India national cricket team
The India national cricket team known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India, is a full member of the International Cricket Council with Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International status. Although cricket was introduced to India by European merchant sailors in the 18th century, the first cricket club was established in Calcutta in 1792, India's national cricket team did not play its first Test match until 25 June 1932 at Lord's, becoming the sixth team to be granted Test cricket status. In its first fifty years of international cricket, India was one of the weaker teams, winning only 35 of the first 196 Test matches it played. From 1932 India had to wait until 1952 20 years for its first Test victory; the team, gained strength in the 1970s with the emergence of players such as batsmen Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath, all-rounder Kapil Dev and the Indian spin quartet of Erapalli Prasanna, Srinivas Venkataraghavan, Bhagwat Chandrasekhar and Bishen Singh Bedi.
Traditionally much stronger at home than abroad, the Indian team has improved its overseas form in limited-overs cricket, since the start of the 21st century, winning Test matches in Australia and South Africa. It has won the Cricket World Cup twice – in 1983 under the captaincy of Kapil Dev and in 2011 under the captaincy of Mahendra Singh Dhoni. After winning the 2011 World Cup, India became only the third team after West Indies and Australia to have won the World Cup more than once, the first cricket team to win the World Cup at home, it won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and 2013 ICC Champions Trophy, under the captaincy of MS Dhoni. It was the joint champions of 2002 ICC Champions Trophy, along with Sri Lanka; as of 19 October 2018, India is ranked first in Tests, second in ODIs and second in T20Is by the ICC. Virat Kohli is the current captain of the team across all formats, while the head coach is Ravi Shastri; the Indian cricket team has rivalries with other Test-playing nations, most notably with Pakistan, the political arch-rival of India.
However, in recent times, rivalries with nations like Australia, South Africa and England have gained prominence. The British brought cricket to India in the early 1700s, with the first cricket match played in 1721. In 1848, the Parsi community in Bombay formed the Oriental Cricket Club, the first cricket club to be established by Indians. After slow beginnings, the Europeans invited the Parsis to play a match in 1877. By 1912, the Parsis, Sikhs and Muslims of Bombay played a quadrangular tournament with the Europeans every year. In the early 1900s, some Indians went on to play for the England cricket team; some of these, such as Ranjitsinhji and KS Duleepsinhji were appreciated by the British and their names went on to be used for the Ranji Trophy and Duleep Trophy – two major first-class tournaments in India. In 1911, an Indian team went on their first official tour of the British Isles, but only played English county teams and not the England cricket team. India was invited to The Imperial Cricket Council in 1926, made their debut as a Test playing nation in England in 1932, led by CK Nayudu, considered as the best Indian batsman at the time.
The one-off Test match between the two sides was played at Lord's in London. The team went on to lose by 158 runs. India hosted its first Test series in the year 1933. England was the visiting team that played 2 Tests in Calcutta; the visitors won the series 2-0. The Indian team continued to improve throughout the 1930s and'40s but did not achieve an international victory during this period. In the early 1940s, India didn't play any Test cricket due to the Second World War; the team's first series as an independent country was in late 1947 against Sir Donald Bradman's Invincibles. It was the first Test series India played, not against England. Australia won the five-match series 4–0, with Bradman tormenting the Indian bowling in his final Australian summer. India subsequently played their first Test series at home not against England against the West Indies in 1948. West Indies won the 5-Test series 1–0. India recorded their first Test victory, in their 24th match, against England at Madras in 1952.
In the same year, they won their first Test series, against Pakistan. They continued their improvement throughout the early 1950s with a series win against New Zealand in 1956. However, they did not win again in the remainder of the decade and lost badly to strong Australian and English sides. On 24 August 1959, India lost by an innings in the Test to complete the only 5–0 whitewash inflicted by England; the next decade saw. They won their first Test series against England at home in 1961–62 and won a home series against New Zealand, they managed to draw another series against England. In this same period, India won its first series outside the subcontinent, against New Zealand in 1967–68; the key to India's bowling in the 1970s were the Indian spin quartet – Bishen Bedi, E. A. S. Prasanna, BS Chandrasekhar and Srinivas Venkataraghavan; this period saw the emergence of two of India's best batsmen, Sunil Gavaskar and Gundappa Viswanath. Indian pitches have had the tendency to support spin and the spin quartet exploited this to create collapses in opposing batting line-ups.
