World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Tbilisi, in some countries still known by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of 1.5 million people. Founded in the 5th century AD by Vakhtang I of Iberia, since Tbilisi served as the capital of various Georgian kingdoms and republics. Between 1801 and 1917 part of the Russian Empire, Tbilisi was the seat of the Imperial Viceroy, governing both Southern and Northern Caucasus; because of its location on the crossroads between Europe and Asia, its proximity to the lucrative Silk Road, throughout history Tbilisi was a point of contention among various global powers. The city's location to this day ensures its position as an important transit route for various energy and trade projects. Tbilisi's diverse history is reflected in its architecture, a mix of medieval, Beaux Arts, Art Nouveau and the Modern structures. Tbilisi has been home to people of multiple cultural and religious backgrounds, though it is overwhelmingly Eastern Orthodox Christian.
Its notable tourist destinations include cathedrals Sameba and Sioni, Freedom Square, Rustaveli Avenue and Agmashenebeli Avenue, medieval Narikala Fortress, the pseudo-Moorish Opera Theater, the Georgian National Museum. The name Tbilisi derives from Old Georgian t′bilisi, further from tpili; the name T′bili or T′bilisi was therefore given to the city because of the area's numerous sulphuric hot springs. Until 1936, the name of the city in English and most other languages was Tiflis, while the Georgian name was ტფილისი. On 17 August 1936, by order of the Soviet leadership, the official Russian names of various cities were modified to more match the local language. In addition, the Georgian-language form T′pilisi was modernized on the basis of a proposal by Georgian linguists; this form was the basis for a new official Russian name. Most other languages have subsequently adopted the new name form, but some language such as Turkish, Persian and German have retained a variation of Tiflis. On 20 September 2006, the Georgian parliament held a ceremony celebrating the 70th anniversary of the renaming.
Some of the traditional names of Tbilisi in other languages of the region have different roots. The Ossetian name Калак derives from the Georgian word ქალაქი meaning "town". Chechen and Ingush names for the city use a form similar to or the same as their names for the country of Georgia as does the historical Kabardian name, while Abkhaz Қарҭ is from the Mingrelian ქართი. Archaeological studies of the region have indicated human settlement in the territory of Tbilisi as early as the 4th millennium BC. According to legend, the present-day territory of Tbilisi was covered by forests as late as 458. One accepted variant of Tbilisi foundation myth states that King Vakhtang I of Iberia went hunting in the wooded region with a falcon; the King's falcon caught or injured a pheasant during the hunt, after which both birds fell into a nearby hot spring and died from burns. King Vakhtang became so impressed with the hot springs that he decided to clear the forest and build a city on the location. King Dachi of Iberia, the successor of Vakhtang I, moved the capital of Iberia from Mtskheta to Tbilisi.
During his reign began construction of the fortress wall that lined the city's new boundaries. From the 6th century, Tbilisi grew at a steady pace due to the region's strategic location along important trade and travel routes between Europe and Asia. Tbilisi's favorable trade location, did not bode well for its survival. Located strategically in the heart of the Caucasus between Europe and Asia, Tbilisi became an object of rivalry among the region's various powers such as the Roman Empire, Sassanid Persia, the Byzantine Empire, the Seljuk Turks; the cultural development of the city was somewhat dependent on who ruled the city at various times, although Tbilisi was cosmopolitan. From 570–580, the Persians ruled the city until 627, when Tbilisi was sacked by the Byzantine/Khazar armies and in 736–738, Arab armies entered the town under Marwan II. After this point, the Arabs established. In 764, Tbilisi – still under Arab control – was once again sacked by the Khazars. In 853, the armies of Arab leader Bugha Al-Turki invaded Tbilisi in order to enforce its return to Abbasid allegiance.
