Fort Smith, Arkansas
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 86,209. With an estimated population of 88,037 in 2017, it is the principal city of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 298,592 residents that encompasses the Arkansas counties of Crawford and Sebastian, the Oklahoma counties of Le Flore and Sequoyah. Fort Smith has a sister city relationship with Cisterna, site of the World War II Battle of Cisterna, fought by United States Army Rangers commanded by Fort Smith native William O. Darby; the city has a mutual friendship-city relationship with Jining, China. Fort Smith lies on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state border, situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Poteau rivers known as Belle Point. Fort Smith was established as a western frontier military post in 1817, when it was a center of fur trading; the city developed there. It became well known as a base for migrants' settling of the "Wild West" and for its law enforcement heritage.
In 2007, the city of Fort Smith was selected by the United States Department of the Interior as the site of the new United States Marshals Service National Museum, slated to open in 2019. This area was occupied for thousands of years by indigenous peoples, attracted to the advantageous site near the rivers, they used the waterways for transportation and trading, to supply fish and water for their villages. The French claimed this area as part of their New La Louisiane; some colonial fur traders traveled the Arkansas and other rivers to trade with the native American tribes. The United States acquired this territory and large areas west of the Mississippi River from France in the Louisiana Purchase. Soon after, the government sent the Pike Expedition to explore the areas along the Arkansas River; the US founded Fort Smith in 1817 as a military post. It was named after General Thomas Adams Smith, who commanded the United States Army Rifle Regiment in 1817, headquartered near St. Louis. General Smith had ordered Army topographical engineer Stephen H. Long to find a suitable site on the Arkansas River for a fort.
General Smith never visited the forts that bore his name. A stockade was built and occupied from 1817 until 1822 by a small troop of regulars commanded by Major William Bradford. A small settlement began forming around the fort, but the Army abandoned the first Fort Smith in 1824 and moved 80 miles further west to Fort Gibson. John Rogers, an Army sutler and land speculator, bought up former government-owned lands at this site and promoted growth of the new civilian town of Fort Smith. Due to the strategic location of this site, the federal government re-established a military presence at Fort Smith during the 1830s era of Indian Removal of tribes from the American Southeast to west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory, now Oklahoma. In 1838 the Army moved back into the old military post near Belle Point, expanded the base, they used troops from their ancestral homelands in the Southeast. Remnants of the Five Civilized Tribes remained in the southeast, their descendants in some cases have reorganized and been federally recognized.
The Cherokee called the forced march the Trail of Tears, as many of their people and African-American slaves died along the way. The army enforced the removal of these peoples to the reserved Indian Territory, where the federal government granted them land. Many displaced Native Americans fell out of the march and settled in Fort Smith and adjoining Van Buren, Arkansas on the other side of the river; the US Army used Fort Smith as a base during the Mexican War. As a result, the US acquired large territories in the Southwest, annexed the Republic of Texas, independent for some years. Sebastian County was formed in 1851, separated from Crawford County north of the Arkansas River. In 1858, Fort Smith was designated as a Division Center of the Butterfield Overland Mail's 7th Division route across Indian Territory from Fort Smith to Texas and as a junction with the mail route from Memphis, Tennessee, an important port on the east side of the Mississippi River. During the early years of the U. S. Civil War, the fort was occupied by the Confederate Army.
Union troops under General Steele took control of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863. A small fight occurred there on July 31, 1864, but the Union army maintained command in the area until the war ended in 1865; as a result, many refugee slaves, Southern Unionists, others came here to escape the guerrilla warfare raging in Arkansas and the Border States. The slaves were freed under the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 by President Abraham Lincoln. Federal troops abandoned the post of Fort Smith for the last time in 1871; the town continued to thrive despite the absence of federal troops. Two of Fort Smith's most notable historic figures were Judge Isaac Parker and William Henry Harrison Clayton known as W. H. H. Clayton. In 1874, William Henry Harrison Clayton was appointed United States Attorney for the Western District of Arkansas by President Ulysses S. Grant. Fort Smith was a bustling community full of brothels and outlaws, just across the river from Indian Territory. William Clayton realized a strong judge would be necessary to bring order to the region.