These players were responsible for the back-to-back series wins in 1971 in the West Indies and in England, under the captaincy of Ajit Wadekar
Kumar Sangakkara is a Sri Lankan cricket commentator and former cricketer and captain of the Sri Lankan national team. He is regarded as one of the world's most influential cricketers and one of the greatest batsmen of all-time. Sangakkara has forged many formidable partnerships with long time teammate and friend, Mahela Jayawardene and holds numerous batting records in the modern era across all formats of the game, he scored 28,016 runs in international cricket across all formats in a career. A left-handed top-order batsman, he is a record-breaking wicket-keeper, although he no longer kept wicket at the end of his Test career, he is the second-highest run-scorer in ODI cricket and the sixth-highest run scorer in Test cricket. Sangakkara is described as one of the "prudent of batsmen" in cricket, he dominated the number one spot in the ICC Test batting rankings between 2005 and 2015. Sangakkara was a key member of the team that won the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 and was part of the team that made the final of the 2007 Cricket World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and 2012 ICC World Twenty20.
He won the Man of the Match award in the final of the 2014 ICC World Twenty20, where he helped the team win their first title. He was the youngest person and the first active international player to deliver the MCC Spirit of Cricket Cowdrey Lecture, praised by the cricketing community for its outspoken nature. In terms of a number of innings required, Sangakkara is the fastest batsman to reach 8,000, 9,000, 11,000 and 12,000 runs in Test cricket, he is joint fastest to 10,000. He won the ICC Cricketer of the Year in 2012, Test Cricketer of the Year in 2012, ODI Cricketer of the Year multiple times in 2011 and 2013, he has won the LG People's Choice Award twice, in 2011 and 2012. Sangakkara has featured in the World Test XI and World ODI XI, appearing six times and three times in them, respectively, he was selected as Leading Cricketer in the World in the 2015 edition of Wisden. He was named the Wisden Leading Cricketer in the World in 2011 and 2015, he is one of two players to have won this award twice, along with Indian opener Virender Sehwag, who won the award in 2008 and 2009.
Sangakkara was rated as the Greatest ODI player of all time in a public poll conducted by Cricket Australia in 2016. On 29 January 2015, Sangakkara became Sri Lanka's highest ODI run scorer, surpassing the previous record of 13,430 runs held by Sanath Jayasuriya. In the same match, he broke the record for ODI wicketkeeping dismissals, breaking the previous record of 472 held by Adam Gilchrist. Sangakkara was born to Anuska Surangana and Swarnakumara Sangakkara, an attorney-at-law at Matale, Sri Lanka in 1977, his parents settled in Kandy. Sangakkara received his primary and secondary education at Trinity College, Kandy, an independent elite private boys' school situated in the central highlands of Sri Lanka, he has two sisters: Thushari and Saranga, an elder brother: Vemindra, all who have made national-level achievements during their schooling. Sangakkara began to play a number of sports: badminton, swimming, table tennis and cricket at the junior school, he was able to win national colours activities for tennis at a young age.
The principal of the Trinity College, Leonard de Alwis, advised his mother to encourage Sangakkara to concentrate on cricket. His parents hid Tamil families during the Black July riots in 1983, he represented his school's under-13 cricket XI under coach Upananda Jayasundera. Berty Wijesinghe coached Sangakkara for under-17, under-19 and first XI squads, he was awarded The Trinity Lion, the most prestigious prize awarded to a Trinity sportsman, for his exceptional batting and wicket-keeping skills in the 1996 season, at the age of 19. Sangakkara was selected to represent Sri Lankan A cricket team's tour to South Africa in 1998–99, his knock of an unbeaten 156 against Zimbabwe A team during a one-day match, helped him secure a place in the Sri Lankan national cricket team that year. Sanga was the Senior Prefect of school, he did his Advanced Level examination in the Arts stream in 1996, he was awarded the highest honor of Trinity College, the Ryde Gold Medal, for the best all-round student in his year.
Following his father, a lawyer in Kandy, he entered the Law Faculty of the University of Colombo, but was unable to finish his degree due to his cricketing commitments. Sangakkara played the violin during his school days, he was cited as an inspiration to continue his higher education by Bangladeshi captain Mushfiqur Rahim, upon receiving his master's degree. At the age of 22 Sangakkara made his Test debut on 20 July 2000, keeping wicket in the first fixture of a three-match series against South Africa. Sri Lanka won the match and in his side's only innings Sangakarra batted at the fall of the third wicket and scored 23 runs before he was dismissed leg before wicket by spin bowler Nicky Boje, he made 35 runs in his One-day cricket debut against Pakistan and he received his first man of the match award in the 2nd match of the Singer Triangular Series, 2000, scoring 85 runs against South Africa. He ended the series with 199 runs, at an average of 66.33, securing his place for the upcoming Test series against South Africa.
