U.S. Route 501 in Virginia

U. S. Route 501 is a part of the U. S. Highway System that runs from South Carolina to Buena Vista, Virginia. In Virginia, the U. S. Highway runs 111.42 miles from the North Carolina state line near Cluster Springs north to its northern terminus at US 60 in Buena Vista. US 501 is the primary highway between Lynchburg and both South Boston in Southside Virginia and Durham in North Carolina's Research Triangle. North of Lynchburg, the highway parallels the James River through the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southern end of the Shenandoah Valley. US 501 enters Virginia south of Cluster Springs; the U. S. Highway is a two-lane road at the North Carolina state line but expands to a four-lane divided highway named Huell Matthews Highway. US 501 parallels the Mayo River north to the hamlet of Mayo, where the highway meets the western end of SR 96 and crosses the Hyco River; the U. S. Highway passes through Cluster Springs to the community of Riverdale just south of South Boston. US 501 becomes an undivided highway and intersects US 58 and US 360, which together head west as Philpott Road and east as Bill Tuck Highway.

US 501 crosses the Dan River into the town of South Boston. Just north of the river, the highway has a grade crossing of Norfolk Southern Railway's Danville–Richmond rail line and splits into a one-way pair: Broad Street northbound and Main Street southbound. Both directions intersect SR 304; when Main Street veers northeast as two-way SR 129, southbound US 501 continues on two-way Wilborn Avenue to the northern end of the one-way pair. US 501 continues through South Boston on a five-lane road with center turn lane; the U. S. Highway becomes four-lane divided Halifax Road at Hamilton Boulevard. US 501 receives the northern end of SR 129 shortly before leaving the town of South Boston; the U. S. Highway enters the town of Halifax and becomes Main Street, a three-lane road with center turn lane, at its grade crossing of Norfolk Southern's Durham District. US 501 continues to the county courthouse, where the highway intersects the short SR 349 and SR 360, which runs concurrently with the U. S. Highway through the northern part of the town.

The two highways diverge: SR 360 heads northeast as Bethel Road and US 501 heads northwest as two-lane L. P. Bailey Memorial Highway. Which crosses an impoundment of the Banister River, as it leaves the town of Halifax. US 501 passes through Volens and Acorn on its way to the hamlet of North Halifax, where the highway begins to run concurrently with SR 40; the highways cross the Roanoke River into the town of Brookneal in Campbell County and pass under Norfolk Southern's Altavista District rail line. The highways continue as Lusardi Drive to Lynchburg Avenue in the center of town. US 501 leaves the town as Brookneal Highway, which parallels the rail line through the communities of Naruna and Gladys on its way to Rustburg, the county seat of Campbell County; the U. S. Highway intersects SR 24 at the southern edge of the village; the highways have a short concurrency before SR 24 continues east as Village Highway and US 501 heads northwest as Campbell Highway. North of Rustburg, US 501 expands to a four-lane divided highway into the independent city of Lynchburg, where the highway meets US 29 and US 460 at a partial cloverleaf interchange.

US 501 Business and US 460 Business head straight on Campbell Avenue while US 501 joins the freeway heading southwest. US 501 runs concurrently with US 29 and US 460 southwest along the northern slope of Candlers Mountain to a full Y interchange where US 501 heads northwest from the freeway; the U. S. Highway has an intersection with SR 128 and Candlers Mountain Road just east of the highway's crossing of Norfolk Southern's Danville District. SR 128 joins US 501 on Candlers Mountain Road between the intersection and the highway's cloverleaf interchange with US 29 Business. US 501 exits onto the expressway. US 501 and US 29 Business head southwest along the freeway until the business route exits onto Wards Road to head toward Danville. US 501 curves northwest and has a cloverleaf interchange with US 460 Business, crosses Norfolk Southern's Blue Ridge District, has a diamond interchange with Graves Mill Road; the freeway ends at US 221. US 501 heads north along Old Forest Road as a five-lane road with center turn lane before turning onto a two-lane segment of the Lynchburg Expressway.