The Arab domination of Tbilisi continued until about 1050. In 1068, the city was once again sacked, only this time by the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan. In 1121, after heavy fighting with the Seljuks, the troops of the King of Georgia David IV of Georgia besieged Tbilisi, which ended in 1122 and as a result David moved his residence from Kutaisi to Tbilisi, making it the capital of a unified Georgian State and thus inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age. From 12–13th centuries, Tbilisi became a regional power with a thriving economy and astonishing cultural output. By the end of the 12th century, the population of Tbilisi had reached 100,000; the city became an important literary and a cultural center not only for Georgia but for the Eastern Orthodox world of the time. During Queen Tamar's reign, Shota Rustaveli worked in Tbilisi while writing his legendary epic poem, The Knight in the Panther's Skin
Hovhannes Tumanyan was an Armenian poet, translator and public activist. He is considered the national poet of Armenia. Tumanyan wrote poems, ballads, fables and journalistic articles, his work was written in realistic form centering on everyday life of his time. Born in the historical village of Dsegh in the Lori region, at a young age Tumanyan moved to Tiflis, the center of Armenian culture under the Russian Empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, he soon became known to the wide Armenian society for his simple but poetic works. Many films and animated films have been adapted from Tumanyan's works. Two operas: Anush by Armen Tigranian and Almast by Alexander Spendiaryan, were written based on his works. Hovhannes Tumanyan was born on February 19, 1869 in the village of Dsegh, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire, his father, was the village priest known by the name Ter-Tadevos. He was an offspring of an Armenian princely family of Tumanyan, branch of the famous royal house of Mamikonian that settled in Lori in 10th–11th centuries from their original feudal fief of Taron.
His mother, was an avid storyteller with a particular interest in fables. Young Tumanyan was the oldest of eight children. From 1877–1879, Tumanyan attended the parochial school of Dsegh. From 1879–1883 he went to a school in Jalaloghly. Tumanyan moved to Tiflis in 1883, where he attended the Nersisyan School from 1883–1887. Tumanyan's wrote his first poem while studying in Jalaloghly school, he fell in love with the teacher's daughter Vergine. Since 1893, Tumanyan worked for Aghbyur, Murtch and Horizon periodicals and was engaged in public activism. In 1899, Tumanyan came up with an idea of organizing meetings of Armenian intellectuals of the time at his house on 44 Bebutov Street in Tiflis. Soon it became an influential literary group, which gathered in the garret of Tumanyan's house. Vernatun means garret in Armenian, the name the group was referred to. Prominent members of the collective were Avetik Isahakyan, Derenik Demirchyan, Levon Shant, Ghazaros Aghayan, Perch Proshyan, Nikol Aghbalian, Alexander Shirvanzade, Nar-Dos, Vrtanes Papazyan, Vahan Terian, Stepan Lisitsyan, Mariam Tumanyan, Gevorg Bashinjagyan and many other significant Armenian figures of early 20th century.
With some pauses, it existed until 1908. In 1912 Tumanyan was elected the president of the Company of Caucasus Armenian Writers. In the fall of 1921, Tumanyan went to Constantinople to find support of Armenian refugees. After months spent there, he returned ill. After surgery in 1922, he started to get better, but in September, Tumanyan's disease started to progress again. He was transferred to a hospital in Moscow, where he died on March 23, 1923. In 1888, at the age of 19, Hovhannes Tumanyan married Olga Matchkalyan, 17, they had 10 children: Musegh, Nvard, Hamlik, Arpik, Seda, Tamar. During the government-provoked Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907, Tumanyan took the role of a peacemaker, for which he was arrested twice. Tumanyan deeply criticized the Georgian–Armenian War of 1918. Tumanyan was actively engaged in preaching the Gospel; as he put in one of his verses "There is only one way of salvation. In October 1914 Tumanyan joined the "Committee for Support of War Victims", which helped Armenian Genocide refugees settled in Etchmiadzin.
In 1921 in Tiflis he founded the House of Armenian Art. Works of Hovhannes Tumanyan at the Armenian WikisourceTumanyan's work is simple and poetically inspired at the same time, it is not by mere chance that dozens of phrases and expressions from Tumanyan's works have become a natural part of people's everyday language, their sayings and maxims. Tumanyan is regarded in Armenian circles as "All-Armenian poet", he earned this title when the Catholicos of Armenia had ordered that Armenian refugees from the west not enter certain areas of his church and house, since he is considered to be "The Catholicos of all Armenians". Tumanyan in response decried that decision claiming that the refugees could seek relief in the Catholicos' quarters under order of "The Poet of all Armenians", he created lyrics, epic poems and translations into Armenian of Byron and Pushkin. Tumanyan's most famous works include: Tumanyan's works were translated by Valeri Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, Joseph Brodsky, Samuil Marshak, Bella Akhmadulina and others.