Before reaching his first Test century, he was twice dismissed in the 90s, once against each of South Africa and England. In August 2001, India toured Sri Lanka for three Tests and in the opening match Sangakkara scored his first century, his innings of 105 not out at number three helped set up a ten-wicket victory for Sri Lanka. That year Sangakkara scored his sec
Stumped is a method of dismissal in cricket. The action of stumping can only be performed by a wicket-keeper and, according to the Laws of Cricket, a batsman can be given out stumped if: the wicket-keeper puts down the wicket, while the batsman is: out of his ground. Being "out of his ground" is defined as not having any part of the batsman's body or his bat touching the ground behind the crease – i.e. if his bat is elevated from the floor despite being behind the crease, or if his foot is on the crease line itself but not across it and touching the ground behind it he would be considered out. One of the fielding team must appeal for the wicket by asking the umpire; the appeal is directed to the square-leg umpire, who would be in the best position to adjudicate on the appeal. Stumping is the fifth most common form of dismissal after caught, leg before wicket and run out, though it is seen more in Twenty20 cricket because of its more aggressive batting, it is governed by Law 39 of the Laws of Cricket.
It is seen with a medium or slow bowler, as with fast bowlers a wicket-keeper takes the ball too far back from the wicket to attempt a stumping. It includes co-operation between a bowler and wicket-keeper: the bowler draws the batsman out of his ground, the wicket-keeper catches and breaks the wicket before the batsman realises he has missed the ball and makes his ground, i.e. places the bat or part of his body on the ground back behind the popping crease. If the bails are removed before the wicket-keeper has the ball, the batsman can still be stumped if the wicket-keeper removes one of the stumps from the ground, while holding the ball in his hand; the bowler is credited for the batsman's wicket, the wicket-keeper is credited for the dismissal. A batsman may be out stumped off a wide delivery but cannot be stumped off a no-ball as bowler is credited for the wicket. Notes: The popping crease is defined as the back edge of the crease marking (i.e. the edge closer to the wicket. Therefore, a batsman whose bat or foot is on the crease marking, but does not touch the ground behind the crease marking, can be stumped.
This is quite common. The wicket must be properly put down in accordance with Law 28 of the Laws of cricket: using either the ball itself or a hand or arm, in possession of the ball. Note that since the ball itself can put down the wicket, a stumping is still valid if the ball rebounds from the'keeper and breaks the wicket though never controlled by him; the wicket-keeper must allow the ball to pass the stumps before taking it, unless it has touched either the batsman or his bat first. If the wicket-keeper fails to do this, the delivery is a "no-ball", the batsman cannot be stumped
Colombo is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population. According to the Brookings Institution, Colombo metropolitan area has a population of 5.6 million, 752,993 in the city proper. It is the financial centre of a popular tourist destination, it is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to the Greater Colombo area which includes Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, the legislative capital of Sri Lanka and Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia. Colombo is referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is within the urban area of, a suburb of, Colombo, it is the administrative capital of the Western Province and the district capital of Colombo District. Colombo is a vibrant place with a mixture of modern life and colonial buildings and ruins, it was the legislative capital of Sri Lanka until 1982. Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago, it was made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815, its status as capital was retained when the nation became independent in 1948.
In 1978, when administrative functions were moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. Like many cities, Colombo's urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority, encompassing other municipal and urban councils such as Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Municipal Council, Dehiwala Mount Lavinia Municipal Council, Kolonnawa Urban Council, Kaduwela Municipal Council and Kotikawatte Mulleriyawa Pradeshiya Sabha; the main city is home to a majority of Sri Lanka's corporate offices and entertainment venues. Famous landmarks in Colombo include Galle Face Green, Viharamahadevi Park, Beira Lake, Colombo Racecourse, University of Colombo, Mount Lavinia beach, Nelum Pokuna Theatre, Colombo Lotus Tower as well as the National Museum; the name "Colombo", first introduced by the Portuguese in 1505, is believed to be derived from the classical Sinhala name කොලොන් තොට Kolon thota, meaning "port on the river Kelani". Another belief is that the name is derived from the Sinhala name කොල-අඹ-තොට Kola-amba-thota which means "Harbour with leafy mango trees".