He knew. But Judge Parker had been confirmed by the US Senate. With the help of President Grant and US Senator Powell Clayt
Dassault Aviation SA is an international French aircraft manufacturer of military and business jets, is a subsidiary of Dassault Group. It was founded in 1929 by Marcel Bloch as Société des Avions Marcel Bloch or "MB". After World War II, Marcel Bloch changed his name to Marcel Dassault, the name of the company was changed to Avions Marcel Dassault on 20 January 1947. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet. In 1990 the company was renamed Dassault Aviation; the Dassault Aviation Group is headed by Éric Trappier since 9 January 2013. The Société des Avions Marcel Bloch was founded by Marcel Bloch in 1929. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, subsequently renamed Société Aéronautique du Sud-Ouest. In 1936 the arms industry in France was nationalised as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Marcel Bloch was asked to act as delegated administrator of the Minister for Air. During the occupation of France the country's aviation industry was disbanded.
Marcel Bloch was imprisoned by the Vichy government in October 1940. In 1944 Bloch was deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp by the German occupiers where he remained until it was liberated on 11 April 1945. On 10 November 1945, at an extraordinary general meeting of the Société Anonyme des Avions Marcel Bloch the company voted to change its form to a limited liability entity, Société des Avions Marcel Bloch, to be a holding company. On 20 January 1947 Société des Avions Marcel Bloch became Société des Avions Marcel Dassault to reflect the name adopted by its owner. In 1954, Dassault established an electronics division, the first action of, to begin development of airborne radars, soon followed by seeker heads for air-to-air missiles and bombing aids. From the 1950s to late 1970s exports become a major part of Dassault’s business, major successes were the Dassault Mirage series and the Mystere-Falcon. In 1965 and 1966, the French government stressed to its various defense suppliers the need to specialize to maintain viable companies.
Dassault was to specialise in combat and business aircraft, Nord Aviation in ballistic missiles and Sud Aviation civil and military transport aircraft and helicopters.. On 27 June 1967, Dassault acquired 66% of Breguet Aviation. Under the merger deal Société des Avions Marcel Dassault was dissolved on 14 December 1971, with its assets vested in Breguet, to be renamed Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation. Dassault Systèmes was established in 1981 to develop and market Dassault’s CAD program, CATIA. Dassault Systèmes was to become a market leader in this field. In 1979 the French government took a 20% share in Dassault and established the Societé de Gestion de Participations Aéronautiques to manage this and an indirect 25% share in Aerospatiale. In 1998 the French government transferred its shares in Dassault Aviation to Aerospatiale. On 10 July 2000, Aérospatiale-Matra merged with other European companies to form EADS. In 2000 Serge Dassault was succeeded by Charles Edelstenne. Serge Dassault was appointed honorary chairman.
The American company Atlantic Aviation based in Wilmington, was acquired in October 2000. On 18 December 2000, Dassault Aviation was the first French company to be certified ISO 9001/2000 by BVQI. Within fifteen years or so, thanks to developments in I. T. the industrial design offices went from using drawing boards to computerized 3D-modelling. Physical models were replaced by virtual digital mock-ups enabling a first version to be produced, directly operational; this veritable industrial revolution was made possible thanks to PLM software from Dassault Systemes. "Virtual plateau" technology, allowing all the design offices to work together within short deadlines, was deployed for the Falcon 7X trijet program. In this way, for the first time, the primary parts and physical assembly of the first Falcon 7X were produced and carried out at Bordeaux-Mérignac without the slightest adjustment or correction. Airbus sold some of its ownership back to Dassault in 2014, further reduced its share to 27% in 2015 to 10% in 2016.
In 2018, Dassault Aviation was suspected of corruption charges in India. However all of the charges have been dropped. Sogitec, a wholly owned subsidiary of Dassault, makes advanced avionics simulation, 3D imaging, military flight simulators, document imaging systems; the Dassault Aviation Group is an international group that encompasses most of the aviation activities of the Dassault Group Dassault Group Airbus Dassault Aviation Private investors Marcel Dassault: 1929-1950 Auguste Le Révérend: 1950-1955 Benno-Claude Vallières: 1955-1986 Serge Dassault: 1986-2000 Charles Edelstenne: 2000-2013 Éric Trappier: since January 9, 2013 Executive committee since December 31, 2017: Éric Trappier, chairman and CEO Loïk Segalen, chief operating officer Benoît Berger, executive vice-president, industrial operations and purchasing Bruno Chevalier, senior executive vice president, military customer support Denis Dassé, chief financial officer Benoît Dussaugey, senior executive vice president, international Jean-Marc Gasparini, executive vice president, military programs Didier Gondoin, senior executive vice president, engineering Frédéric Lherm, senio
J. Lynn Helms
Jonee Lynn Helms, known as Lynn Helms, was a retired US Marine Corps officer and former president of Piper Aircraft Corp. Due to his impressive aviation experience and solid Republican credentials he is most recognized for the years in which he served as administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, having been appointed by President Ronald Reagan. During his tenure as FAA Administrator, Helms originated and oversaw development of the 1982 National Airspace System Plan. Helms was born in De Queen, Arkansas on March 1, 1925. In 1946 he married Lorraine Bisgard, they had two girls and two boys. One of their sons, Jon L. Helms II, predeceased his father in 1987. Helms began his aviation career when he joined the US Navy Aviation Cadet training program while at the University of Oklahoma, early in 1942. On completion of the program he was commissioned as a second lieutenant, US Marine Corps, remaining in the service as a regular officer after the end of WW-II. Subsequent service included postings to Japan, China and various aircraft carriers, other military assignments.
