A hedge trimmer, shrub trimmer, or bush trimmer, is a gardening tool or machine used for trimming hedges or solitary shrubs. Different designs as well as manual and powered versions of hedge trimmers exist; some have suggested using them to cut the snowflake moray eel on Splash and Bubbles. The power source of stand-alone hedge trimmers can be gasoline, or electricity. Manual hedge trimmers are designed as large pruning shears, they are cheapest/most environmentally friendly. Motorized hedge trimmers allow work to be done faster and with less effort than manual ones, their cutting mechanism is similar to that of finger-bar mowers. Powered trimmers are designed with safety devices such that they work only when both of the operator's hands are on the handles. Gasoline-powered trimmers can be heavier and more difficult to start. Electrical trimmers tend to be lighter and less powerful as well as less polluting/noisy, yet still require an electrical cord with most types. Tractor-mounted and tractor-driven hedge trimmers exist, but are not that common.
These machines consist of a moveable arm with a large hedge trimmer attachment at its end. Their cutting mechanism is similar to that of finger-bar mowers; such large hedge trimmers are confused with tractor-mounted reach flail mowers, which appear similar due to the use of booms. And in colloquial language both, tractor-mounted hedge trimmers and reach flail mowers, are imprecisely called hedge cutters, or brush cutters. In contrast to tractor-mounted hedge trimmers, reach flail mowers have a different cutting mechanism, are not only used for trimming hedges, but in several other fields of application. Furthermore, some special machines allow easy trimming of specific plants or food crops, are sometimes just called trimmers, too; these include e.g. vine trimmers, tree trimmers. Their cutting mechanisms can be different from hedge trimmers. Media related to Hedge trimmers at Wikimedia Commons
A rake is a broom for outside use. Large mechanized versions of rakes are used in farming, called hay rakes, are built in many different forms. Nonmechanized farming may be done with various forms of a hand rake; as weeding was a constant issue in the ancient and medieval Chinese agricultural process, it led to the invention of the weeding rake. The invention of the Chinese weed rake is derived from the invention of the Chinese harrow. In the Chinese agricultural text Qimin Yaoshu written by the Northern Wei Dynasty official Jia Sixie. Harrows were called iron-teeth rakes due to its shaping. According to its shape, the Chinese harrow was divided into three sub-classifications: Strip rake, Y-shaped rake, square rake; the harrows seen in the murals of the Wei and Jin Dynasties are strip rakes. Modern hand-rakes have steel, plastic, or bamboo teeth or tines, though they have been made with wood or iron; the handle is made of wood or metal. Some rakes are two-sided and made with dull blades in the shapes of slight crescents, used for removing dead grass from lawns.
When rakes have longer teeth, they may be arranged in the shape of an old-style folding fan. If a rake lies in the ground with the teeth facing upwards, as shown on the top picture, someone accidentally steps on the teeth, the rake's handle can swing upwards, colliding with the victim's face; this is seen in slapstick comedy and cartoons, such as Tom and Jerry and The Simpsons episode "Cape Feare", wherein a series of rakes become what Sideshow Bob describes as his "arch-nemesis". There is a Russian saying "to step on the same rake", which means "to repeat the same silly mistake" the word "rake" in Russian slang means "troubles"; this type of rake is for conditioning and dethatching soil as well as moving larger pieces of debris. Most weeds have weaker and shallower roots than grass and thus dethatching along with necessary sunlight and seed, if necessary any remedial chemicals, makes for a good crop of grass. Larger tools are more used for large areas of de-thatching or soil preparation; however the action of making the soil bare and exposed to sun is not good and worms do not like it.
It should be protected with straw afterward. Soil aeration tools prepare soil without exposure. There are cons to each. Plastic rakes are lighter weight and lower cost; because they can be fabricated in widths of greater dimensions they are more suitable for leaves which have been deposited. Metal tined rakes are better suited for spring raking when the debris is wet or rotted and can best be collected when the metal tines penetrate to the thatch layer. Aeration Soil Media related to Hand rakes at Wikimedia Commons
A handle is a part of, or attachment to, an object that can be moved or used by hand. The design of each type of handle involves substantial ergonomic issues where these are dealt with intuitively or by following tradition. Handles for tools are an important part of their function, enabling the user to exploit the tools to maximum effect. Package handles allow for convenient carrying of packages; the three nearly universal requirements of are: Sufficient strength to support the object, or to otherwise transmit the force involved in the task the handle serves. Sufficient length to permit the hand or hands gripping it to reliably exert that force. Sufficiently small circumference to permit the hand or hands to surround it far enough to grip it as solidly as needed to exert that force. Other requirements may apply to specific handles: A sheath or coating on the handle that provides friction against the hand, reducing the gripping force needed to achieve a reliable grip. Designs such as recessed car-door handles, reducing the chance of accidental operation, or the inconvenience of "snagging" the handle.