This coincides with Robert Knox's history of the island. He writes that, "On the West the City of Columbo, so called from a Tree the Natives call Ambo, growing in that place; the author of the oldest Sinhala grammar, written in the 13th century wrote about a category of words that belonged to early Sinhala. It lists kolamba as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba may be the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo; as Colombo possesses a natural harbour, it was known to Indian, Persian, Roman and Chinese traders over 2,000 years ago. Traveller Ibn Battuta who visited the island in the 14th century, referred to it as Kalanpu. Arabs, whose prime interests were trade, began to settle in Colombo around the 8th century AD because the port helped their business by the way of controlling much of the trade between the Sinhalese kingdoms and the outside world, their descendants now comprise the local Sri Lankan Moor community. Portuguese explorers led by Dom Lourenço de Almeida first arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505.
During their initial visit they made a treaty with the King of Kotte, Parakramabahu VIII, which enabled them to trade in the island's crop of cinnamon, which lay along the coastal areas of the island, including in Colombo. As part of the treaty, the Portuguese were given full authority over the coastline in exchange for the promise of guarding the coast against invaders, they were allowed to establish a trading post in Colombo. Within a short time, they expelled the Muslim inhabitants of Colombo and began to build a fort in 1517; the Portuguese soon realized that control of Sri Lanka was necessary for protection of their coastal establishments in India and they began to manipulate the rulers of the Kotte kingdom to gain control of the area. After skilfully exploiting rivalries within the royal family, they took control of a large area of the kingdom and the Sinhalese King Mayadunne established a new kingdom at Sitawaka, a domain in the Kotte kingdom. Before long he annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and forced the Portuguese to retreat to Colombo, besieged by Mayadunne and the kings of Sitawaka, forcing them to seek reinforcement from their major base in Goa, India.
Following the fall of the kingdom in 1593, the Portuguese were able to establish complete control over the coastal area, with Colombo as their capital. This part of Colombo is still known as Fort and houses the presidential palace and the majority of Colombo's five star hotels; the area outside Fort is known as Pettah and is a commercial hub. In 1638 the Dutch signed a treaty with King Rajasinha II of Kandy which assured the king assistance in his war against the Portuguese in exchange for a monopoly of the island's major trade goods; the Portuguese resisted the Dutch and the Kandyans but were defeated in their strongholds beginning in 1639. The Dutch captured Colombo in 1656 after an epic siege, at the end of which a mere 93 Portuguese survivors were given safe conduct out of the fort. Although the Dutch
Singhalese Sports Club
The Singhalese Sports Club is a first-class cricket club in Sri Lanka. Singhalese is the most successful club in Sri Lankan domestic cricket, having won the Premier Trophy a record 31 times to 2013. Although the name is spelt with the old spelling "Singhalese", the name is sometimes misspelt with the modern spelling "Sinhalese". In 1899, a combined school cricket team, composed of cricketers from Royal College, S. Thomas' College and Wesley College beat Colts Cricket Club by a one run. A decision was made to form an all-Sinhalese club, thus Singhalese Sports Club was founded; the club covered with cinnamon trees. Premier Trophy – 1938–39, 1939–40, 1943–44, 1944–45, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1948–49, 1949–50, 1951–52, 1958–59, 1959–60, 1961–62, 1966–67, 1968–69, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1973–74, 1974–75, 1977–78, 1983–84, 1985–86*, 1986–87, 1988–89*, 1989–90, 1990–91, 1992–93, 1994–95*, 1997–98, 2005–06, 2007–08, 2012–13 Players with international caps are listed in bold Sinhalese players who have represented Sri Lanka in Test, One Day International and Twenty20 International cricket: Wisden Cricketers Almanack Singhalese Sports Club website CricInfo re Sri Lankan cricket history Sinhalese Sports Club at CricketArchive
Denagamage Praboth Mahela de Silva Jayawardene, known as Mahela Jayawardene, is a Sri Lankan cricket coach and former cricketer. He is regarded as one of the modern greats of batsmanship due to his mastery of playing spin bowling. Jayawardene's highest test score, 374 against South Africa is the highest test score by a right handed batsman in the history of test cricket. Jayawardene made his Test cricket debut in 1997 and his One Day International debut the following season. In 2006 he made the highest score by a Sri Lankan in Test cricket, scoring 374 in the second Test of Sri Lanka's home series against South Africa, he has a One Day average in the 30s. He is the first player in the history of Sri Lankan cricket to score over 10,000 Test runs. Despite his low ODI average, Jayawardene is considered to be one of the best batsmen produced by Sri Lanka. -to have the prestigious record of having scored more than 10,000 runs in ODIs. Along with teammate Sangakkara, he recorded for the most partnership runs for the 3rd wicket in Tests, scoring 5890 runs surpassing 5826 run stand of Rahul Dravid and Sachin Tendulkar, during the first test match against Pakistan at Galle International Stadium, his last test at the venue.
