Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaia, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Greece and is situated in the northwestern part of the Peloponnese peninsula; the capital is Patras. Its population surpassed 300,000 for the first time in 2001. Achaea is bordered by Elis to the west and southwest, Arcadia to the south, Corinthia to the east and southeast; the Gulf of Corinth lies to its northeast, the Gulf of Patras to its northwest. The mountain Panachaiko, though not the highest of Achaea, dominates the coastal area near Patras. Higher mountains are found in the south, such as Erymanthos. Other mountain ranges in Achaea are Skollis, Omplos and Movri, its main rivers ordered from west to east are the Larissos, Peiros, Charadros and Vouraikos. Most of the forests are in the mountain ranges, though several are in the plains including the extreme west. There are barren lands in the highest areas. Achaea has mild winters. Sunny days dominate during the summer months in areas near the coast, while the summer can be cloudy and rainy in the mountains.
Snow is common during the winter in the mountains of Erymanthos and Aroania. Winter high temperatures are around the 10 °C mark throughout the low-lying areas; the regional unit Achaea is subdivided into 5 municipalities. These are: Aigialeia Erymanthos Kalavryta Patras West Achaea As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Achaea was created out of the former prefecture Achaea; the prefecture had the same territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below. Province of Aigialeia - Aigio Province of Kalavryta - Kalavryta Province of Patras - PatrasNote: Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece; the Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of city states in Achaea, founded in 280/281 BC. It grew until it included most of Peloponnese, much reducing the Macedonian rule in the area. After Macedon's defeat by the Romans in the early 2nd century BC, the League was able to defeat a weakened Sparta and take control of the entire Peloponnese.
However, as the Roman influence in the area grew, the league erupted into an open revolt against Roman domination, in what is known as Achaean War. The Achaeans were defeated at the Battle of Corinth, the League was dissolved by the Romans. In AD 51/52, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus was proconsul of Achaea, presided over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth; this event provides a secure date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles within the Bible. Achaea remained a province of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the western Roman Empire. In the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs invaded the Peloponnese, settled in parts of Achaea as well. By the 9th century, the whole peninsula was under Byzantine control again. However, after the Fourth Crusade several new crusader states were founded in Greece. One of these was the Principality of Achaea, founded in 1205, which like the Roman province covered a much larger area than traditional Achaea. Achaea was recaptured by the Byzantine Empire by 1430, became part of the Despotate of the Morea.
The Despotate of the Morea fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1460. As a part of the Morean War, the Republic of Venice captured Achaea in 1687 and held it until 1715, when the Ottomans recaptured the Peloponnese. Under Ottoman rule, Achaea was part of the Morea Eyalet. In the Greek War of Independence, Aigio was one of the first cities to be liberated by the Greeks and all of Achaea was liberated by the end of 1821. Achaea produced several heroes including Kanaris and Roufos and prime ministers of Greece including Andreas Michalakopoulos as well as some head of states. In the first administrative subdivision of independent Greece, Achaea was part of the Achaea and Elis Prefecture; this was divided into the prefectures of Achaea and Elis in 1899. Achaea and Elis were reunited in 1909, split again in 1930. Achaea saw an influx of refugees that arrived from Asia Minor during the Greco Turkish War of 1919-1922. Tens of thousands were relocated to their camps in the suburbs of Patras and a few villages within the coastline.
One of the camps was named Prosfygika. Achaea today has about one-third of the population of the Peloponnese. Patras, the capital of Achaea, is the third largest city in Greece, behind Athens-Piraeus and Thessaloniki. Two-thirds of the Achaean population live near Patras, more than half within the city limits; the main industrial areas are around Patras. The main cities and towns of Achaea are: Patras 169,034 Aigio 20,664 Kato Achaia 6,880 The monastery Agia Lavra is situated a few kilometres west of Kalavryta on the top of a hill. 12 to 20 km east, is Cave Lakes, with lakes inside. The length is around 300 to 500 m; the mountain hosts the most modern Greek telescope, named Aristarchus and operated by the National Observatory of Athens. A narrow gauge railway track runs for 30 km as a tourist attraction; the track ends off Diakopto. Patras is one of the main industrial and commerce centers in Greece. Temeni is a place, it is owned by a division of The Coca-Cola Company and a parent. There is a small oil refinery near Rio.
