Philippa of Luxembourg
Philippa of Luxembourg was the daughter of Count Henry V of Luxembourg and his wife, Marguerite of Bar. She married John Count of Holland. Two of her granddaughters were Philippa of Hainault, Queen consort of England, Margaret II, Countess of Hainault in her own right and wife of Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV; the children of John II of Holland and Philippa of Luxembourg included: John Henry, a canon in Cambrai Simon William I, Count of Hainaut, father of Queen Philippa and Margaret II John, Seigneur de Beaumont. Married Marguerite, Countess of Soissons. Margaret, wife of Robert II of Artois Alix, wife of Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk Isabelle, wife of Raoul de Clermont, Seigneur de Nesle. Jeanne, nun at Fontenelles Mary of Avesnes, wife of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon Matilda, Abbess of Nivelles Willem de Cuser Philippa de Luxembourg
County of Zeeland
The County of Zeeland was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries. It covered an area in the Scheldt and Meuse delta corresponding to the modern Dutch province of Zeeland; the County of Zeeland did not include the region of Zeelandic Flanders, part of Flanders. The area has always been the prey of its stronger neighbors, the County of Holland, the County of Hainaut and the County of Flanders. In 1012 Emperor Henry II the Saint enfeoffed the French count Baldwin IV of Flanders with Zeeland after which both counties were ruled in personal union, contested by northern Holland from the beginning. In 1167 a war broke out between the counties, after which Count Floris III of Holland had to acknowledge the overlordship of Count Philip of Flanders in Zeeland. Count Floris IV of Holland reconquered Zeeland, which from the accession of Count Floris V, the son of William II of Holland, in 1256 was ruled in personal union by Holland. By the 1323 Treaty of Paris between Flanders and Hainaut-Holland, the Count of Flanders reneged from claims on Zeeland and recognized the count of Holland as Count of Zeeland.
Zeeland remained a separate administrative unit, which in turn was under the administration of the counts of Holland. In 1432 it was annexed by the Burgundian duke Philip the Good and became part of the Burgundian Netherlands. After the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482, Zeeland according to the Treaty of Senlis was one of the Seventeen Provinces held by the House of Habsburg, which in 1512 joined the Burgundian Circle. After the Eighty Years' War, Zeeland was one of the United Provinces of the Dutch Republic established in 1581. Both before and after Dutch independence Zeeland shared some institutions with the States of Holland and West Friesland, such as the supreme court, the Supreme Council of Holland and West-Friesland, after the northern provinces had removed themselves from imperial authority and the jurisdiction of the Grand Council of Mechelen. After establishment of the States-General of the Netherlands in 1583, Middelburg became the place of assembly. From 1585 on they were held in The Hague.
As a independent state the county Zealand ceased to exist under the Batavian Republic in 1795, when it became a département. Together with Zeeuws-Vlaanderen it today forms the province of Zeeland. Voting cities, in order of importance: Middelburg Zierikzee Reimerswaal until 1574 voting in the States of Zeeland, Goes Tholen Vlissingen voting in the States of Zeeland from 1574 on Veere voting in the States of Zeeland from 1574 onSmall Towns: Arnemuiden Brouwershaven Domburg Kortgene Sint Maartensdijk Westkapelle Count of Holland
Bouchard IV of Avesnes
Burchard IV or Bouchard IV was the lord of Avesnes and Étrœungt. He was the son of brother of Walter, Count of Blois. Bouchard began his career as a subdeacon in the church of Laon. In 1212, he was named bailiff of Hainaut. In this capacity, he served as tutor and guardian of the young Margaret, sister of Joanna, Countess of Flanders and Hainault, he married Margaret in 1212, though she was only ten years old and the marriage could not be consummated. Neither Joanna nor Count Ferdinand gave their consent, tried to have the marriage stopped, they failed. Bouchard lived a war-like life, he invaded the territory of his brother Walter. He invaded Flanders and forced Joanna and Ferdinand to recognise his marriage to Margaret, he fought at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, under the Flemish banner. Philip Augustus, the king of France and victor of Bouvines counselled the pope, Innocent III, to declare the marriage of Bouchard and Margaret illegal. Innocent excommunicated Bouchard on 19 January 1216, they took refuge in Luxembourg.