He scored 56 runs at that match. Jayawardene was a key member of the team that won the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 and was part of the team that made to the final of 2007 Cricket World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and 2012 ICC World Twenty20. In 2006, Jayawardene was named by the International Cricket Council as the best international captain of the year and was nominated in 2007 as the best Test cricket player of the year, he is known for his fielding skills in the inner ring, with a report prepared by Cricinfo in late 2005 showing that since the 1999 Cricket World Cup, he had affected the most number of run-outs in ODI cricket of any fieldsman, with the fifth highest run-out/match ratio in ODI's. Statistics reveal that c Jayawardene b Muralitharan is the most common bowler-fielder combination in the history of Test cricket. Jayawardene worked as an international TV commentator in the first test at Headingley on 19 May 2016 between England and Sri Lanka. Jayawardene was educated at Nalanda College Colombo.
At an early age Mahela's father, Senerath Jayawardene, introduced him to the Lionel Coaching Clinic run by Nondescripts Cricket Club in Cinnamon Gardens. It was there. Jayawardene captained Nalanda College Colombo first XI cricket team in 1994, he developed his talents through the school cricket team becoming captain. He was runner-up for the best schoolboy cricketer award during the 1994 cricketing season. Domestically he has played for Sinhalese Sports Club since 1995, he was signed to play as an overseas player for Derbyshire for the first half of the 2008 English cricket season. However, his commitments to Sri Lanka and involvement in the Indian Premier League prevented him from playing any part in the 2008 county season. Mahela Jayawardene is the 69th Sri Lanka Test Cap, having made his debut against India at Colombo in 1997. Jayawardene made his Test debut in the record breaking Test in 1997 against India at R. P. S. Colombo. Jayawardene added 66 to Sri Lanka's first innings score of 952/6, the highest Test score ever.
He was at the crease. Early in his career he scored 167 against 242 against India. Jayawardene's One Day International debut was against Zimbabwe at Premadasa in January 1998. Sri Lanka won the match, with Jayawardene hitting the winning run. In the next game Jayawardene scored 74, it took only 11 matches before he scored his first century, against England in the Carlton and United World Series game at Adelaide. Jayawardene entered a pressure situation, with Sri Lanka struggling at 134/4 in the run chase, but made an innings of 120 runs to win the match; the match is notable for Ross Emerson's no-balling of Muttiah Muralitharan for throwing, which led the Sri Lankan captain Arjuna Ranatunga to lead his team to the edge of the field and consider walking out of the match, as well as physical shoulder-barging by some players. Jayawardene was the captain of the Sri Lankan national team during the England tour in 2006 in the absence of Marvan Atapattu, he led his team to 1 -- 1 draw in an emphatic 5 -- 0 whitewash in the ODI series.
In the first Test of the 2006 Test series against South Africa, Jayawardene shared a world record partnership of 624 runs alongside Kumar Sangakkara. This partnership, the highest for any wicket in first-class cricket history, the first instance of a stand of 600 or more in a first-class or Test match innings, smashed the previous third wicket stand for Sri Lanka, surpassing 262 which involved himself along with Thilan Samaraweera, it broke the previous record for the third wicket partnership for all Test playing nations surpassing the 467 run partnership made by the New Zealanders Martin Crowe and Andrew Jones. Jayawardene became the first Sri Lankan captain to score a Test triple-century, making 374 off 572 deliveries with 43 fours and 1 six, the fourth highest individual innings score in Test match cricket and the highest by a right-hander, he is the first batsman to pass 350 in a Test without going on to break the world record. He surpassed the highest score by a Sri Lankan in a Test match held by Sanath Jayasuriya's 340 in 1997 against India, coincidentally produced in a world record partnership.
He was chosen as a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 2007. In the 2007 Cricket World Cup, Jayawardene scored one century and four half-centuries and was the secon