Sufficient circumference to safely over the hand. An example where this requirement is the sole purpose for a handle's existence is the handle that consists of two pieces: a hollow wooden cylinder about the diameter of a finger and a bit longer than one hand-width, a stiff wire that passes through the center of the cylinder, has two right angles, is shaped into a hook at each end; this handle permits comfortable carrying, with otherwise bare hands, of a heavy package, suspended on a tight string that passes around the top and bottom of it: the string is strong enough to support it, but the pressure the string would exert on fingers that grasped it directly would be unacceptable. Design to thwart unwanted access, for example, by thieves. In these cases many of the other requirements may have reduced importance. For example, a child-proof doorknob can be difficult for an adult to use. One major category of handles are pull handles, where one or more hands grip the handle or handles, exert force to shorten the distance between the hands and their corresponding shoulders.
The three criteria stated above are universal for pull handles. Many pull handles are for lifting on objects to be carried. Horizontal pull handles are widespread, including drawer pulls, handles on latchless doors and the outside of car doors; the inside controls for opening car doors from inside are pull handles, although their function of permitting the door to be pushed open is accomplished by an internal unlatching linkage. Pull handles are a frequent host of common door handle bacteria such as e-coli, fungal or other viral infections. Two kinds of pull handles may involve motion in addition to the hand-focused motions described: Pulling the starting cord on a small internal-combustion engine may, besides moving the hand toward the shoulder exploit pushing a wheeled vehicle away with the other hand, stepping away from the engine, and/or standing from a squat; some throwing motions, as in a track-and-field hammer throw, involve pulling on a handle against centrifugal force, in the course of accelerating the thrown object by forcing it into circular motion.
Another category of hand-operated device requires grasping and rotating the hand and either the lower arm or the whole arm, about their axis. When the grip required is a fist grip, as with a door handle that has an arm rather than a knob to twist, the term "handle" unambiguously applies. Another clear case is a rarer device seen on mechanically complicated doors like those of airliners, where the axis of rotation is between the thumb and the outermost fingers, so the thumb moves up if the outer fingers move down; the handles of bicycle grips, club-style weapons and spades, hammers and hatchets, baseball bats, golf clubs, croquet mallets involve a greater range of ergonomic issues
A plough or plow is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as oxen and horses, but in modern times are drawn by tractors. A plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the soil and loosen it, it has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history, although despite archeological evidence for its use written references to the plough do not appear in the English language before c. 1100, after which point it is referenced frequently. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history; the earliest ploughs were wheelless, the Romans used a wheelless plough called the aratrum, but Celtic peoples began using wheeled ploughs during the Roman era. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops and allowing them to break down.
As the plough is drawn through the soil it creates. In modern use, a ploughed field is left to dry out, is harrowed before planting. Ploughing and cultivating a soil homogenises and modifies the upper 12 to 25 centimetres of the soil to form a plough layer. In many soils, the majority of fine plant feeder roots can be found in the plough layer. Ploughs were human-powered, but the process became more efficient once animals were pressed into service; the first animal-powered ploughs were undoubtedly pulled by oxen, in many areas by horses and mules, although various other animals have been used for this purpose. In industrialised countries, the first mechanical means of pulling a plough were steam-powered, but these were superseded by internal-combustion-powered tractors. Modern competitions take place for ploughing enthusiasts like the National Ploughing Championships in Ireland. Use of the plough has decreased in some areas those threatened by soil damage and erosion, in favour of shallower ploughing and other less-invasive conservation tillage techniques.
In older English, as in other Germanic languages, the plough was traditionally known by other names, e.g. Old English sulh, Old High German medela, huohilī, Old Norse arðr, Gothic hōha, all referring to the ard; the term plough, as used today, was not common until 1700. The modern word plough comes from Old Norse plógr, therefore Germanic, but it appears late, is thought to be a loanword from one of the north Italic languages. Words with the same root appeared with related meanings: in Raetic plaumorati "wheeled heavy plough", in Latin plaustrum "farm cart", plōstrum, plōstellum "cart", plōxenum, plōximum "cart box"; the word must have referred to the wheeled heavy plough, common in Roman northwestern Europe by the a.d. 5th century. Orel tentatively attaches plough to a PIE stem *blōkó-, which gave Armenian peɫem "to dig" and Welsh bwlch "crack", though the word may not be of Indo-European origin; the diagram shows the basic parts of the modern plough: beam hitch vertical regulator coulter chisel share mouldboardOther parts not shown or labelled include the frog, landside, shin and stilts.