In 1219, Bouchard would be imprisoned in Ghent for two years. To obtain his release, Margaret accepted the dissolution of the marriage and Bouchard left for Italy to fight for the Holy See. Upon his return, he was decapitated at Rupelmonde on the orders of Joanna. Bouchard and Margaret had three children, who played an important part in the War of the Succession of Flanders and Hainault: Baldwin, took refuge with his parents in Luxembourg John I Count of Hainault Baldwin, Lord of Beaumont
Joan, Countess of Flanders
Joan called Joan of Constantinople, ruled as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut from 1205 until her death. She was the elder daughter of Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders and Hainaut, Marie of Champagne. Orphaned during the Fourth Crusade, Joan was raised in Paris under the tutelage of King Philip II of France, he arranged her marriage to Infante Ferdinand of Portugal in 1212. Ferdinand turned against Philip, starting a war that ended with the defeat of Bouvines and his imprisonment. Joan ruled her counties alone from the young age of 14, she faced the rivalry of her younger sister, Margaret, as well as the revolt of her domains – guided by a man who claimed to be her father. After the end of the war, Ferdinand died soon after. Joan married Thomas of Savoy, she died in 1244 at the Abbey of Marquette near Lille, having survived her only child, a daughter by Ferdinand. Joan's policies favored economic development in her counties, she played an important role in the development of the Mendicant orders, the Beguines, the Victorines and hospital communities in her domains.
Under her reign, women's foundations increased, transforming the place of women in both society and the church. The Manessier's Continuation, one of the novels of the Story of the Grail was written for Joan, as well as the Life of St. Martha of Wauchier de Denain; the first novel in Dutch, Van den vos Reynaerde, was written by a cleric of her court. There are several painted or sculpted representations of the Countess in France and Belgium, as well as two Géants du Nord. Joan's exact date of birth is unknown. Contemporary sources indicate that, like her younger sister Margaret, she was baptized in the Church of St. John of Valenciennes. In 1202, Joan's father Baldwin left his lands to participate in the Fourth Crusade. After the capture of Constantinople, he was proclaimed Emperor by the crusaders on May 9, 1204, his wife, decided to join him shortly after his departure, leaving their daughters Joan and Margaret in the care of their paternal uncle, Philip I, Marquis of Namur. Marie decided to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land before reuniting with her husband, but died after her arrival at Acre in August 1204.
One year on April 14, 1205, Baldwin IX vanished during the Battle of Adrianople against Bulgarians and Cumans under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria. His fate is unknown. After the news of Baldwin IX's disappearance reached Flanders in February 1206, Joan succeeded her father as Countess of Flanders and Hainaut; because she was still a child, the administration of both counties was assumed by a council composed of the Chancellor of Flanders, the Provost of Lille and the Castellans of Lille and Saint-Omer. The guardianship and education of both Joan and her sister was supervised by their uncle Philip I of Namur, who soon put his nieces in a difficult position, he became betrothed to Marie of France, a daughter of King Philip II. He gave his future father-in-law custody of Joan and Margaret, who were raised in Paris alongside the young Theobald IV of Champagne. During their time in France, they became familiar with the Cistercian Order because of the future French queen Blanche of Castile. In 1206, the French king demanded assurances from Philip I of Namur that he would not marry off his nieces without the former's consent.
In 1208, they reached an agreement: Joan and Margaret were forbidden to marry before their legal majority without the consent of the Marquis of Namur. However, the Marquis would not oppose the royal choice of husbands. If either refused the candidate chosen by King Philip II, the agreement required the Marquis to find a husband—after compensation was made to the French king. In 1211 Enguerrand III of Coucy offered the King the sum of 50,000 livres to marry Joan, while his brother Thomas would marry Margaret. However, the Flemish nobility was hostile to the project. Matilda of Portugal, widow of Joan's granduncle Philip I of Flanders offered her nephew, Ferdinand of Portugal, as Joan's husband for the same amount; the marriage was celebrated in Paris in January 1212. Ferdinand thus became Joan's co-ruler. While on their way to Flanders, the newlyweds were captured by Joan's first cousin Louis of France, eldest son of King Philip II; the French prince intended to recover a large portion of the territory that he considered as belonging to his late mother's dowry, including the Artois that Joan's father had taken back by force after the death of Louis' mother in 1190.