The following places were named after Tumanyan: In ArmeniaTumanyan's native village of Dsegh was renamed Tumanyan in his honor from 1938–1969. In 1951, the village of Dzagidzor of Lori Province was renamed Tumanyan Pedagogical University of Vanadzor Armenian State Puppet Theater in Yerevan Tumanyan St. in central Yerevan Tumanyan Park in Yerevan's Ajapnyak districtOutside of ArmeniaTumanyan Square – in Northern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. Tumanyan Streets in Kiev, Sochi, khutor Shaumyanovsky in Rostov Oblast. There are 2 museums of one in his birthplace Dsegh and another one in Yerevan. Tumanyan's museum in Yerevan was opened in 1953. In Autumn of 2011 the government of Armenia purchased Tum
Gevorkian Theological Seminary known as Gevorkian Seminary, is a theological university-institute of the Armenian Apostolic Church founded by Catholicos George IV in 1874. It is located in the town of Vagharshapat within the complex of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin, Armenia. Gevorkian Seminary is considered the oldest university in modern Armenia. During the tenure of Catholicos Gevorg IV, he called for the creation of a theological school at the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin to meet the educational needs of the clergy. In the summer of 1872 he called upon Archimandrites Gevork Surenian, Vahan Bastanian, Vahram Mankuni and Aristakes Sedrakian to facilitate the re-establishment of the historic school, it was decided to open a new seminary. On 18 May 1869, the cornerstone of the Gevorkian Seminary was laid on the north grounds of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin; the foundation stone was installed by Catholicos Gevorg IV. During the celebration ceremony writer Gazaros Aghayan was present.
“On May 25 we witnessed the happy occasions, one of, the second year anniversary of the Catholicos’ consecration and the other – the founding of the seminary". The seminary was under construction from 1869–1874. During this same time the Armenian Church was under negotiations with the Tsarist government regarding the opening of the school. On 28 September 1874, the seminary building was ready, its completion celebrated. A few days on 5 October 1874, the Officer of the Caucasus Commission, informed Archimandrite Bastanian that the tsar had approved the seminary charter and it was allowed to open; the seminary began its mission after overcoming many difficulties. The seminary had its first graduates during the 1885–86 academic year. To improve the teaching of ecclesiastical subjects Catholicos Markar I invited Bishop Malachai Ormanian to teach at the seminary, his guidance helped to strengthen the role of these subjects. The famous contemporaries of this generation were Catholicos Gevork V, Archimandrite Komitas, Karekin I of the Great House of Cilicia and Bishop Karapet Mkrtchian.
The Gevorkian Seminary was the only academic institution where the science of education, psychology and philosophy were taught, with the primary aim to prepare a core group of skilled and trained teachers. The development and implementation of the Educational Sciences in the seminary were founded by through the efforts of S. Mandikian, N. Karamian, A. Oltetsian, G. Edilian, A. Shavarshian. Great emphasis was given to the history of the Armenian people, bibliography, music and art etc. New colleagues replaced this first generation of educators; the graduates of the seminary were invited to teach, among them Manuk Abeghian, Archbishop Karekin Hovsepiants, Bishop Karapet Mkrtchian and others. The seminary was charged with the task of preparing teachers for secular schools. On 16 September 1888, Catholicos Makar l added an appendix to the charter of the seminary, which affirmed the goal of this educational institution to prepare the Armenian clergy. During the first 43 years of existence, the seminary prepared 43 clergymen/teachers who in turn provided education for thousands of students.
While the seminary was founded as a Theological School the true benefits of the school were more secular in nature, as the graduates built an important educational and cultural wealth in the 19th and 20th centuries. The founding of the seminary coincided with a period of emergence of Armenian culture and an increase of intellectuals. However, at the time, the Tsarist government was engaged in a policy of closing the local parish schools. Withstanding this difficult period, the seminary was able to preserve its existence until 1917 and was the tying and uniting force for Armenian schools and culture; the seminary gathered Armenian young men from all over the world. During the first 43 years, the seminary carried out its mission with a high level of responsibility toward the Armenian Church, empowering her with a valiant legion of clergy as well as meritorious armenologists, historians, musicians and patriotic public figures. Among the notable graduates are Catholicos Gevork Vl Chorekchian, Karekin l Hovsepiants, Bishop Karapet Ter-Mkrtchian, Ruben Ter-Minasian, Ervand Ter-Minasian, Arshak Ter-Mikaelian, Manuk Abeghian, Nikoghaios Adonts, Stepan Malkhasiants, Avetik Isahakian, Aksel Bakunts, Levon Shant and many other worthy teachers and clergymen.