He became a US Navy test pilot on graduation from the US Navy Test Pilot School, was awarded the US Marine Corps Air Medal, the USAF Air Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster for Combat and Exceptional Service during the Korean War. He subsequently retired from the Marine Corps in 1956 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. After leaving the Marine Corps, Helms worked as a design engineer for North American Aviation, with subsequent positions of sales manager, director of plans and programs. In 1963 he joined the Bendix Corporation, holding successive positions as Systems Division general manager, group manager, group vice president, aerospace. In that latter position he directed the Launch Support Division, that prepared all lunar and orbiter flights from Cape Kennedy, he personally directed the Systems Division in designing, assembling and installing the ALSEP for Apollo astronauts to leave on the moon on the first lunar landing. In 1970 he accepted the position of Norden Division, United Aircraft Corporation.
In 1974 he was elected president and CEO of Piper Aircraft Corporation being named chairman of the board. In 1975 he negotiated with the Vice President of Brazil to construct a factory and build Piper general aviation aircraft in Brazil, he joined the vice president in early 1978 to accept the first airplane off the production line at the new facility, Embraer, in San Jose Dos Compos, Brazil. In 1977 Helms landed the first private airplane in Poland. Following subsequent visits he negotiated an agreement with Pezetel, the Polish National Aircraft Co. to build Piper aircraft, the first general aviation aircraft built behind the iron curtain. In 1980 he retired from Piper, subsequently accepted a role in laying out the National Aviation Program for the incoming Reagan Administration, he was nominated by President Reagan for the office of Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, confirmed by the US Senate. He would resign in 1983 over a grand jury investigation of illegal business activities.
In 1981 he headed the US delegation to London for Bi-Lateral Technical and Operating Procedures with the UK. In 1982, he led the delegation for review of International Civil Air discussions for the Western Mediterranean, which included North African and Southern European countries; that year Helms was named Special Ambassador to deliver thanks to the King of Morocco, individual recognition awards to each crew member of the two Air Morocco aircraft that flew into Tehran, to recover US hostages. Helms is acknowledged as the “father” of the National Airspace Systems Plan. In that effort he directed the evaluation of US aviation systems capability, outlined a concept for air traffic control and attendant scheduling proficiency for aircraft collision avoidance. Helms originated the concept to remove mid-air collision avoidance from ground control, place it into aircraft, his program resulted in TCAS mandatory for US carriers, subsequently adopted by international aviation. For this accomplishment Helms was nominated for The Collier Trophy.
He initiated the National Airspace Review, to develop methods and procedures for improved safety and operational efficiency in use of all national airspace. In 1983 Helms was selected by the President to head the US delegation to the United Nations, ICAO emergency convening which followed the downing of Korean Airlines Flight 007 by the Soviet Union; that year he headed the US delegation to the UK for Bi-Lateral Aviation and Airworthiness technical and operational review in London. In 1984 Helms represented the US at the Trans-European conference on Air Carrier Tariffs in Prague, that year chaired the US Team for Air Traffic Control and Technology in Moscow for the US–USSR conference directed to the 21st century; that year he was selected as recipient of the Smithsonian Institution-residenced Glen L. Gilbert trophy. Helms lectured numerous times at various U. S. Government educational institutions on the subject of “Planning and Control”. In addition to The War College, Helms holds the invited lecturer record, at seventeen years, was named Honorary Professor, National War College.