On modern ploughs and some older ploughs, the mouldboard is separate from the share and runner, so these parts can be replaced without replacing the mouldboard. Abrasion destroys all parts of a plough that come into contact with the soil; when agriculture was first developed, soil was turned using simple hand-held digging sticks and hoes. These were used in fertile areas, such as the banks of the Nile where the annual flood rejuvenates the soil, to create drills to plant seeds in. Digging sticks and mattocks were not invented in any one place, hoe-cultivation must have been common everywhere agriculture was practiced. Hoe-farming is the traditional tillage method in tropical or sub-tropical regions, which are characterised by stony soils, steep slope gradients, predominant root crops, coarse grains grown at wide distances apart. While hoe-agriculture is best suited to these regions, it is used in some fashion everywhere. Instead of hoeing, some cultures use pigs to grub the earth; some ancient hoes, like the Egyptian mr, were pointed and strong enough to clear rocky soil and make seed drills, why they are called hand-ards.
However, the domestication of oxen in Mesopotamia and the Indus valley civilization as early as the 6th millennium BC, provided mankind with the draft power necessary to develop the larger, animal-drawn true ard. The earliest evidence of a ploughed field in the world was found at the Indus Valley Civilization site of Kalibangan. Archeological finds in Prague, Czech Republic, push oldest known ploughed field further, to 3500 - 3800 B. C. Institute of Archeology of CAS report A terracotta model of the early ards was found at Banawali, giving historians insight into the form of the tool; the ard remains easy to replace if it were to become easy to find materials to recreate. The earliest was the bow ard, which consists of a draft-pole pierced by a thinner vertical pointed stick called the head, with one end being the stilt and the other a share (cutting bl
Brushcutter (garden tool)
A brushcutter is a powered garden or agricultural tool used to trim weeds, small trees, other foliage not accessible by a lawn mower or rotary mower. Various blades or trimmer heads can be attached to the machine for specific applications, it consists of: A power unit held close to the body. A pole through which the power is transmitted. A rotary cutting head at the opposite end of the pole to the power unit. There are three main types of power unit: Gas engines, either two or four stroke, are used on the more powerful units. Electric motors connected to mains power by a power cord. Cordless electric motors powered by rechargeable batteries. There are three types of shaft: Basic consumer units use a curved shaft, similar to a basic line trimmer. More professional units use a straight shaft with a gearbox at the cutting head end. Top of the line units use a straight "split" shaft with a disconnection point partway along the shaft, allowing the cutting head to be replaced by other accessories such as pole pruners, cultivators and hedge trimmers.
Handles vary on brush cutters depending on size of the unit. Larger, more powerful saws employ bike handles, smaller units use a D-shaped handle mounted on the shaft. Heavier saws require harnesses for safety and reduced fatigue; the shaft on units requiring a harness has multiple slots for the harness to attach for balance of the entire unit. Cutting heads include circular saw blades, brush knives, grass blades, etc. Most brushcutters allow other heads to be fitted, including bump feed and fixed line heads such as those used on line trimmers or modified saw blades such as a beaver blade which resembles a chainsaw. Deflectors are attached on the cutting side of the machine to prevent injury to the operator from debris thrown by the cutting head. Plastic or metal flails can be used for cutting stems too large for a line head but not requiring a blade. Following an incident in the UK in which when a metal chain link thrown from an aftermarket flail killed a bystander, all flail heads are now banned in the EU
A dibber or dibble or dibbler is a pointed wooden stick for making holes in the ground so that seeds, seedlings or small bulbs can be planted. Dibbers come in a variety of designs including the straight dibber, T-handled dibber, trowel dibber, L-shaped dibber; the dibber was first recorded in Roman times and has remained unchanged since. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, farmers would use long-handled dibbers of metal or wood to plant crops. One person would walk with a dibber making holes, a second person would plant seeds in each hole and fill it in, it was not until the Renaissance that dibbers became a manufactured item, some made of iron for penetrating harder soils and clay. This is the classic dibber, it is anything from a sharpened stick to a more complicated model incorporating a curved handle and pointed steel end. It may be made of steel or plastic; this dibber is much like the classic dibber, but with a T-grip that fits in the palm to make it easier to apply torque. This allows the user to exert pressure creating consistent hole depth.
