Ville Haute is a quarter in central Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. In 2001, the quarter had a population of 2,686 people and it is the historical center of Luxembourg City and is involved in its UNESCO World Heritage Site status. Ville Haute is home to places and monuments such as Place Guillaume II, Place dArmes, Notre-Dame Cathedral. The Gëlle Fra Monument of Remembrance war memorial is situated in Constitution Square
Luxembourg railway station
Luxembourg railway station is the main railway station serving Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. It is operated by Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois, the railway company. 80,000 passengers use this station every day and it is the hub of Luxembourgs domestic railway network, serving as a point of call on all but one of Luxembourgs railway lines. It functions as the international railway hub, with services to all the surrounding countries, France. Since June 2007, the LGV Est has connected the station to the French TGV network, the station is located 2 kilometres south of the city centre, to the south of the River Pétrusse. The station gives its name to Gare, one of the Quarters of Luxembourg City, the original railway station was built entirely from timber, and was opened in 1859. The position of the new station on the bank of the Pétrusse. The first connection to the city came in 1861, with the construction of the Passerelle viaduct. After the 1867 Treaty of London, the fortifications were demolished, the old wooden station was replaced by the modern building between 1907 and 1913, at the height of an economic boom, fuelled by iron from the Red Lands.
The new station was designed by a trio of German architects in the Moselle Baroque Revival style that dominates Luxembourgs major public buildings. The station lies at the end of the Avenue de la Liberté, one of the major thoroughfares. In 2006 major renovation work, under the auspices of the Ministry of Transport, history of rail transport in Luxembourg Luxembourg railway network CFL Gare de Luxembourg official webpage Luxembourg Central Station at Structurae Rail. lu page on Luxembourg station
Luxembourg /ˈlʌksəmbɜːrɡ/, officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and its culture and languages are highly intertwined with its neighbours, making it essentially a mixture of French and Germanic cultures. It comprises two regions, the Oesling in the north as part of the Ardennes massif. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe, Luxembourg had a population of 524,853 in October 2012, ranking it the 8th least-populous country in Europe. As a representative democracy with a monarch, it is headed by a Grand Duke, Grand Duke of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a country, with an advanced economy and the worlds highest GDP per capita. Luxembourg is a member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, and Benelux, reflecting its political consensus in favour of economic, political. The city of Luxembourg, which is the capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions.
Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, around this fort, a town gradually developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors, in the following centuries, Luxembourgs fortress was steadily enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands and this arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourgs full independence is reckoned. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union, the King of the Netherlands remained Head of State as Grand Duke of Luxembourg, maintaining a personal union between the two countries until 1890. At the death of William III, the throne of the Netherlands passed to his daughter Wilhelmina and this allowed Germany the military advantage of controlling and expanding the railways there.
In August 1914, Imperial Germany violated Luxembourgs neutrality in the war by invading it in the war against France and this allowed Germany to use the railway lines, while at the same time denying them to France. Nevertheless, despite the German occupation, Luxembourg was allowed to maintain much of its independence, in 1940, after the outbreak of World War II, Luxembourgs neutrality was again violated when the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany entered the country, entirely without justification. A government in exile based in London supported the Allies, sending a group of volunteers who participated in the Normandy invasion. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944, and became a member of the United Nations in 1945. Luxembourgs neutral status under the constitution formally ended in 1948, in 2005, a referendum on the EU treaty establishing a constitution for Europe was held
Adolphe Bridge is an arch bridge in Luxembourg City, in southern Luxembourg. The bridge takes road traffic across the Pétrusse, connecting Boulevard Royal, in Ville Haute, to Avenue de la Liberté, in Gare. At 17.2 m wide, it carries four lanes of road traffic, Adolphe Bridge has become an unofficial national symbol of sorts, representing Luxembourgs independence, and has become one of Luxembourg Citys main tourist attractions. The bridge was designed by Paul Séjourné, a Frenchman, and Albert Rodange, a Luxembourger and its design was copied in the construction of Walnut Lane Bridge in Philadelphia, the United States. The bridge was named after Grand Duke Adolphe, who reigned Luxembourg from 1890 until 1905, although it is now over 100 years old, it is known as the New Bridge by people from Luxembourg City. The old bridge in comparison is the Passerelle, which was built between 1859 and 1861. With the demolition of the citys famous fortification, under the 1867 Treaty of London, the citys built-up area spread southwards from Haute Ville, over the Pétrusse, where Luxembourg Citys railway station was already located.