Intercity bus transport is provided by KTEL Achaias. The main bus terminal is in the city of Patras; the main highways are: Ionia Odos
Jacob Spon was a French doctor and archaeologist, was a pioneer in the exploration of the monuments of Greece and a scholar of international reputation in the developing "Republic of Letters". His father was Charles Spon, a doctor and Hellenist, of a wealthy and cultured Calvinist banking family from Ulm, established since 1551 at Lyon, where they were members of the bourgeois élite. Following medical studies at Strasbourg, the younger Spon first met the son of a friend of his father, Charles Patin, who introduced him to antiquarian interests and the study of numismatics as now a window into the world of Classical Antiquity. In Paris, Jacob Spon lodged with Guy Patin. At Montpellier he received his doctorate in medicine and subsequently practiced in Lyon to a wealthy clientele. There his first publication appeared, a Recherche des antiquités et curiosités de la ville de Lyon and he entered into correspondence with a wider circle of savants: the abbé Claude Nicaise at Dijon, du Cange at Paris, the erudite circles that gravitated to le Grand Dauphin and the duc d'Aumont.
Among his correspondents were the courtier-theologian Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, the philosopher Pierre Bayle, Pierre Carcavy, the Jesuit scholar François d'Aix de la Chaise, confessor to the King, François Charpentier. He met Jean Mabillon when Mabillon passed through Lyon in 1682. Spon travelled to Italy, to Greece, to Constantinople and the Levant in 1675–1676 in the company of the English connoisseur and botanist Sir George Wheler, whose collection of antiquities was afterwards bequeathed to Oxford University, they were among the first knowledgeable Western European antiquaries to see the antiquities of Greece at first hand. Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grèce et du Levant remained a useful reference work in the time of Chateaubriand, who employed it in his trip to the East. Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins and manuscripts. In January 1680, he quarreled with Père de La Chaise; that year Spon published his Histoire de la république de Genève, followed by his Récherches curieuses d'antiquité and in 1685 a collection of transcriptions of Roman inscriptions gleaned over the years, Miscellanea eruditae antiquitatis, in the preface to which he offered one of the earliest definitions of "archaeologia" to describe the study of antiquities in which he was engaged.
In 1681 Spon published a brief treatise on fevers, being well-received, he expanded to 264 pp. to include the latest remedies, including "Quinquina" from "Perou," which he considers effective, but which, he says, the "Ameriquains" did not recognize: "le quinquina n'etoit pas connu pour la guerison des fievres par les Ameriquains meme...". "Observations sur les Fievres et les Febrifuges" was published by Thomas Amaulry at Lyon in 1684 and posthumously in 1687. Spon points out that he is an expert on fevers because Lyon includes a swampy area that produces "mauvais air" responsible for fevers—probably malaria; as Spon's book illustrates, in the 17th century a whole range of diseases were classified as different "fevers." In its time, "Observations sur les Fievres" was a learned, technical manual for a physician who wanted to be current. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, October 1685, was indirectly the cause of Spon's death. Rather than abjure his Calvinist faith he preferred to leave for an illegal move.