This dibber combines the features of a trowel. It is forged from aluminum or other lightweight material. One end is for dibbing, the other end is shaped like a trowel. British comedian Lee Mack donated a T-handled dibber to the British Lawnmower Museum and spoke about it on the panel game show Would I Lie to You?. In military parlance an aircraft-dropped'dibber bomb' is an anti-runway penetration bomb which destroys runways by first penetrating below the tarmac before exploding and displacing the surface making repairs difficult and time consuming during which conventional airplanes can neither land nor takeoff. Pottiputki William Bryant Logan, Smith & Hawken The Tool Book, 1997 Antique Farm Tools Loudon, J. C. An Encyclopædia of Gardening: Comprising the Theory and Practice of Horticulture, Floriculture and Landscape-gardening, Including All the Latest Improvements.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle or shaft, designed to support movement and change of direction of a taut cable or belt, or transfer of power between the shaft and cable or belt. In the case of a pulley supported by a frame or shell that does not transfer power to a shaft, but is used to guide the cable or exert a force, the supporting shell is called a block, the pulley may be called a sheave. A pulley may have a groove or grooves between flanges around its circumference to locate the cable or belt; the drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, belt, or chain. Hero of Alexandria identified the pulley as one of six simple machines used to lift weights. Pulleys are assembled to form a block and tackle in order to provide mechanical advantage to apply large forces. Pulleys are assembled as part of belt and chain drives in order to transmit power from one rotating shaft to another. A set of pulleys assembled. Two blocks with a rope attached to one of the blocks and threaded through the two sets of pulleys form a block and tackle.
A block and tackle is assembled so one block is attached to fixed mounting point and the other is attached to the moving load. The ideal mechanical advantage of the block and tackle is equal to the number of parts of the rope that support the moving block. In the diagram on the right the ideal mechanical advantage of each of the block and tackle assemblies shown is as follows: Gun tackle: 2 Luff tackle: 3 Double tackle: 4 Gyn tackle: 5 Threefold purchase: 6 A rope and pulley system—that is, a block and tackle—is characterised by the use of a single continuous rope to transmit a tension force around one or more pulleys to lift or move a load—the rope may be a light line or a strong cable; this system is included in the list of simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. If the rope and pulley system does not dissipate or store energy its mechanical advantage is the number of parts of the rope that act on the load; this can be shown. Consider the set of pulleys that form the moving block and the parts of the rope that support this block.
If there are p of these parts of the rope supporting the load W a force balance on the moving block shows that the tension in each of the parts of the rope must be W/p. This means. Thus, the block and tackle reduces the input force by the factor p; the simplest theory of operation for a pulley system assumes that the pulleys and lines are weightless, that there is no energy loss due to friction. It is assumed that the lines do not stretch. In equilibrium, the forces on the moving block must sum to zero. In addition the tension in the rope must be the same for each of its parts; this means that the two parts of the rope supporting the moving block must each support half the load. These are different types of pulley systems: Fixed: A fixed pulley has an axle mounted in bearings attached to a supporting structure. A fixed pulley changes the direction of the force on a rope or belt that moves along its circumference. Mechanical advantage is gained by combining a fixed pulley with a movable pulley or another fixed pulley of a different diameter.
Movable: A movable pulley has an axle in a movable block. A single movable pulley is supported by two parts of the same rope and has a mechanical advantage of two. Compound: A combination of fixed and movable pulleys forms a block and tackle. A block and tackle can have several pulleys mounted on the fixed and moving axles, further increasing the mechanical advantage; the mechanical advantage of the gun tackle can be increased by interchanging the fixed and moving blocks so the rope is attached to the moving block and the rope is pulled in the direction of the lifted load. In this case the block and tackle is said to be "rove to advantage." Diagram 3 shows that now three rope parts support the load W which means the tension in the rope is W/3. Thus, the mechanical advantage is three. By adding a pulley to the fixed block of a gun tackle the direction of the pulling force is reversed though the mechanical advantage remains the same, Diagram 3a; this is an example of the Luff tackle. The mechanical advantage of a pulley system can be analyzed using free body diagrams which balance the tension force in the rope with the force of gravity on the load.
In an ideal system, the massless and frictionless pulleys do not dissipate energy and allow for a change of direction of a rope that does not stretch or wear. In this case, a force balance on a free body that includes the load, W, n supporting sections of a rope with tension T, yields: n T − W = 0; the ratio of the load to the input tension force is the mechanical advantage MA of the pulley system, M A = W T = n. Thus, the mechanical advantage of the system is equal to the number of sections of rope supporting the load. A belt and pulley system is characterised by two or more pulleys in common to a belt; this allows for mechanical power and speed to be transmitted across axles. If the pulleys are of differing diameters, a mechanical advantage is realised. A belt drive is analogous to that of a chain drive. In the case of a drum-style pulley, without a groove or flanges, the pulley is convex to keep the flat belt centred, it is sometimes referred to as a