During the time of the Armenian Genocide, the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin was filled with massive numbers of refugees. Due to the tragic situation facing the Armenian nation, Catholicos Gevork I and the director, Bishop Karekin Hovsepiants, decided to temporarily close the seminary in December 1917, with great hope that it would reopen the next year, it was not until 1921. Catholicos Gevork V Sureniants, Catholicos Khoren l Muradbekian and Archbishop Karekin Hovsepiants took important steps to reopening the school; these efforts were realized due to the consecutive activities of Catholicos Gevork Vl Chorekchian. In 1925, word was received by Archbishop Khoren Muradbekian
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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Leipzig University, in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university in Germany. The university was founded on December 2, 1409 by Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and his brother William II, Margrave of Meissen, comprised the four scholastic faculties. Since its inception, the university has engaged in teaching and research for over 600 years without interruption. Famous alumni include Leibniz, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich Nietzsche, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, Tycho Brahe, Georgius Agricola, Angela Merkel and the nine Nobel laureates associated with the university; the university was modelled on the University of Prague, from which the German-speaking faculty members withdrew to Leipzig after the Jan Hus crisis and the Decree of Kutná Hora. The Alma mater Lipsiensis opened in 1409, after it had been endorsed by Pope Alexander V in his Bull of Acknowledgment on, its first rector was Johann von Münsterberg. From its foundation, the Paulinerkirche served as the university church.
After the Reformation, the church and the monastery buildings were donated to the university in 1544. In order to secure independent and sustainable funding, the university was endowed with the lordship over 9 villages east of Leipzig, it kept this status for nearly 400 years. As many European universities, the university of Leipzig was structured into colleges responsible for organising accommodation and collegiate lecturing. Among the colleges of Leipzig were the Small College, the Large College, the Red College, the College of our Lady and the Pauliner-College. There were private residential halls; the colleges had jurisdiction over their members. The college structure was abandoned and today only the names survive. During the first centuries, the university grew and was a rather regional institution; this changed, during the 19th century when the university became a world-class institution of higher education and research. At the end of the 19th century, important scholars such as Bernhard Windscheid and Wilhelm Ostwald taught at Leipzig.
Leipzig University was one of the first German universities to allow women to register as "guest students". At its general assembly in 1873, the Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein thanked the University of Leipzig and Prague for allowing women to attend as guest students; this was the year that the first woman in Germany obtained Johanna von Evreinov. Until the beginning of the Second World War, Leipzig University attracted a number of renowned scholars and Nobel Prize laureates, including Paul Ehrlich, Felix Bloch, Werner Heisenberg and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Many of the university's alumni became important scientists. Under Nazi rule many Jews' degrees were cancelled. Noteworthy Nazis, such as Max Clara taught at the university and were appointed to positions with great authority; the university was kept open throughout World War II after the destruction of its buildings. During the war the acting rector, Erich Maschke, described the continuation of the university in a memo on May 11, 1945, announcing the vote for a new rector: Since 4 December 1943 a fixed determination not to abandon the Leipzig University in the most difficult hour of its more than five-hundred-year history has bonded the professors with each other and with the students.
The special task of repairing the damage caused by air attacks has now broadened out to the more general duty to save the continuity of our university and preserve its substance, at the least its indestructible kernel, through the crisis that has now reached its fullest stage. After the destruction of most of the buildings and the majority of its libraries, this kernel is represented by the professoriate alone; this is. By the end of the war 60 per cent of the university's buildings and 70 per cent of its books had been destroyed; the university reopened after the war on February 5, 1946, but it was affected by the uniformity imposed on social institutions in the Soviet occupation zone. In 1948 the elected student council was disbanded and replaced by Free German Youth members; the chairman of the Student Council, Wolfgang Natonek, other members were arrested and imprisoned, but the university was a nucleus of resistance. Thus began the Belter group, with flyers for free elections; the head of the group, Herbert Belter, was executed in 1951 in Moscow.
The German Democratic Republic was created in 1949, in 1953 for Karl Marx Year the University was renamed by its government the Karl Marx University, Leipzig after Karl Marx. In 1968, the damaged Augusteum, including Johanneum and Albertinum and the intact Paulinerkirche, were demolished to make way for a redevelopment of the university, carried out between 1973 and 1978; the dominant building of the university was the University Tower, built between 1968 and 1972 in the form of an open book. In 1991, following the reunification of Germany, the University's name was restored to the original Leipzig University; the reconstruction of the University Library, damaged during the war and in the GDR secured, was completed in 2002. With the delivery of the University Tower to a private user, the university was forced to spread some faculties
Gyumri, is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country. By the end of the 19th century, when the city was known as Alexandropol, it was one of the largest cities of Russian-ruled Eastern Armenia with a population similar to that of Yerevan, it was renamed to Leninakan during the Soviet period. The city's population grew above 200,000 prior to the 1988 Spitak earthquake, when it was devastated; as of the 2011 census, the city had a population of 121,976, down from 150,917 reported at the 2001 census. Gyumri is the seat of the Diocese of Shirak of the Armenian Apostolic Church; the area of modern-day Gyumri was known as Kumayri during the period of the Kingdom of Urartu. It is that the name has been originated from the Cimmerians who conquered the region and founded the settlement. Under the domination of the Turkic tribes, Kumayri was Turkified as Gümrü. In 1837, Kumayri was renamed Alexandropol after of Tsar Nicholas I's wife, Princess Alexandra Fyodorovna.