His money and baggage stolen from him, in fragile health, he died of tuberculosis in the canton hospital at Vevey, Christmas Day 1685, at the age of 38. Histoire de la ville et de l'Estat de Genève, Lyon, 1620, ibid. Amaulry, 1680, 1682, Utrecht: Halma, 1685 The history of the city and state of Geneva, London: White, 1687 Historie van de Stad en Staat van Geneve, Amsterdam: Oossaan, 1688 Histoire de Genève rectifiée et augmentée, Genève: Fabri et Barrillot, 1730 De l'origine des estrenes, 1673, Paris: Didot et de Bure, 1781 Recherche des antiquités et curiosités de la ville de Lyon, Lyon, 1673 Relation de l'état présent de la ville d'Athènes, Lyon, 1674 Réponse à la critique publiée par M. de Guillet sur le Voyage de Grèce, Lyon, 1679 Ignotorum atque obscurorum quorundam deorum arae, Lugduni: Faeton, 1676 Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grèce et du Levant, Lyon: Cellier, 1678, Amsterdam: Boom, 1679 Viaggi per la Dalmazia, Grecia, e Levante, Bologna: Monti, 1688 Italiänische, Griechische und Orientalische Reise-Beschreibung, Nürnberg: Hofmann, 1690, 1713 Lettres sur l'antiquité de la véritable religion, Lausanne:, 1681 Lettres curieuses touchant la religion, Cologne, 1682 Recherches curieuses d'antiquité, Lyon: Amaulry, 1683 Miscellanea eruditae antiquitatis, Lugduni:, 1685 Observations sur les fievres et les febrifuges, Lyon: Amaulry, 1684, 1687 Novi tractatus de potu caphé, de Chinensium thé et de chocolata, Genavæ: Cramer et Perachon, 1699 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Spon, Jacques". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "The Landscape of Antiquity"
Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination. Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Great, king of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexandria became an important center of Hellenistic civilization and remained the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat. Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome.
Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, during the Ptolemaic dynasty. From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton. Alexandria is believed to have been founded by Alexander the Great in April 331 BC as Ἀλεξάνδρεια. Alexander's chief architect for the project was Dinocrates. Alexandria was intended to supersede Naucratis as a Hellenistic center in Egypt, to be the link between Greece and the rich Nile valley. Although it has long been believed only a small village there, recent radiocarbon dating of seashell fragments and lead contamination show significant human activity at the location for two millennia preceding Alexandria's founding.
Alexandria was the cultural center of the ancient world for some time. The city and its museum attracted many of the greatest scholars, including Greeks and Syrians; the city was plundered and lost its significance. In the early Christian Church, the city was the center of the Patriarchate of Alexandria, one of the major centers of early Christianity in the Eastern Roman Empire. In the modern world, the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria both lay claim to this ancient heritage. Just east of Alexandria, there was in ancient times marshland and several islands; as early as the 7th century BC, there existed important port cities of Heracleion. The latter was rediscovered under water. An Egyptian city, Rhakotis existed on the shore and gave its name to Alexandria in the Egyptian language, it continued to exist as the Egyptian quarter of the city. A few months after the foundation, Alexander never returned to his city. After Alexander's departure, his viceroy, continued the expansion.
Following a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general Ptolemy Lagides succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria, though it was lost after being separated from its burial site there. Although Cleomenes was in charge of overseeing Alexandria's continuous development, the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters seem to have been Ptolemaic work. Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and, for some centuries more, was second only to Rome, it became Egypt's main Greek city, with Greek people from diverse backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism, but was home to the largest urban Jewish community in the world; the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Tanakh, was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning, but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek and Egyptian.
By the time of Augustus, the city walls encompassed an area of 5.34 km2, the total population in Roman times was around 500-600,000. According to Philo of Alexandria, in the year 38 of the Common era, disturbances erupted between Jews and Greek citizens of Alexandria during a visit paid by the Jewish king Agrippa I to Alexandria, principally over the respect paid by the Jewish nation to the Roman emperor, which escalated to open affronts and violence between the two ethnic groups and the desecration of Alexandrian synagogues; the violence was quelled after Caligula intervened and had the Roman governor, removed from the city. In AD 115, large parts of Alexandria were destroyed during the Kitos War, which gave Hadrian and his architect, Decriannus, an opportunity to rebuild it. In 215, the emperor Caracalla visited the city and, because of some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. On 21 July
Asia (Roman province)
The Roman province of Asia or Asiana, in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. It was a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul; the arrangement was unchanged in the reorganization of the Roman Empire in 211. The word "Asia" comes from the Greek word, Ἀσία only applied to the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea, known to the Lydians who occupied it as Assuwa, it came to be used by the Greeks for all of Lydia, that shore being the closest part of Lydia to Greece. The Roman province of Asia occupied exactly the area of that Lydian kingdom; as time went on, the word came to be used by the far West to refer to an ever-more-vague area east of them, until it was used generically for the whole continent. Antiochus III the Great had to give up Asia when the Romans crushed his army at the historic battle of Magnesia, in 190 BC. After the Treaty of Apamea, the entire territory was surrendered to Rome and placed under the control of a client king at Pergamum.
