Aviaarktika was a Soviet airline which started operations on 1 September 1930 and was absorbed by Aeroflot on 3 January 1960. Aviaarktika was the flying branch of the Department of Polar Aviation of Glavsevmorput, its first head was Mark Shevelev and it was based in Krasnoyarsk. It moved to Moscow in 1932. Aviarktika established routes along the lakes of Siberia and Northern Russia. Aviaarktika flew the Junkers F.13 floatplane and six Dornier Wal flying boats. By 1933 there were 42 aircraft including ANT-6's. AVIAARKTIKA Tupolev ANT-4, CCCP-H317 located at the Ulyanovsk Aircraft Museum in Ulyanovsk Baratayevka Airport, is the only surviving example of the ANT-4. CCCP-H317 crash-landed in Siberian tundra in 1944 and was recovered 39 years and restored for the museum. November 1945 Douglas C-47 CCCP-N362 force-landed near Tiksi due to fuel exhaustion after repeated landing attempts, causing wing and landing gear damage; the aircraft was written off. 25 December 1945 A Douglas C-47 crashed on takeoff from Dudinka due to an in-flight fire, killing all 10 on board.

13 December 1946 Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-3 CCCP-N400 force-landed on the ice off Ostrov Litne, Yamalsky District due to engine problems. 7 March 1948 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N444 disappeared. The aircraft had struck the mountain while in flight due to possible crew fatigue. 16 March 1948 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N456 crashed on takeoff from Vorkuta Airport due to snow on the runway. The aircraft was involved in a search for missing Li-2 CCCP-N444. 16 September 1948 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N464 disappeared while on an ice reconnaissance flight with seven on board. 23 April 1950 Focke-Wulf Fw 200C-4 CCCP-N500 overran the runway while landing at Yakutsk Airport in a crosswind, causing the left landing gear to collapse and damaging the left wing and both left side engines. 26 June 1950 KM-2 CCCP-N488 crashed on landing in the Khimki Reservoir, Moscow due to crew error, killing two of six on board. 7 November 1950 Lisunov PS-84 CCCP-N359 struck ice hummocks and crashed while attempting to take off from Polar Station SP-2.

1954 Douglas R4D-5 CCCP-N417 crashed on landing at Polar Station SP-3, Antarctica after the landing gear struck an ice ridge and landed on its belly. The aircraft was used by the US Navy for Operation Ski Jump, carrying out landings on drifting ice. 4 March 1955 Ilyushin Il-12 CCCP-N479 force-landed near Kepino, Arkhangelsk Region due to an engine fire. 2 April 1955 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N497 broke through the ice while landing at Mys Zhelaniya. Four days the aircraft was swept out to sea by a storm where it sank. 26 May 1955 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N535 crashed on a drifting ice floe in the central Arctic Basin. The wreck was spotted on December 11, 1959 by the Icelandic Coast Guard. 11 September 1956 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-N584 crashed near Cherepovets Airport at night during a training flight, killing the four crew. 22 September 1956 Mil Mi-4 CCCP-N42 was being ferried from Kazan to Khatanga when it broke apart in mid-air and crashed near Pletnikha, Arzamas Oblast due to a design flaw, killing the four crew.

7 August 1957 Beriev Be-6 CCCP-N662 crashed 35 km from Mys Kamenny Airport after an in-flight fire caused by engine failure, killing the six crew. February 1958 Lisunov Li-2V CCCP-N496 stalled and crashed on takeoff from Mirny Ice Station, Antarctica. 2 May 1958 Antonov An-2 CCCP-N588 crashed 38 mi from Igarka. 30 December 1958 Ilyushin Il-14 CCCP-04196 crashed 65 km from Hatanga, Krasnoyarsk region, killing 16 of 17 on board. 10 August 1959 Lisunov Li-2 CCCP-04210 crashed at Chukotka Cape Shelagsky, killing seven of 10 on board. "Aeroflot: An Airline and its Aircraft", from Paladwr Press, Oct 1992 by R. E. G. Davies, ISBN 0-9626483-1-0, ISBN 978-0-9626483-1-1 "Aeroflot: Soviet air transport since 1923" Putnam Hugh MacDonald, ISBN 0-370-00117-6, ISBN 978-0-370-00117-3 Soviet Arctic Aerial Exploration Rossica Journal Number 128-129 dated October 1997

Panchayati raj in India

In India, the Panchayati Raj refers to the system of local self-government in India introduced by a constitutional amendment in 1992, although it is based upon the traditional panchayat system of the Indian subcontinent. The recommendation of L. M Singhvi Committee was accepted; this Panchayati Raj system was formalized in 1992, following a study conducted by a number of Indian committees on various ways of implementing more decentralized administration. The modern Panchayati Raj and its Gram Panchayats are not to be confused with the extra-constitutional Khap Panchayats found in northern India. In India, the Panchayati Raj now functions as a system of governance in which gram panchayats are the basic units of local administration; the system has three levels: Gram Panchayat, Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti, Zila Parishad. It was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution; the Panchayati Raj system exists in all states except Nagaland and Mizoram, in all Union Territories except Delhi.