Between 1924 and 1990, the city was known as Leninakan in honor of Vladimir Lenin. Following independence, the original name Kumayri was used until 1992, when Gyumri was chosen as the name of the city. Archaeological excavations conducted throughout the Soviet period have shown that the area of modern-day Gyumri has been populated since at least the third millennium BC; the area was mentioned as Kumayri in the historic Urartian inscriptions dating back to the 8th century BC. This name is phonetically associated with Cimmerians, who migrated to the western banks of the Black Sea region from European Lowlands. Historians believe that Xenophon passed through Kumayri during his return to the Black Sea, a journey immortalized in his Anabasis. At the decline of the Urartu Kingdom by the second half of the 6th century BC, Kumayri became part of the Achaemenid Empire; the remains of a royal settlement found just to the south of Gyumri near the village of Beniamin dating back to the 5th to 2nd centuries BC, are a great example of the Achemenid influence in the region.
However, at the beginning of the 5th century BC, Kumayri became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under the rule of the Orontids. An alternative theory suggests that Kumayri has been formed as an urban settlement in the late 5th century BC, ca. 401 BC, by Greek colonists. In 331 BC, the entire territory was included in the Ayrarat province of Ancient Armenian Kingdom as part of the Shirak canton. Between 190 BC and 1 AD Kumayri was under the rule of the Artaxiad dynasty of Armenia. During the 1st century AD, Shirak was granted to the Kamsarakan family, who ruled over Kumayri during the Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia. Following the partition of Armenia in 387 between the Byzantines and the Persians, as a result of the fall of the Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia in 428, Shirak including Kumayri became part of the Sasanian Empire of Persia. In 658 AD, at the height of the Arab Islamic invasions, Kumayri was conquered during the Muslim conquest of Persia to become part of the Emirate of Armenia under the Umayyad Caliphate.
Kumayri was a quite-developed urban settlement during the Middle Ages. According to the Armenian scholar Ghevond the Historian, the town was a centre of the Armenian rebellion led by Artavazd Mamikonian against the Islamic Arab Caliphate, between 733 and 755. After 2 centuries of Islamic rule over Armenia, the Bagratids declared independence in 885 establishing the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia. Kumayri entered e new era of growth and progress when the nearby city of Ani became the capital of the kingdom in 961. By the second half of the 10th century, Kumayri was under the influence of the Armenian Pahlavuni family, who were descendents of the Kamsarakans; the Pahlavunis had a great contribution in the progress of Shirak with the foundation of many fortresses, monastic complexes, educational institutions, etc. After the fall of Armenia to the Byzantine Empire in 1045 and to the Seljuk invaders in 1064. Under the foreign rulers, the town had gradullay lost its significance during the following centuries, until the establishment of the Zakarid Principality of Armenia in 1201 under the Georgian protectorate.
During the Zakarid rule, the Eastern Armenian territories Lori and Shirak, entered into a new period of growth and stability, becoming a trade centre between the east and the west. After the Mongols captured Ani in 1236, Armenia turned into a Mongol protectorate as part of the Ilkhanate, the Zakarids became vassals to the Mongols. After the fall of the Ilkhanate in the mid-14th century, the Zakarid princes ruled over Lori and Ararat plain until 1360 when they fell to the invading Turkic tribes. By the last quarter of the 14th century, the Ag Qoyunlu Sunni Oghuz Turkic tribe took over Armenia, including Shirak. In 1400, Timur invaded Armenia and Georgia, captured more than 60,000 of the survived local people as slaves. Many districts including Shirak were depopulated. In 1410, Armenia fell under the control of the Kara Koyunlu Shia Oghuz Turkic tribe. According to the Armenian historian Thomas of Metsoph, although the Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place.
Under the rule of the Turkic tribes, Kumayri was known to the Turks as Gümrü. In 1501, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Kumayri were conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I. Soon after in 1502, Kumayri became part of the newly formed Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of Iran formed by the Safavids. During the first half of the 18th century, Kumayri became part of the Erivan Khanate under the ru