Asia province consisted of Mysia, the Troad, Lydia, Ionia and the land corridor through Pisidia to Pamphylia. Aegean islands except Crete, were part of the Insulae of Asiana. Part of Phrygia was given to Mithridates V Euergetes before it was reclaimed as part of the province in 116 BC. Lycaonia was added before 100 BC while the area around Cibyra was added in 82 BC; the southeast region of Asia province was reassigned to the province of Cilicia. During, the empire, Asia province was bounded by Bithynia to the north, Lycia to the south, Galatia to the east. With no apparent heir, Attalus III of Pergamum having been a close ally of Rome, chose to bequeath his kingdom to Rome. Upon Attalus's passing in 133 BC, Attalid pretender Eumenes III staged a rebellion, he defeated one of the consuls of Crassus Mucianus. The following consul Marcus Perperna, soon brought the war to a close, he defeated Eumenes in the first engagement, followed up his victory by laying siege to Stratonikeia, whither Eumenes had fled.
The town was compelled by famine to surrender, the king accordingly fell into the consul's hands. Manius Aquillius formally established the region as Asia province; the bequest of the Attalid kingdom to Rome presented serious implications for neighboring territories. It was during this period that Pontus rose in status under the rule of Mithridates VI, he would prove to be a formidable foe beyond. Rome had always been reluctant to involve itself in matters to the east, it relied on allies to arbitrate in the case of a conflict. Would Rome send delegations to the east, much less have a strong governmental presence; this apathy did not change much after the gift from Attalus in 133 BC. In fact, parts of the Pergamene kingdom were voluntarily relinquished to different nations. For example, Great Phrygia was given to Mithridates V of Pontus. While the Senate was hesitant in involving itself in Asian affairs, others had no such reluctance. A law passed by Gaius Gracchus in 123 BC gave the right to collect taxes in Asia to members of the equestrian order.
The privilege of collecting taxes was certainly exploited by individuals from the Republic. In case a community was unable to pay taxes, they borrowed from Roman lenders but at exorbitant rates; this more than not resulted in default on said loans and led Roman lenders to seize the borrower's land, their last remaining asset of value. In this way and by outright purchase, Romans dispersed throughout Asia province. By 88 BC, Mithridates VI of Pontus had conquered all of Asia. Capitalizing on the hatred of corrupt Roman practices, Mithridates instigated a mass revolt against Rome, ordering the slaughter of all Romans and Italians in the province. Contemporary estimates of casualties ranged from 80,000 up to 150,000. Three years Lucius Cornelius Sulla defeated Mithridates in the First Mithridatic War and in 85 BC reorganized the province into eleven assize districts, each central to a number of smaller, subordinate cities; these assize centers, which developed into the Roman dioceses, included Ephesus, Pergamum - the old Attalid capital, Adramyttium, Synnada, Apamea and Halicarnassus.
The first three cities - Ephesus and Smyrna - competed to be the dominant city-state in Asia province. Age-old inter-city rivalry continued to inhibit any sort of progress towards provincial unity. Other than to quell occasional revolts, there was minimal military presence in Asia province, until forces led by Sulla set forth in their campaign against Mithridates VI. In fact, Asia province was unique in that it was one of the few ungarrisoned provinces of the empire. While no full legions were stationed inside the province, not to say that there was no military presence whatsoever. Legionary detachments were present in the Phrygian cities of Amorium. Auxiliary cohorts were stationed in Phrygian Eumeneia while smaller groups of soldiers patrolled the mountainous regions. High military presence in rural regions around 3rd century AD caused great civil unrest in the province. After Augustus came to power, he established a proconsulship for the province of Asia, embracing the regions of Mysia, Lydia and Phrygia.