Joan and Ferrand only could obtain their release after signing the Treaty of Pont-à-Vendin, under which they were forced to surrender the towns of Aire-sur-la-Lys and Saint-Omer to France, recognizing the previous occupation of Prince Louis over that lands. After this event and Ferrand decided to join in an alliance with the former allies of Baldwin IX, King John of England and Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, they obtained the support of the powerful bourgeoisie of Ghent after Joan and Ferrand agreed to the annual election of four prudhommes chosen among the aldermen of the city. In retaliation for this alliance, King Philip II attacked Lille, burned in 1213. In Damme, the French fleet was destroyed by the English. At the Battle of Roche-au-Moine, Prince Louis defeated the English army. King
Avesnes-sur-Helpe is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the Nord department, it is situated 14 km from the Belgian border, 18 km south of Maubeuge, the nearest larger town. The river Helpe Majeure, a tributary of the Sambre, flows through the town. Upstream of Avesnes on the river there is an artificial lake. Avesnes was founded in the 11th century; the first known lord was Wedric II of son of Wedric I de Morvois. The house of Avesnes played an important role in the low countries, including several Counts of Holland, it was destroyed by Louis XI in 1477 after his victory in the Burgundian Wars. A part of the County of Hainaut, it became French in 1659 as a result of the Treaty of the Pyrenees, was fortified by Vauban, although it was captured by Prussia in 1815. Avesnes was fortified, with fortifications that were continually modernised, from the 11th century up until 1867 when its fortifications, like those of other isolated bastions, were deemed to be redundant.
In the 1870 some of the fortifications were demolished to allow easier access to the town. Many of the buildings on the main streets in this town are made of dimension stone, like the 200 ft bell tower of the main church, St Nicholas, which dates from the 16th century; the Tour de France race cycled through town in its 1999 progression around France. The region of Avesnes-Sur-Helpe is known for its distinctive cheeses: the Maroilles cheese and the "boule d'Avesnes", a local cone-shaped red cheese, coated in paprika; the high school in the region is the Lycée Jesse de Forest, named for an Avesnes native son, responsible for the earliest settlement of the Dutch and Huguenots in what is now New York. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, sociologists call this polygyny; when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called a group marriage or mixed-orientation marriage. In contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like "monogamy", the term "polygamy" is used in a de facto sense, applied regardless of whether the state recognizes the relationship. In sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. Worldwide, different societies variously encourage, outlaw polygamy. Of societies which allow or tolerate polygamy, in the vast majority of cases the form accepted is polygyny. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny, 186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry. From a religious point of view, "The bible shows over 36 named men who had more than one wife."
In cultures which practice polygamy, its prevalence among that population is connected to class and socioeconomic status. From a legal point of view, in many countries, although marriage is monogamous, adultery is not illegal, leading to a situation of de facto polygamy being allowed, although without legal recognition for non-official "spouses". According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be monogamous, with cultural practice of polygamy to be in the minority, based on both surveys of world populations, on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Polygamy exists in three specific forms: Polygyny, wherein a man has multiple simultaneous wives Polyandry, wherein a woman has multiple simultaneous husbands Group marriage, wherein the family unit consists of multiple husbands and multiple wives of legal age Polygyny, the practice wherein a man has more than one wife at the same time, is by far the most common form of polygamy. Many Muslim-majority countries and some countries with a sizeable Muslim minority accept polygyny and culturally to varying extents.
Polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent in West Africa, some scholars see the slave trade's impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated an historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygamy in the majority of sub-Saharan African societies. Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies between the male-dominated intensive plough-agriculture common in Eurasia and the extensive shifting horticulture found in sub-Saharan Africa. In some of the sparsely-populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work; this favours polygamous marriages in which men seek to monopolize the production of women "who are valued both as workers and as child bearers".
Goody, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied, discusses more traditionally male-dominated though extensive farming systems such as those that exist in much of West Africa in the West African savanna, where polygyny is desired by men more for the generation of male offspring, whose labor is valued. Anthropologists Douglas R. White and Michael L. Burton discuss and support Jack Goody's observation regarding African male farming systems in "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy and Warfare" where these authors note: Goody argues against the female contributions hypothesis, he notes Dorjahn's comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa the West African savanna, where one finds high male agricultural contributions. Goody says, "The reasons behind polygyny are sexual and reproductive rather than economic and productive", arguing that men marry polygynously to maximize their fertility and to obtain large households containing many young dependent males.
Polygynous marriages fall into two types: sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters, non-sororal, where the co-wives are not related. Polygyny offers husbands the benefit of allowing them to have more children, may provide them with a larger number of productive workers, allows them to establish politically useful ties with a greater number of kin groups. Senior wives can benefit as well when the addition of junior wives to the family lightens their workload. Wives' senior wives', status in a community can increase through the addition of other wives, who add to the family's prosperity or symbolize conspicuous consumption. For such reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the bride price for an extra wife. Polygyny may result from the practice of levirate marriage. In such cases, the deceased man's heir may inherit his assets and wife; this provides support for the widow and her children and maintains t
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late