This segment has a partial cloverleaf interchange with Wiggington Road before ending at US 501 Business. US 501 heads northwest on two-lane Boonsboro Road, which becomes Lee Jackson Highway when it exits the city of Lynchburg into Bedford County; the U. S. Highway curvaceously crosses Fleming Mountain and descends into the James River Gorge at Coleman Falls. US 501 follows the south bank of the river through Big Island, where the highway meets the northern end of SR 122 and has an interchange with the Blue Ridge Parkway. North of Big Island, the U. S. Highway crosses the river and intersects SR 130 on the Amherst County side; the two highways have a curvaceous crossing of the spine of the Blue Ridge Mountains before descending to the town of Glasgow at the mouth of the Maury River. The two routes follow the river upstream a short distance before SR 130 crosses the river into the town. US 501, now named Glasgow Highway, parallels


Savu is the largest of a group of three islands, situated midway between Sumba and Rote, west of Timor, in Indonesia's eastern province, East Nusa Tenggara. Ferries connect the islands to Waingapu, on Sumba, Kupang, in West Timor. Flying to Savu through Susi Air from Kupang and Waingapu is possible; the Savu Islands include Rai Hawu, Rai Jua, Rai Dana. The three islands are fringed by sandy beaches. Rai Hawu is the principal island. Rai Jua is a smaller island west of Rai Hawu. Rai Dana is a uninhabited island, situated 30 km southwest of Rai Jua. From April to October, deep ocean swells pound the southern coastlines; the land is covered for the most part by grassland and palms. The climate is dry for much of the year because of the hot winds; the main rains fall between March. Between 82 and 94% of all rain falls during the west monsoon with little or no rain falling between August and October; the mean annual rainfall for Savu Island is 1,019 mm. During the dry season, many streams run dry and local inhabitants must depend on wells for their water supplies.

The Savu Islands are situated in a tectonic subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian Plate is moving northward, sliding under the Eurasian Plate. The islands lie on a ridge, created by volcanic eruptions caused by the plate movement. Sediments carried into the Earth's crust heat up and rise in plumes of magma, which cool and solidify to form igneous rock; the Sumba Ridge is no longer volcanically active, but active volcanoes are on the island of Flores, to the north. The compression of the two tectonic plates is causing the Savu Islands to rise at a rate of about 1 mm per year. However, the tectonic plate slips a much greater distance, resulting in an earthquake; the 8.3 Mw Sumba earthquake struck 280 km west-southwest of Rai Jua in August 1977. The shock triggered a destructive tsunami which swept across the coastal plain at Seba, reaching as high as the airport. No one was reported missing on Rai Jua. However, on the neighbouring islands of Sumba and Sumbawa, the death toll reached 180. Interactive map showing major earthquakes in East Nusa Tenggara between 1970 and 2005 The population is 91,870.

Savu has strong historical ties with Hinduism in Java and the people consider themselves of Hindu origin. The society still performs traditional animistic beliefs, known as Djingi Tiu. Dutch missionaries introduced Protestantism; the Savunese have a traditional greeting, done by pressing one's nose to another person's nose at an encounter. It is used in all meetings among Savu's people and on major ceremonies, serves a similar purpose to a formal handshake in modern western culture, indeed is used in conjunction with one, similar to the Hongi in New Zealand; the group of three islands was formed into the Sabu Raijua Regency within East Nusa Tenggara province. Savunese culture is ecologically fitting for such an arid environment; the traditional clan agreements on land control and water distribution ensure that the land is managed and not overexploited. Their gardens form a well structured ecology, emulating a tropical forest with diverse species of trees and shade plants. Agricultural production on Savu includes corn, roots, beans and seaweed, introduced by Japanese interests, in the early 1990s.

Pigs and chickens are commonplace in the villages. Those farmers who depend on mixed-crop gardens or on mung bean fields are better able to manage during times of poor rain, but are less successful when the rains are good. Corn, as a single crop, remains the predominant staple on Savu, though most farmers try to plant several different fields to increase their chances of at least one successful harvest. Cotton is the main crop on Rai Jua, it is used to make traditional textiles. Corn is planted in late November, December, or early January and harvested from February through March. In El Niño years, farmers are misled by initial rains, which offer promise, but cease. Most farmers keep some seed reserves if they are forced to plant a second time during the wet season. Do farmers have sufficient seed reserves for a third attempt at planting, by the time such a third planting seems necessary, little likelihood of success remains. By mid-March, the rains begin to diminish and planting corn with any expectation of a good harvest is no longer possible.

Prior to the corn harvest, the poorer segments of the population survive on reserve foods cassava, some sweet potato, forest yams, sugar supplies from tapping lontar palms. This period is known as the time of "ordinary hunger". However, during periods of drought, when the planting and subsequent harvest of the corn crop is delayed, the period of ordinary hunger is extended and "ordinary hunger" becomes "extraordinary hunger". Most families manage on one meager meal a day. Livestock, suffering from the same conditions as the human population, are consumed or sold to buy emergency foods. People turn to green papaya, eaten as a vegetable, tamarind seeds. In the dry season, drinking water becomes difficult to obtain and is polluted by animals seeking water. Women and younger girls spend more time than carrying water for their families. A strong indicator of the "extraordinary hunger" period is a sharp increase in gastrointestinal diseases. Children are vulnerable. According to Keputus