To its east, the province of Galatia was established. The proconsul spent much of his year-long term traveling throughout the province hearing cases and conducting other judicial business at each of the assize centers. Rome's transition from the Republic to the early Empire saw an important change in the role of existing provincial cities, which evolved from autonomous city-states to Imperial administrative cente
Latin literature includes the essays, poems and other writings written in the Latin language. The beginning of Latin literature dates to 240 BC. Latin literature would flourish for the next six centuries; the classical era of Latin literature can be divided into the following periods: Early Latin literature, The Golden Age, The Imperial Period and Late Antiquity. Latin was the language of the ancient Romans, but it was the lingua franca of Western Europe throughout the Middle Ages, so Latin literature includes not only Roman authors like Cicero, Vergil and Horace, but includes European writers after the fall of the Empire, from religious writers like Aquinas, to secular writers like Francis Bacon, Baruch Spinoza, Isaac Newton. Formal Latin literature began in 240 BC; the adaptor was Livius Andronicus, a Greek, brought to Rome as a prisoner of war in 272 BC. Andronicus translated Homer's Greek epic the Odyssey into an old type of Latin verse called Saturnian; the first Latin poet to write on a Roman theme was Gnaeus Naevius during the 3rd century BC.
He composed an epic poem about the first Punic War. Naevius's dramas were reworkings of Greek originals, but he created tragedies based on Roman myths and history. Other epic poets followed Naevius. Quintus Ennius wrote a historical epic, the Annals, describing Roman history from the founding of Rome to his own time, he adopted Greek dactylic hexameter. He became famous for his tragic dramas. In this field, his most distinguished successors were Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius; these three writers used episodes from Roman history. Instead, they wrote Latin versions of tragic themes that the Greeks had handled, but when they copied the Greeks, they did not translate slavishly. Only fragments of their plays have survived. More is known about early Latin comedy, as 26 Early Latin comedies are extant – 20 of which Plautus wrote, the remaining six of which Terence wrote; these men modeled their comedies on Greek plays known as New Comedy. But they treated the plots and wording of the originals freely.
Plautus scattered songs through his plays and increased the humor with puns and wisecracks, plus comic actions by the actors. Terence's plays were more polite in tone, dealing with domestic situations, his works provided the chief inspiration for French and English comedies of the 17th century AD, for modern American comedy. The prose of the period is best known through On Agriculture by Cato the Elder. Cato wrote the first Latin history of Rome and of other Italian cities, he was the first Roman statesman to put his political speeches in writing as a means of influencing public opinion. Early Latin literature ended with Gaius Lucilius, who created a new kind of poetry in his 30 books of Satires, he wrote in an easy, conversational tone about books, food and current events. Traditionally, the height of Latin literature has been assigned to the period from 81 BC to AD 17, although recent scholarship has questioned the assumptions that privileged the works of this period over both earlier and works.
This period is said to have begun with the first known speech of Cicero and ended with the death of Ovid. Cicero has traditionally been considered the master of Latin prose; the writing he produced from about 80 BC until his death in 43 BC exceeds that of any Latin author whose work survives in terms of quantity and variety of genre and subject matter, as well as possessing unsurpassed stylistic excellence. Cicero's many works can be divided into four groups: letters, rhetorical treatises, philosophical works, orations, his letters provide detailed information about an important period in Roman history and offer a vivid picture of the public and private life among the Roman governing class. Cicero's works on oratory are our most valuable Latin sources for ancient theories on education and rhetoric, his philosophical works were the basis of moral philosophy during the Middle Ages. His speeches inspired the founders of the United States. Julius Caesar and Sallust were outstanding historical writers of Cicero's time.
Caesar wrote commentaries on the Gallic and civil wars in a straightforward style to justify his actions as a general. Sallust adopted an pointed style in his historical works, he wrote brilliant descriptions of their motives. The birth of lyric poetry in Latin occurred during the same period; the short love lyrics of Catullus are noted for their emotional intensity. Catullus wrote poems that attacked his enemies. In his longer poems, he suggested images in delicate language. One of the most learned. Called "the most learned of the Romans" by Quintillian, he wrote about a remarkable variety of subjects, from religion to poetry, but only his writings on agriculture and the Latin language are extant in their complete form. The emperor Augustus took a personal interest in the literary works produced during his years of power from 27 BC to AD 14; this period is sometimes called the Augustan Age of Latin Literature. Virgil published his pastoral Eclogues, the Georgics, the Aeneid, an epic poem describing the events that led to the creation of Rome.