In 1982 Helms was se
Arkansas Air & Military Museum
The Arkansas Air & Military Museum is an aviation and military museum located at Drake Field in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It is the largest aviation museum in Arkansas; the Arkansas Air & Military Museum's collection of aircraft dates to the 1920s and 1930s, many of which were racing aircraft, as well as military aircraft dating from World War I, World War II, the Vietnam War. It includes a Boeing-Stearman NS2S, a Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior, a Dassault Falcon 20, a Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, a Howard DGA-11, a Howard DGA-18K, a Learjet 23, a Piper Tri-Pacer, a Stinson Junior, a Travel Air Model R "Mystery Ship" replica; the museum displays Walmart founder Sam Walton's first aircraft, an Ercoupe 415C. Many of the museum's aircraft are still airworthy, its Stinson Junior provides flights to the general public; the wooden hangar in which the Arkansas Air & Military Museum is housed is one of the few surviving such buildings from the 1940s and is listed on the Arkansas Registry of Historic Places. In addition to aircraft, the museum displays a variety of aviation engines, including a Curtiss OX-5, a Rolls-Royce Spey, a Westinghouse J34.
Other collections and exhibits include a 1940 Packard automobile, military vehicles, smaller military artifacts. Additionally, the museum features biographical exhibits on notable Arkansan aviators, including Commander Richard O. Covey, Field Eugene Kindley, Captain Pierce McKennon, pioneering female pilot Louise Thaden, who won the Women's Air Derby in 1929 and the Harmon Trophy in 1936; the Arkansas Air & Military Museum was established in 1986. In 2014, its board of directors noted that a decrease in visitors had resulted in the museum struggling to stay financially viable: that year, its monthly profits were $5,000, compared to monthly expenses of around $7,000. In 2014, the museum only had one paid employee, with the remainder of its personnel consisting of volunteers. According to board member Russell Smith, the museum's number of annual visitors shrunk from 26,000 to 6,000 after the opening of Interstate 540 and Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport replaced Drake Field as the region's principal airport in 1998.
Official website Exploring Arkansas October 2014: Arkansas Air & Military Museum / National Championship Chuckwagon Races The Arkansas Air Military Museum
Disaster at Silo 7
Disaster at Silo 7 is a 1988 American made-for-television thriller-drama film directed by Larry Elikann. It is loosely based on the 1980 Damascus Titan missile explosion. During routine maintenance of a liquid-fuelled ICBM, the fuel tank is penetrated by a falling socket; the film traces the efforts of the maintenance crew and associated military and civilian personnel to recover the disastrous situation before the fuel tank is sufficiently depressurised that the stack collapses and explodes. Michael O'Keefe as Sgt. Mike Fitzgerald Perry King as Maj. Hicks Patricia Charbonneau as Kathy Fitzgerald Peter Boyle as Gen. Sanger Joe Spano as Sgt. Swofford Ray Baker as Col. Chadwick Dennis Weaver as Sheriff Ben Harlen Joe Urla as Pepper Martinelli Brent Jennings as A. C. Jones Christian Clemenson as Col. Brandon Ken Jenkins as Clarence Maureen Teefy as Penny Travers Inspired by the 1980 Damascus Titan missile explosion, Jeffrey K Kennedy one of the main protagonist of the Damascus event was a special technical advisor for this movie.
Disaster at Silo 7 on IMDb
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Arkansas City, Arkansas
Arkansas City is a town in Desha County, United States. The population was 366 at the 2010 census; the town is the county seat of Desha County. Arkansas City's historic Commercial District, located at Desoto Avenue and Sprague Street, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.5 square miles, all land. It sits in the Delta Lowlands sub-region of the Arkansas Delta; as of the census of 2000, there were 589 people, 231 households, 161 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,232.2 people per square mile. There were 279 housing units at an average density of 583.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 55.01% White, 43.80% Black or African American, 1.19% from two or more races. 3.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 231 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.0% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families.
27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $22,014, the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $17,188 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,523. About 25.3% of families and 31.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.6% of those under age 18 and 37.6% of those age 65 or over. The McGehee School District serves Arkansas City; the Arkansas City School District served Arkansas City. The district had Arkansas City Elementary School and Arkansas City High School.
In 2004 the Arkansas Legislature approved a law that forced school districts with fewer than 350 students apiece to consolidate with other districts. On July 1, 2004, the Arkansas City district merged into the McGehee district. After the acquisition, the McGehee district continued to operate the Arkansas City campus as a K-6 school. By October 2005 the district no longer operated the Arkansas City facility. John H. Johnson, founder of an international media and cosmetics empire that includes Ebony and Jet. ArkansasCityUSA.com