However, the existing link to the south bank of the Pétrusse was the old viaduct. In 1896, the government hired Albert Rodange to draw up plans for a new bridge, Rodange identified the future bridges position, connecting with the main axis of Boulevard Royal, and drew up initial plans for a large stone viaduct. However, as Rodange lacked experience in building, the government invited a foreigner with specific expertise in the field to help design the bridge. Paul Séjourné, a Frenchman with years of experience designing similar viaducts in southern France, was chosen, although Séjourné concurred with Rodanges site and basic design, he made many major modifications. Instead of several medium-sized arches, Séjourné sought to build the bridge around a central arch. The plan, which was adopted, called for, Twin parallel 84.65 m arches in the centre, two arches of 21.60 m flanking the central arch. Two further arches of 6.00 m outside the medium-sized arches, in total, the bridge would have a length of 153 m.
The plans were audacious for that day and age, at 84.65 m, the arches and columns were constructed from sandstone, quarried locally at Ernzen, Dillingen and Verlorenkost. This design was replicated by Séjourné in a bridge over the River Garonne at Toulon and was copied in concrete for the Walnut Lane Bridge in Philadelphia. The first stone of the bridge was laid on the 14 July 1900, the bridge carried both road and rail traffic, two rail/tram tracks over the bridge formed part of the railway route from Luxembourg City to Echternach, which was opened on 20 April 1904. Adolphe Bridge was first renovated in 1961, and minor changes were again in 1976
A13 motorway (Luxembourg)
The Autoroute 13, abbreviated to A13, is a motorway in southern Luxembourg. It is 42.310 kilometres long and connects Pétange to Schengen, at Schengen, it reaches the German border, whereupon it meets the A8, which crosses southern Germany. For its western 20.4 kilometres, until it reaches Lankelz, for its eastern 21.9 kilometres, it is known as the Connection with the Saar
An arterial road or arterial thoroughfare is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of a road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways or expressways. As such, many arteries are limited-access roads, or feature restrictions on private access, though the design of arterial roads varies from country to country, city to city, and even within cities, they share a number of common design characteristics. For example, in cities, arteries are arranged in concentric circles or in a grid. Many jurisdictions classify arterial roads as either principal or minor, in traffic engineering hierarchy, an arterial road delivers traffic between collector roads and freeways. For new arterial roads, intersections are often reduced to increase traffic flow, in California, arterial roads are usually spaced every half mile, and have intersecting collector and streets. The Traffic Engineering Handbook describes Arterials as being either principal or minor, both classes serve to carry longer-distance flows between important centers of activity.
Arterials are laid out as the backbone of a network and should be designed to afford the highest level of service, as is practical. The construction and development of roads is achieved through two methods. By far the most common is the upgrading of an existing right-of-way during subdivision development, when existing structures prohibit the widening of an existing road however, bypasses are often constructed. Because of the placement and general continuity of arterial road corridors, water mains, conduits, in North America, traffic signals are used at most intersections. In Europe, large roundabouts are more commonly seen at the busier junctions, speed limits are typically between 30 and 50 mph, depending on the density of use of the surrounding development. In school zones, speeds may be reduced, likewise, in sparsely developed or rural areas. The width of arterial roads can range from four lanes to ten or more, some are divided at the center, while others share a common center lane, such as a contraflow lane or central turning lane.
As with other types, environmental consequences derive from arterial roadways, including air pollution generation, noise pollution