Virgil told. Virgil provided divine justification for Roman rule over the world. Although Virgil died before he could put the finishing touches on his poem, it was soon
Thule is the farthest north location mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature and cartography. Modern interpretations have included Orkney, the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, the Norwegian island of Smøla. In classical and medieval literature, ultima Thule acquired a metaphorical meaning of any distant place located beyond the "borders of the known world". By the Late Middle Ages and early modern period, the Greco-Roman Thule was identified with the real Iceland or Greenland. Sometimes Ultima Thule was a Latin name for Greenland. By the late 19th century, Thule was identified with Norway. In 1910, the explorer Knud Rasmussen established a missionary and trading post in north-western Greenland, which he named "Thule". Thule has given its name to the northernmost United States Air Force airfield, Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland, to the smaller lobe of Kuiper belt object 2014 MU69, visited by the New Horizons spacecraft; the Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia is the first to have written of Thule, after his travels between 330 and 320 BC.
Pytheas mentioned going to Thule in his now lost work, Things about the Ocean Τὰ περὶ τοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ. He was sent out by the Greek city of Massalia to see where their trade goods were coming from. Descriptions of some of his discoveries have survived in the works of often skeptical, authors. Polybius in his Histories, Book XXXIV, cites Pytheas as one "who has led many people into error by saying that he traversed the whole of Britain on foot, giving the island a circumference of forty thousand stadia, telling us about Thule, those regions in which there was no longer any proper land nor sea nor air, but a sort of mixture of all three of the consistency of a jellyfish in which one can neither walk nor sail, holding everything together, so to speak."The first century BC Greek astronomer Geminus of Rhodes claimed that the name Thule went back to an archaic word for the polar night phenomenon – "the place where the sun goes to rest". Dionysius Periegetes in his De situ habitabilis orbis touched upon this subject as did Martianus Capella.
Avienus in his Ora Maritima added that during the summer on Thule night lasted only two hours, a clear reference to the midnight sun. Strabo in his Geographica, mentions Thule in describing Eratosthenes' calculation of "the breadth of the inhabited world" and notes that Pytheas says it "is a six days' sail north of Britain, is near the frozen sea", but he doubts this claim, writing that Pytheas has "been found, upon scrutiny, to be an arch falsifier, but the men who have seen Britain and Ireland do not mention Thule, though they speak of other islands, small ones, about Britain". Strabo adds the following in Book 5: "Now Pytheas of Massilia tells us that Thule, the most northerly of the Britannic Islands, is farthest north, that there the circle of the summer tropic is the same as the Arctic Circle, but from the other writers I learn nothing on the subject – neither that there exists a certain island by the name of Thule, nor whether the northern regions are inhabitable up to the point where the summer tropic becomes the Arctic Circle."
Strabo concludes, "Concerning Thule, our historical information is still more uncertain, on account of its outside position. The inhabitants or people of Thule are described in most detail by Strabo: "the people live on millet and other herbs, on fruits and roots; as for the grain, he says, since they have no pure sunshine, they pound it out in large storehouses, after first gathering in the ears thither. The mid-first century Roman geographer Pomponius Mela placed Thule north of Scythia. In AD 77, Pliny the Elder published his Natural History in which he cites Pytheas' claim that Thule is a six-day sail north of Britain; when discussing the islands around Britain, he writes: "The farthest of all, which are known and spoke of, is Thule. In refining the island's location, he places it along the most northerly parallel of those he describes: "Last of all is the Scythian parallel, from the Rhiphean hills into Thule: wherein it is day and night continually by turns."The Roman historian Tacitus, in his book chronicling the life of his father-in-law, describes how the Romans knew that Britain was an island rather than a continent, by circumnavigating it.
