orleans Collection of paintings, accessible to the public.
The architect was Jules Hardouin-Mansart, the cost of this reconstruction was totaled to be 400,000 livres. Hardouin-Mansart's assistant, François d'Orbay, prepared a general site plan, showing the Palais-Royal before these alterations were made; the garden shown on the plan was designed by André Lenôtre. After the dismissal of Madame de Montespan and the arrival of her successor, Madame de Maintenon, who forbade any lavish entertainment at Versailles, the Palais-Royal was again a social highlight; when the Duke of Orléans died in 1701, his son became the head of the House of Orléans. The new Duke and Duchess of Orléans took up residence at the Palais-Royal. Two of their daughters, Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans the Duchess of Modena, Louise Diane d'Orléans the Princess of Conti, were born there. Over a decade or so, sections of the Palais were transformed into shopping arcades that became the centre of 18th-century Parisian social and social life. Inspired by the souks of Arabia, the Galerie de Bois, a series of wooden shops linking the ends of the Palais Royal, was first opened in 1786.
For Parisians, who lived in the virtual absence of pavements, the streets were dirty. Thus, the Palais-Royal began what the architect, Bertrand Lemoine, describes as l’Ère des passages couverts, which transformed European shopping habits between 1786 and 1935. Designed to attract the genteel middle class, the Palais-Royal sold luxury goods at high prices. However, prices were never a deterrent, as these new arcades came to be the place to shop and to be seen. Arcades offered shoppers the promise of an enclosed space away from the chaos that characterised the noisy, dirty streets. Promenading in the arcades became a popular eighteenth century pastime for the emerging middle classes. Within a decade, new arcades were opened at the Palais site, it was transformed into a complex of gardens and entertainment venues situated on the external perimeter of the grounds, under the original colonnades; the area bo
A culverin was a simple ancestor of the musket, a medieval cannon, adapted for use by the French as "couleuvrine" in the 15th century, adapted for naval use by the English in the late 16th century. The culverin was used to bombard targets from a distance; the weapon had a long barrel and a light construction. The culverin fired solid round shot projectiles with a high muzzle velocity, producing a long range and flat trajectory. Round shot refers to the classic solid spherical cannonball; the term "culverin" is derived from the Latin, colubrinus, or "of the nature of a snake". It was the name of a medieval ancestor of the musket, used in the 15th and 16th centuries; the hand culverin consisted in a simple smoothbore tube, closed at one end except for a small hole designed to allow ignition of the gunpowder. The tube was held in place by a wooden piece; the tube was loaded with lead bullets. The culverin was fired by inserting a burning slow match into the hole; these hand culverins soon evolved into heavier portable culverins, around 40 kg in weight, which required a swivel for support and aiming.
Such culverins were further equipped with back-loading sabots to facilitate reloading, were used on ships. Many were immobile due to the heavy weight. There were three types of culverin in use, distinguished by their size: the culverin extraordinary, the ordinary, the least-sized. There were smaller versions, including the bastard culverin, 7-pound shot and the demi-culverin or culverin-moyen, 10-pound shot. Overall, the culverin was a significant advance. Since it fired a ball of iron and relied on gunpowder for propulsion, the heavy ball meant a stable flight and the gunpowder propulsion meant a fast and long-range. A replica culverin extraordinary has achieved a muzzle velocity of 408 m/s, a range over 450 metres using only minimal elevation; this velocity and mass imply that the cannonball had a kinetic energy of 600 kilojoules when leaving the muzzle. The culverin was replaced by the field gun once technology had advanced to the point where cannonballs had become explosive. Arquebus Demi-culverin Flintlock Hand cannon Matchlock Miquelet Musket Pistol Snaphance Snaplock Wheellock Encyclopædia Britannica Specifications and pictures of a French culverin found in the Azores