The Panchayats receive funds from three sources: Local body grants, as recommended by the Central Finance Commission Funds for implementation of centrally sponsored schemes Funds released by the state governments on the recommendations of the State Finance Commissions Mahatma Gandhi advocated Panchayati Raj as the foundation of India's political system, as a decentralized form of government in which each village would be responsible for its own affairs. Instead, India developed a centralized form of government. However, this has been moderated by the delegation of several administrative functions to the local level, empowering elected gram panchayats. There are significant differences between the traditional Panchayati Raj system, envisioned by Gandhi, the system formalized in India in 1992; the Panchayat Raj system was first adopted by the state of Rajasthan in Nagaur district on 2 Oct 1959. During the 1950s and 60s, other state governments adopted this system as laws were passed to establish panchayats in various states.

The second state was Andhra Pradesh. It founded backing in the Indian Constitution, with the 73rd amendment in 1992 to accommodate the idea. In the history of Panchayati Raj, in India, on 24 April 1993, the Constitutional Act 1992 came into force to provide constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions; this amendment was extended to Panchayats in the tribal areas of eight states, namely: Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan beginning on 24 December 1996. This amendment contains provision for devolution of powers and responsibilities to the panchayats, both for the preparation of economic development plans and social justice, as well as for implementation in relation to 29 subjects listed in the eleventh schedule of the constitution, the ability to levy and collect appropriate taxes, duties and fees; the Act aims to provide a three-tier systems of Panchayati Raj for all states having a population of over 2 million, to hold Panchayat elections every five years, to provide seats reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and women.

List of committees constituted for recommendations regarding Panchayati Raj in India: The Balwant Rai Mehta Committee, headed by MP Balwantrai Mehta, was a committee appointed by the Government of India in January 1957 to examine the work of the Community Development Programme and the National Extension Service, to suggest measures to improve their work. The committee's recommendation was implemented by NDC in January 1958, this set the stage for the launching of Panchayati Raj Institutions throughout the country; the committee recommended the establishment of the scheme of ‘democratic decentralization’, which came to be known as Panchayati Raj. This led to the establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system: Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level, Zila Parishad at the district level... Sarpanch is its elected head; the members of the gram panchayat are elected from each for a period of five years by the members of Gram Sabha. Taxes collected locally such as on water, place of pilgrimage, local mandirs, markets A fixed grant from the State Government in proportion to the land revenue and money for works and schemes assigned to the Parishads Donations A Panchayat Samiti is a local government body at the tehsil level.

This body works for the villages of the tehsil that together are called a "development block". The Panchayat Samiti is the link between the district administration. Just as the tehsil goes by other names in various parts of India, notably mandal and taluka, there are a number of variations in nomenclature for the block panchayat. For example, it is known as Mandal Praja Parishad in Andhra Pradesh, Taluka Panchayat in Gujarat and Karnataka, Panchayat Samiti in Maharashtra. In general, the block panchayat has the same form at a higher level. Membership in the block panchayat is ex-official; the Panchayat Samiti is elected for a te

Otto Eerelman

Otto Eerelman was a Dutch painter. He was a court painter and did several portraits of Wilhelmina, as Princess and Queen, his father was sexton at Der Aa-kerk. He showed an early aptitude for art and, against the wishes of his parents, enrolled at the Academie Minerva in 1860, where he studied with J. H. Egenberger. After graduating, he spent another year at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, he took private lessons in the studios of Lawrence Alma-Tadema. After a brief stay in Paris, he returned to Groningen and worked as a teacher at the Academie from 1867 to 1874, he moved to Brussels that year to establish himself as a painter but, for unknown reasons, relocated to The Hague in 1875, where he lived until 1902. It was during this time that he served as a court painter and many of his works are still to be seen in Het Loo. In 1898, an illustrated album called Horse Races was published, containing 40 lithographs of Eerelman's paintings by Richard Schoenbeck, it featured Queen Wilhelmina's favorite horse, "Woyko", proved to be popular.

An annotated collection of his works was translated into English by Clara Bell under the title Horses and Dogs. His best known painting, "De paardenkeuring op de Grote Markt op de 28ste augustus", depicts an annual celebration held to commemorate the lifting of the Siege of Groningen. For health reasons, he spent five years in Arnhem went back to Groningen in 1907. At the age of eighty, he was made a Ridder and a street in Groningen was named after him, it was said that one could tell when visitors to the Louvre were from Groningen because they would ask "where are the Eerelmans?". He was, however forgotten by the second half of the 20th century, it is only that interest in his works has been revived. From April to August, 2015, a major retrospective was held at the Museum Nienoord in Leek. Otto Eerelman 1839-1926: schilder van paard en karos, schilder van dieren en planten, schilder van portret en genre, Van Soeren, Amsterdam 1989, ISBN 90-688-1011-1. Harry J. Kraaij, Otto Eeerelman: Groninger kunstenaar, 1839–1826.

Scriptum Art, Schiedam 2012, ISBN 978-90-559-4843-7. Otto Eerelman website, Home page Otto Eerelman by Beno Hofman @ Groningen Archieven Paintings made into lithographs and used as illustrations in "Paardenrassen" @ Groningen Archieven ArtNet: More works by Eerelman