Tacitus writes of a Roman ship visiting the Orkneys and claims the ship's crew sighted Thule. However their orders were not to explore there; some scholars believe. The third-century Latin grammarian Gaius Julius Solinus wrote in his Polyhistor that "Thyle, distant from Orkney by a voyage of five days and nights, was fruitful and abundant in the lasting yield of its crops"; the 4th century Virgilian commentator Servius believed that Thule sat close to Orkney: "Thule.
An antiquarian or antiquary is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts; the essence of antiquarianism is a focus on the empirical evidence of the past, is best encapsulated in the motto adopted by the 18th-century antiquary Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts, not theory." Today the term is used in a pejorative sense, to refer to an excessively narrow focus on factual historical trivia, to the exclusion of a sense of historical context or process. During the Song Dynasty, the scholar Ouyang Xiu analyzed alleged ancient artifacts bearing archaic inscriptions in bronze and stone, which he preserved in a collection of some 400 rubbings. Patricia Ebrey writes; the Kaogutu or "Illustrated Catalogue of Examined Antiquity" compiled by Lü Dalin is one of the oldest known catalogues to systematically describe and classify ancient artifacts which were unearthed.
Another catalogue was the Chong xiu Xuanhe bogutu or "Revised Illustrated Catalogue of Xuanhe Profoundly Learned Antiquity", commissioned by Emperor Huizong of Song, featured illustrations of some 840 vessels and rubbings. Interests in antiquarian studies of ancient inscriptions and artifacts waned after the Song Dynasty, but were revived by early Qing Dynasty scholars such as Gu Yanwu and Yan Ruoju. In ancient Rome, a strong sense of traditionalism motivated an interest in studying and recording the "monuments" of the past. Books on antiquarian topics covered such subjects as the origin of customs, religious rituals, political institutions. Annals and histories might include sections pertaining to these subjects, but annals are chronological in structure, Roman histories, such as those of Livy and Tacitus, are both chronological and offer an overarching narrative and interpretation of events. By contrast, antiquarian works as a literary form are organized by topic, any narrative is short and illustrative, in the form of anecdotes.
Major antiquarian Latin writers with surviving works include Varro, Pliny the Elder, Aulus Gellius, Macrobius. The Roman emperor Claudius published antiquarian works, none of, extant; some of Cicero's treatises his work on divination, show strong antiquarian interests, but their primary purpose is the exploration of philosophical questions. Roman-era Greek writers dealt with antiquarian material, such as Plutarch in his Roman Questions and the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus; the aim of Latin antiquarian works is to collect a great number of possible explanations, with less emphasis on arriving at a truth than in compiling the evidence. The antiquarians are used as sources by the ancient historians, many antiquarian writers are known only through these citations. Despite the importance of antiquarian writing in the literature of ancient Rome, some scholars view antiquarianism as emerging only in the Middle Ages. Medieval antiquarians sometimes made collections of inscriptions or records of monuments, but the Varro-inspired concept of antiquitates among the Romans as the "systematic collections of all the relics of the past" faded.
Antiquarianism's wider flowering is more associated with the Renaissance, with the critical assessment and questioning of classical texts undertaken in that period by humanist scholars. Textual criticism soon broadened into an awareness of the supplementary perspectives on the past which could be offered by the study of coins and other archaeological remains, as well as documents from medieval periods. Antiquaries formed collections of these and other objects; the importance placed on lineage in early modern Europe meant that antiquarianism was closely associated with genealogy, a number of prominent antiquaries held office as professional heralds. The development of genealogy as a "scientific" discipline went hand-in-hand with the development of antiquarianism. Genealogical antiquaries recognised the evidential value for their researches of non-textual sources, including seals and church monuments. Many early modern antiquaries were chorographers:, to say, they recorded landscapes and monuments within regional or national descriptions.
In England, some of the most important of these took the form of county histories. In the context of the 17th-century scientific revolution, more that of the "Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns" in England and France, the antiquaries were on the side of the "Moderns", they argued that empirical primary evidence could be used to refine and challenge the received interpretations of history handed down from literary authorities. By the end of the 19th century, antiquarianism had diverged into a number of more specialized academic disciplines including archaeology, art history, sigillography, literary studies and diplomatics. Antiquaries had al